Skip to main content

Full text of "The history of the Society of apothecaries of London"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



/ 



/ 



/ 



«*j 



\ 



N. 



THE HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY 
OF APOTHECARIES OF LONDON 



V 



' 4* 44 ■* 







r 






t. >^ 






\ 



h^'^ 



. \ 






111- I ; 






. I. r J 









()! U)N1). 



t « 



"• * 



1 

I 

\ 

I 

t 



V* : 



-: t , 









* 1 • "• 




*• 



■r .^ 








»-['•';' 



# 



■ ■> * 



•' . 



\ .4 



t .K 



s • 












^. 



t . 



I 


' 4 * 


1 

t 


. ,^ 


« . . 


• 


!' 


*'•/ 


( 


* 


r V. 


J 

m 



t 



*■ 



M 




j^MfT (^ 



i,7ii^/- 



THE SOCIETY OF APOTHECARIES OF LONDON 

1904-1905. 



Master. 
1856 Day, Albert Bryan, Esq. 

Wardens. 

1862 Jeffcoat, Jas. Henry, Dep.-Surg.-Gen. 

1861 Young, Edward Parker. 

Assistants. 

♦1844 Gibbes, F. R., Esq. 

♦1847 Griffith, Samuel C, Esq. 

♦1849 Burton, J. S., Esq. 

♦1855 Browne, Charles, Esq. 

♦1855 Brown, T. E. Burton, Esq., C.I.E., Brig.-Surg., Retd., 

I.M.S. 
♦1855 Parson, William, Esq. 
♦1853 Cooper, Clarence, Dep.-Surg.-Gen. 

1841 Veasey, Henry, Esq. 

i860 Thorowgood, John Charles, Esq. 

1863 Wilks, George, Esq. 

1863 Brown, F. Gordon, Esq. 

1864 Richards, S. A., Esq. 

1862 Wall, Reginald B., Esq. 
1855 Winter, J. N., Esq. 

1862 Norton, Arthur T., Esq., C.B. 

* Has served the Office of Master. 

vii 



viii THE SOCIETY OF APOTHECARIES OF LONDON 

1849 tfieale, Lionel S., Esq. 
1846 tSmith, W. M., Esq. 
♦1848 tStocker, John SJherwood, Esq. 



The Officers of the Society. . 

Clerk. 
A. Mowbray Upton, Esq., B.A. Oxon. 

Beadle, 
W. T. Withers. 

Accountant 
Edward Morpeth, Esq. 

Representative of the Society on the General Medical Council. 
Sir Hugh R. Beevor, Bart., M.D., F.R.C.P., L.S.A. 

Representative of the Society on the Central Midwivcs Board. 
E. Parker Young, Esq., M.R.C.S., L.M., L.S.A. 

* Has served the Office of Master. 
t Retired Members of the Court of Assistants* 







J 



n 



Preface. 




N the following pages I shall endeavour to trace the 
history of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries 
of London, from its incorporation as a separate 
body on December 6, 1617, down to the present 
d^y. My information is mainly derived from the 
Minute Books of the Society, which it is gratifying 
to find have been preserved in an absolutely perfect state. The 
contents of these books have never before been drawn upon for 
the purpose, except in the case of such entries as refer to the Physic 
Garden at Chelsea. My intention is to give a chronological account 
of the various vicissitudes through which the Society has passed, 
to note its quaint customs, some of which have survived up to the 
present day, and to record the names of the donors of the pictures, 
plate, furniture, and other possessions of the Society which are still 
preserved at the Hall. With regard to quotation or transcription, 
I have avoided both as much as. possible — a book full of documents 
reprinted is apt to be very wearisome. The list of Masters and 
Wardens is complete, and has been for the first time collected ; the 
events of each official year follow the mention of their election. 
In the Minute Books the absence of information with regard to 
important political or social events is most marked. For instance, the 
Great Plague might be expected to be the subject of many entries, 
being decidedly of a professional character, but this is not so. The 
Great Fire which destroyed the Hall receives but scanty notice, 
a fact much to be regretted. 

That the history of the earlier years of the Society contains more 
matters of curious interest than that of the later period cannot be 



X PREFACE 

denied, but it must be remembered that after the year 1815 the 
Society entered upon a new phase of its existence. 

Where subjects for illustration in the building present themselves, 
I have endeavoured to reproduce them in pen and ink. Though 
noting the various changes which have taken place in the buildings 
and the Society's Hall at the dates when they occurred, I have 
devoted a special chapter to a careful description of the present 
state of these buildings and to an account of some of their contents. 
Finally, I have to express my grateful thanks to the Master and 
Wardens for several years past for their kind permission to make 
use of the Minute Books, documents, etc., for the purposes of this 
history. To the Secretary to the Court of Examiners, I have also to 
own my great indebtedness for much information and assistance. 

CHARLES R B. BARRETT. 
Wandsworth, 

1904. 



Contents 



PAOB 

Introduction ........ xv 

The Charter of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of 

London ....... xix 

CHAPTER 

I. The Early Years of the Society, 1617 to 1620 . i 

II. 1621 TO September, 1623 ..... 12 

III. Legal Troubles and Attacks on the Society . 23 

IV. The Gradual Strengthening of the Position of the 

Society ....... 30 

V. The Purchase of a Hall 42 

VI. The " Quo-WARRANTO " — Legal Disputes and Other 

Troubles ...... 50 

VII. Mainly of Domestic Affairs . . -63 

VIII. The Society under Charles II. . 71 

IX. The Hall Rebuilt . . -79 

X. The "Dispensary" Dispute .... 

XI. The Surrender of the Charter .... 105 

XII. The Society and the College of Physicians . no 

XIII. Establishment of the Navy Stock . . .119 

XIV. The Physicians Bill and Other Matters . 128 
XV. 1750 TO 1778 ...... 139 

xl 



94 



Xll 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 

XVI. 1778 TO 1795. ..... 

XVII. The Rise of the Society as a Teaching Body 

XVIII. Necessity for Medical Reform — The War Office 

XIX. Medical Reform — The Court of Examiners 



PAGE 

163 
172 
180 



XX. The Army Medical Board — The Examinations of the 

Society Improved ..... 188 

XXI. The Development of the Examinations held by the 

Society ...... 192 

XXII. Extension of the Examinations — Troubles with 

Candidates and Objectors to the Act of 1815 . 202 

XXIII. London University and the Court of Examiners — The 

Society and the Surgeons — Mr. Brande^s Scheme 212 

XXIV. The Chemists and Druggists — Qualified and Un- 

qualified Practitioners — The Thames Embankment 
Scheme — Graham's Bill — The Parliamentary Com- 
mittee OF Inquiry ..... 225 

XXV. A College of General Practitioners Proposed — 

Economies at the Hall — A New Medical Bill . 236 

XXVI. Changes in the Examinations— General Medical 
Council — Railway Schemes — The Physicians and 
Examinations — Examinations in Arts . . 248 

XXVII. The Present Position of the Society as an Examining 

Body ....... 262 



XXVIII. 



The Buildings, Antiquities, Pictures, Furniture, and 
Plate — Also a Detailed Account of the Old-Time 
Ritual known to have been Observed on Con- 
firmation Day, 1780. .... 



267 



APPENDICES . 



INDEX 



294 
299 



List of Illustrations 



The Great Hall, Upper End 



Autographs of Early Apothecaries 

The Arms of the Society 

Old Library Table .... 

The Muniment Chest .... 

Key Scutcheon of Muniment Chest 

Upper Portion of Staircase . 

The Oldest Window Remaining . 

The Long Garret .... 

Detail of Baluster and Hand-rail 

The Library . . . . . 

Chased Brass Door Handle, Library . 

A Relic of the Old Barge, Court Room . 



. Frontispiece 



PAGE 

xxxix 



Sconce, Court Room 



Table in Court Room 
The Gateway 



51 

81 

82 

85 

«7 

91 
92 

lOI 

104 

£12 



Brand and Seal. Possible Badge or Trade Mark of Navy Stock 121 



^35 



Silk Barge Streamers, i8th Century. Cross of St. Patrick 

ADDED Later ....... 145 



148 
. 153 



Old Ballot Box 



xiii 



156 



XIV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



The Front Court, Hall and Hall Stairs . 

Inner Face of Gateway 

Portion of Old Carved Beam 

The Staircase .... 

The Kitchen ..... 

Chairs in Parlour and Court Room 

Carving, Court Room . . . . 

Carving, Court Room 

Fireplace, Court Room 

The Plate ..... 

The Great Hall, Lower End 



PAGE 
. 268 

270 

271 

. 275 

277 
. 279 

280 
. 281 

285 
. 287 



The Mace 



292 



Introduction 

HE earliest mention of an Apothecary in England 
occurs in a grant reprinted in Rymer's "Foedera," 
the individual, one Coursus de Gangeland, receiving 
a pension of 6d. per diem for life in 1345, for 
attending on King Edward III. while lying sick 
in Scotland. Gangeland is called therein "an 
Apothecary of London." 

It has been slated that Richard Fitzneale, or Fitz Nigel, Bishop 
of London, filled the office of Apothecary to Henry II., but the 
statement is entirely without supporting evidence, and from the 
knowledge we have of the life of Fitz Nigel, may be dismissed as 
apocryphal. 

Of the exact status of the Apothecary in the fifteenth century in 
England we have no information. Of the foreign Apothecaries, in 
Germany and elsewhere, all that is known is well put in Beckmann's 
" History of Inventions," Early in the sixteenth century (to be exact, 
in 1511) Henry VIII, passed an Act of Parliament in which it was 
stated that through " the great inconvenience which did ensue by 
ignorant persons practising physic or surgery, to the grievous hurt, 
damage, and destruction of many of the King's liege people," it 
became needful to order that no one should practise as surgeon or 
physician in the City of London, or within seven miles of it, unless he 
had been first examined, approved, and admitted by the Bishop of 
London or the Dean of St. Paul's, who were to be assisted in the 
examination of candidates by four doctors of physic and of surgery, 
or other expert persons in that faculty. 

Seven years later the physicians were for the first time incor- 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

porated, and their college founded. In 1540 the surgeons (Barber- 
Surgeons) received their charter. Both the Physicians and Surgeons 
appear almost immediately to have exceeded the powers of jurisdic- 
tion which were given them by charter; so much so, that in 1543 
another Act was passed. By this Act the numerous irregular prac- 
titioners were protected, and they were legally tolerated. It could 
hardly have been otherwise, as these formed the ordinary " doctors " 
or professors of the healing art at the disposal of the general public 
throughout the kingdom. The Act of 1543 was, however, somewhat 
of a strange one. It cited the Act of 151 1 as having been passed 
"amongst other things, for the avoiding of sorceries, witchcraft, and 
other inconveniences," and the surgeons were censured for the 
mercenary way in which they were alleged to have practised, while 
the irregular and unincorporated practitioners were praised for their 
charity in attending the poor. This Act of 1543 is entitled "An Act 
that persons being no common surgeons may minister outward 
medicines." These unincorporated practitioners were the forerunners 
of the incorporated " Apothecary " of the first Stuart King of England. 
But though forerunners, they were so only in a sense, seeing that it 
was not till nearly a century after the Charter of James I., that 
apothecaries in England, as distinguished from physicians and 
surgeons, ever began to act as general practitioners. 

Of the mention of the " apothecary " in literature we need but cite 
Shakespeare, Addison, Pope, and Dryden as being the most important 
authors who write thereon. 

We now come to the first incorporation of the Apothecaries. This 
was by Charter from James I., and dated April 9, 1606, and by this 
charter the Apothecaries were united with the Grocers. They 
remained united until December 6, 1617, when a new Charter was 
received which formed them into a separate Company under the 
designation of the Master, Wardens, and Society of the Art and 
Mystery of the Apothecaries of the City of London. 

Practically speaking, the Society stands to the present day on its 
first Charter, that of 1617. At first it is clear that the Apothecaries 
did not prescribe, but only dispensed medicines ; but towards the 
end of the seventeenth century they began to exercise both functions. 
Naturally the College of Physicians was up in arms, and the wordy 



. INTRODUCTION xvii 

war which ensued — tracts on both sides being showered abroad — only 
ceased after the publication of Garth's burlesque epic, the " Dispen- 
sary," which was published in 1697. But the Apothecaries made good 
their claim to both prescribe and dispense, and to this day the 
Licentiate of the Society both prescribes and dispenses. Pope, in 
the Essay on Criticism (171 1) sneers at the "modern 'pothecaries," 
but Addison takes a far more just and generous view of the utility of 
these practitioners. From the Apothecaries' point of view the most 
clever defence of their position is that which is to be found in a tract 
dated 1724, entitled " Pharmacopolae Justificati ; or the Apothecaries 
Vindicated from the Imputation of Ignorance, wherein is shown that 
an academical education is nowise necessary to qualify a man for 
the practice of Physic." 

It is somewhat strange to find that persons were licensed by the 
Bishops to practise medicine within their dioceses as late as the 
middle of the eighteenth century. This misuse of Spiritual power 
was the subject of a strong attack in a tract published in 1747, and 
entitled "An Address to the College of Physicians." 

The conclusion to which one seems bound to come with regard to 
the position of the early Apothecary is this : namely, that originally, 
in the days when he was incorporated with the grocer, he sold in his 
shop what drugs he could get, and possibly other things, certainly 
sweets and preserved fruits. Later, when separated from the grocer, 
he sold drugs as does the chemist of the present day ; but the chemist 
did not then dispense as he does now — this was the province of the 
Apothecary. Later again, the Apothecary both prescribed and dis- 
pensed, and finally became what he now is, the fully qualified and 
licensed general practitioner. 

That the motive of James I. was a good one, and more than that, 
was an extremely wise one, when he practically forced a separate 
Charter on the Apothecaries, is undoubted. The need of this step was 
urged upon him by "Theodore de Mayerne and Henry Atkins, 
Doctors of Physic, our discreet and faithful Physicians," as the 
Charter tells us, and to these two gentlemen it appears that the credit 
of initiating the Society of Apothecaries is justly due. Traditionally 
Gideon de Laune was the founder of the Society, but it is difficult to 
see upon what ground this honour is allotted to him. That he was 

I* 



xviii INTROD UCTION 

the Queen's Apothecary is true, that he was an early Master of the 
Society is true, and that for long years he was a most prominent 
member of the Society ; but he cannot be in any sense called its 
founder. It may also be noted that the election of De Laune to the 
Mastership occasioned the first contest for that honour recorded in 
the annals of the Society. The coat armour which we have used for 
the title page is almost entirely derived from the visitation of London. 
Other coats of later Apothecaries might have been included, but it 
seemed to us that a small collection of the earliest was for its purpose 
more appropriate. 



THE CHARTER OF THE WORSHIPFUL SOCIETY 
OF APOTHECARIES OF LONDON 

JatneSf by the Grace of God, England^ Scotland^ France^ and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all whom these 
Presents shall come Greeting. Whereas, heretofore, We by our 
Letters Patents under the Great Seal of England, bearing Date at 
Westminster the 9th Day of April, in the Fourth Year of Our Reign 
over England, France, and Ireland, and the One and Fortieth over 
Scotland, of our Special Grace, did will, ordain, and grant. That all 
and singular Freemen of the Mystery of Grocers and Apothecaries of 
the City of London, and their Successors for ever thereafter, for the 
better ordering, governing, and rule of Men of the Mystery of 
Grocers and Apothecaries of the City of London, and for the profit, 
commodity, and rule of the good and honest, and for the fear and 
correction of evil, deceitful, and wicked, they should be, and remain 
by force of the said Letters Patent, one Body Corporate and Politic, 
in substance, deed, and name, by the name of the Wardens and 
Fellowship of the Mystery of Grocers of the City of London, and them 
by the name of the Wardens and Fellowship of the Grocers of the 
City of London, one Body Corporate and Politic, in substance, deed, 
and name, really and fully for Us, our Heirs and Successors, by the 
same our Letters Patent we did then erect, make, ordain, appoint, and 
declare, and that by the same name they should have perpetual succes- 
sion, as by the same our Letters Patents (amongst other things) more 
plainly it doth and may appear. But now, forasmuch as it is signified 
unto us on behalf of our well-beloved subjects, the Apothecaries of 
our City of London, and also affirmed and approved unto us by our 
well-beloved Theodore de May erne and Henry Atkins^ Doctors of 
Physic, our discreet and faithful Physicians, that in these latter Years 

xix 



XX THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

very many Empiricks and unskilful and ignorant Men, and unexperi- 
enced, dq inhabit and abide in our City of London^ and the Suburbs of 
the same, which are not well instructed in the Art or Mystery of 
Apothecaries, but are therein unskilful, and rude, do make and com- 
pound many unwholesome, hurtful, deceitful, corrupt, and dangerous 
Medicines, and the same do sell into many parts of this our Kingdom 
of England, and the same do daily transmit, to the abuse and scandal 
not only of them which embrace the knowledge of Physic, and of the 
learned Physicians of this our Realm of England, professing the same, 
and of the Apothecaries of our City of London, being educated and 
expert in the same Art and Mystery, but also to the great peril and 
daily hazard of the Lives of our Subjects. 

And forasmuch as it belongeth to our Princely Laws and Supreme 
Government, whereby we do not only rule and embrace our Subjects 
universally, and all the parts. Members, and Fellowships of our Realm, 
that for the public good and course of times we might create, erect, 
appoint, and thereupon induce at our good Pleasure, new Fellowships, 
and new Bodies Corporate and Politic, as well of Persons which 
before were plainly separate and reduced, and gathered into one 
Body, as of Bodies Corporate of old, where it shall seem most 
expedient for the better government of our People ; 

We therefore, considering that it is part of our Princely Office, to 
provide and see for the safety and public good of our Subjects by all 
ways and means, and weighing with ourselves how in time to prevent 
the endeavours* of such wicked Persons, by the advice of our Counsel 
learned in the Law, we thought necessary to disunite, disjoin, separate, 
and dissociate the Apothecaries of our City of London from the Free- 
men of the Mystery of Grocers of the same City, and the same 
Apothecaries by themselves solely and severally, and from the 
Freemen of the Mystery of Grocers aforesaid to all intents and 
purposes disunited and separated, into one Body Corporate and 
Politic to erect, create, and appoint, to whom, in all future times, the 
care and management of those inconveniences might be given in 
charge, and committed, in such sort nevertheless, that they might be 
subject to the superiority and general government of our City of 
London, and the Magistracy of the same, after the manner of other 
Companies and Fellowships. 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON xxi 

Know ye therejorey that We, being much inclined to the Petitions 
of our well-beloved and faithful Physicians, Theodore de Mayerne and 
Henry Atkins^ and also of the aforesaid Apothecaries, but chiefly of 
our Royal Respect and Regard to promote the State of our Common- 
wealth, and to procure the Public Good, that the ignorance and' 
rashness of Presumptuous Empiricks and ignorant unexpert Men 
aforesaid, may be restrained, whereupon many discommodities, in- 
conveniences, and perils do daily arise to the rude and credulous 
People ; and to the end the Apothecaries hereafter named may be 
disunited, separated, and disjoined, as well as from the aforesaid Body 
Politic of the Freemen of the Mystery of Grocers of the City of 
London^ as from whatsoever Bodies Politic, Societies, and Commonal- 
ties of whatsoever other Arts, Mysteries, or Faculties in the same our 
City of London^ and into one Politic and Corporate Body by them- 
selves, by us made and created for ever hereafter, in all futurq times, 
to all purposes and intents may be and remain, as for other urgent 
causes us specially moving, of our especial grace, certain knowledge, 
and mere motion, We will, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs 
and Successors, do grant unto our well-beloved and faithful Subjects, 
William Besse, Edmund Phillips, Lawrence Mansfield, Thomas Colthurst, 
Richard Bacon, Stephen Higgins, William Compton, John Wolfegang 
Rumler, Lewis Mires, Gideon Delawne, George Sheeres, Edward de 
Plenzo, Richard Trout, William Button, William Clapham, William 
Quicke, Thomas Whitley, John Parkinson, Ralph Clayton, William 
Gwinn, Humphrey Gravener, Lawrence Lund, John Hewett, Nicholas 
Gibson, John Slater, Peter Watson, William Checkley, Thomas Tomlinson, 
Daniel Damelly, William Clarke, senior, Adrian Barton, William Wells, 
Richard Edwards, Richard Palmer, William Pecke, Josias Harrie, 
Thomas Bullard, Israel Woolfe, James Collwell, Thomas Christy, Thomas 
Hicks, Robert Hudson, john Sheppard, Richard Weston, Thomas Fotvnes, 
Gabriel Sherriffe, John Warkehouse, John Walker, James Fothergill, 
Samuel Jones, Thomas Bate, George Walsher, senior, Timothy Read, 
Lewis Moreton, Thomas Bell, senior, Edward Cooke, Robert Boreman, 
Tobias Wyncks, John Leestead, John Easton, William Shambrooke, 
Edward Tasborrow, Leonard Stone, John Hinson, Isaac Young, William 
Nocke, Richard Salter, John Evans, William Spencer, Symon Drew, 
Joliffe Lownes, Samuel Lemme, Richard Young, Robert Vawdrie, James 



xxii THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

Everett^ Peter Howell^ Edward Clarke ^ junior^ Nicholas Goffe, Francis 
Baldwin, John Wheeler, junior, Gilbert Johnson, Richard Asheby, 
Robert Elkin, John Browne, Thomas Broome, Richard Glover, William 
Bell, junior, Robert Hore, Stephen Chase, Samuel Mosse, Phillip Griffith, 
Samuel Harryson, John Morecrofte, James Rand, John Hyde, James 
Walsham, Abraham Webb, John Taylor, Ralph Yardley, Thomas 
Rushton, John Sares, George Houghton Mace, Roger Harris, Robert 
Mace, George Steward, Richard Swetson, John Kellet, Richard Bragg, 
Troman Parkins, Miles Sparks, James Tomlins, Richard Besse, Zachary 
Wareing, Richard Blackwell, William Clayton, William Roberts, Francis 
Unraine, Richard More, Charles Moncke, Paul Lobello, Samuel Tubman, 
and Michael Easton ; and to all other Persons whatsoever brought up 
and skilful in the Art, Faculty, or Mystery of an Apothcary, and the 
same Art, Faculty, or Mystery at this time exercising, and being Free- 
men of the Mystery of Grocers of the City of London, and with the 
same jointly or promiscuously into one Body Corporate and Com- 
monalty as aforesaid, made and constituted, or being Freemen of any 
other Arts, Faculties or Mysteries, in the City of London, and with the 
same into one Body Corporate, Society, or Commonalty, heretofore 
by Us, or by any other of our Progenitors, made, incorporated, or 
constituted, that they and every of them, together with all and singular 
their Apprentices, which before the date of these Presents, before the 
Wardens of the Mystery of Grocers aforesaid, or before the Masters 
or Wardens of any other Arts, Faculties, or Mysteries of the City of 
London, unto any Apothecary or Apothecaries have put themselves 
Apprentices, as well from the Body Politic and Commonalty of Free- 
men of the Mystery of Grocers aforesaid, as from all other Bodies 
Politic of the Commonalty, or Society of any Arts, Faculties, or 
Mystery in the City of London whatsoever, to be disunited, severed, 
drawn out, disjoined, and dissociated. And the same Apothecaries, 
and every of them named or mentioned, together with all and singular 
their Apprentices aforesaid, of our Royal Prerogative and Kingly Right, 
We do disunite, separate, draw out, disjoin and dissociate. And the 
same Af)othecaries, together with all and singular their Apprentices 
aforesaid, by virtue of these our Letters Patent, free, clear, acquitted, 
discharged, and wholly exempted (to all intents and purposes), of and 
from all Oaths, Jurisdictions, Powers, Authorities, Statutes, Ordinances, 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON xxiii 

Constitutions, Surveys, Searches, Summons, Meetings, Assemblies, 
Regiments, Governments, Orders, Amendments, Impositions, Taxes, 
Collections, Payments of Money, and Charges, Fines, Amerciaments, 
Imprisonments, Distresses, Pains, and Penalties, whatsoever, of the 
Wardens and Commonalty of the Mystery of Grocers aforesaid for the 
time being, or of their Successors, or of any other Body Politic, 
Commonalty, or Society within our City of London^ or of their 
Successors, by these Presents, We will to be and remain hereafter for 
ever, any Laws, Statutes, Acts of Parliament, Ordinances, Provisions, 
Customs, Grants, Confirmations, Privileges, Charters, or Letters 
Patents of Us, or any of our Progenitors, to the said Master, 
Wardens, and Commonalty of the Mystery of Grocers of the City 
of London^ heretofore made to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. 
And further^ of our more ample and special grace, certain know- 
ledge, and mere motion, to the end the Art, Mystery, or Faculty of 
Apothecaries, now long decayed and despised, may be the better 
advanced to its worthy dignity, for Us, our Heirs and Successors, 
We do by these Presents grant unto the aforesaid William Besse, 
Edmund Phillips^ Lawrence Mansfield, Thomas Colthurst, and the rest 
before named, and to all and singular other Persons whatsoever, 
brought up and skilful in the Art, Mystery, or Faculty of Apothecaries, 
and exercising the same Art, Mystery, or Faculty, now being Freemen 
of the Mystery of Grocers aforesaid, or being Freemen of any other 
Art, Mystery, or Faculty in the City of London, (so as they have been 
brought up, and be expert in the Art or Mystery of Apothecaries), 
that they, and all such sort of men of the said Art or Faculty of 
Apothecaries, of and in the City of London, and Suburbs of the same, 
and within Seven Miles of the said City, may and shall be one Body 
Corporate and Politic, in substance, deed and name, by the name of 
the Master, Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mystery of Apothe- 
caries of the City of London, and them by the name of the Master, 
Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries of the 
City of London, into one Body Corporate and Politic, in substance, 
deed, and name, really and fully for Us, our Heirs, and Successors ; 
We do erect, make, ordain, constitute, create, and declare by these 
Presents, and that by the same name they may have perpetual succes- 
sion, and that they and their Successors, by the name of the Master, 



xxiv THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries of the 
City of London^ may and shall be at all times for ever hereafter, 
persons able and capable in Law, as a Body Corporate and Politic, 
to have, purchase, possess, enjoy and retain Manors, Messuages, 
Lands, Tenements, Liberties, Privileges, Franchises, Jurisdictions, and 
Hereditaments whatsoever, of any sort, name, nature, quality, or kind 
soever they shall be, to them and their Successors in Fee Simple and 
Perpetuity, or for term of Year or Years, or otherwise, howsoever. 
And also Goods and Chattels, and what other things soever, of what 
name, nature, kind, quality, or sort soever they shall be. And also to 
grant, demise, alien, assign, and dispose of Manors, Lands, Tenements, 
and Hereditaments, and to do and execute all and singular other 
Deeds and Things by the said name. And that by the said name 
of Master, Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mystery of Apothe- 
caries of the City of London^ they shall and may be able to plead 
and be impleaded, answer, and be answered, defend, and be defended, 
in what Courts, place, or places soever, and before what Judges or 
Justices soever, or any other Persons or Officers of Us, our Heirs, 
and Successors, in all and singular Actions, Pleas, Suits, Complaints, 
Causes, Matters, and Demands whatsoever they be, or shall be, of 
what kind, quality, or sort soever, in the same manner and form 
as any other person or persons of our Liege People of England 
be able and capable in Law, or as any Body Corporate and 
Politic within our Realm of England may, or be able to have, 
obtain, receive, possess, enjoy, retain, give, grant, demise, alien, 
assign, and dispose, plead, and be impleaded, answer, and be 
answered, defend, and be defended, make, suffer, or execute, &c. 
and that the said Master, Wardens, and Society of the Art and 
Mystery of Apothecaries of the City of London^ may have for ever 
a Common Seal for the Causes and Businesses of them and their 
Successors whatsoever, to serve for all things by them to be done. 
And that it shall and may be lawful for the same Master, Wardens, 
and Society of the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries of the City of 
London^ and their Successors, the same Seal, at their pleasure from 
time to time to break, change, alter, and new make, as to them 
shall seem best. 

And further^ We will, and do ordain, and by these Presents for 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON xxv 

Us, our Heirs and Successors, do grant unto the said Master, 
Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries 
aforesaid, and to their Successors, that in all future times for ever 
hereafter, there be, and shall be One of the Company of the Art 
or Mystery of Apothecaries aforesaid, in manner as in these Presents 
is expressed, to be named and chosen, which shall be named and 
called the Master of the Art and Society aforesaid ; and that in like 
manner, there may and shall be Two of the Society of the Art and 
Mystery aforesaid, in manner as in these Presents is expressed, 
to be chosen and named, which shall be, and be named the Wardens 
of the Art, Mystery, and Society aforesaid ; and also, that likewise 
there may and shall be One-and-Twenty of the Society aforesaid, 
in manner as in these Presents is hereafter likewise mentioned, to 
be chosen, which shall be, and be named the Assistants of the Art 
and Society of Apothecaries of the City of London^ that from time 
to time shall be assisting and aiding unto the Master and Wardens 
of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, for the time being, in all 
causes, things an<4 matters, touching and concerning the same 
Mystery and Society. 

And further^ We will, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs 
and Successors, do grant unto the aforesaid Master, Wardens, and 
Society of the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries of our said City of 
London^ and to their Successors, that it shall and may be lawful for 
the same Master, Wardens, and Society, and their Successors, to 
have, purchase, retain, and appoint a certain Hall, or Counsel- 
House within our City of London^ and that the same Masters and 
Wardens of the said Mystery, or any Two of them, (whereof We will, 
the Master for the time being to be one), as often as it shall seem 
meet and necessary to them to call and hold within the same Hall 
or House, a certain Court or Convocation for the said Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants aforesaid, to the number of Thirteen Persons 
or more (whereof We will, the Master, and one of the Wardens of 
the Mystery and Society aforesaid for the time being to be two), at 
their free will and pleasure may, and shall be able in all future times 
for ever hereafter ; and that at the same Court or Convocation, they 
shall and may handle, confer, consult, advise, and decern of Statutes, 
Laws, Articles, Ordinances, and Constitutions, touching and concern- 



xxvi THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

ing the Mystery and Society aforesaid, and the good government, 
state, and ordering the same, according to their sound discretions, 
or according to the sound discretions of the greater part of them so 
to be called together as aforesaid, whereof We always will, that the 
Master and one of the Wardens of the Mystery and Society aforesaid 
for the time being, shall be two. 

And further, We will, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs 
and Successors, do grant to the said Master, Wardens, and Society 
of the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries of the City of London, and to 
their Successors, That the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the 
Mystery aforesaid for the time being, to the number of Thirteen 
Persons or more (whereof We will, that the Master for the time being 
shall be one) upon public Summonses thereof to be made, being 
gathered together in the Hall or House of the Society aforesaid, shall 
and may have full power, ability, and authority to make, constitute, 
ordain, and establish from time to time reasonable Laws, Statutes, 
Constitutions, Decrees, and Ordinances in writing whatsoever, which 
to them, or the greater part of them (whereof the Master of the 
Mystery and Society aforesaid for the time being, to be one) shall 
seem meet, and to be good, wholesome, profitable, honest, and 
necessary, according to their sound discretions, for the good 
government and rule of the same Master, Wardens, Assistants, 
and Society of the Mystery of Apothecaries aforesaid, and of all 
and singular other Persons exercising or using the Art or Mystery 
of the Apothecaries aforesaid within the City of London, Liberties, 
apd Suburbs thereof, and within Seven Miles of the same City. 
And for Declaration in what manner and order the same Master, 
Wardens, and Society, and all and singular their Apprentices, Officers, 
and Ministers of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, in the Offices, 
Functions, Ministeries, Apprenticeships, Works, and Businesses 
within the City of London, the Liberties and Suburbs thereof, and 
within Seven Miles of the same City, shall behave, bear, and use 
themselves for the further public good, common profit, and good 
government of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, and the govern- 
ment of the same, and other things and causes whatsoever, touching 
or any way concerning the Mystery and Society aforesaid. 

Provided always, That for so many and such Ordinances which 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON xxvii 

concern Medicines and Compositions, and the use of the same, they 
shall call from time to time the President, and Four Censors or 
Governors of the College or Commonalty of the Physicians of London^ 
or other Physicians by the said President to be named, for advise- 
ment in that behalf. And that the same Master, Wardens, and 
Assistants of the Mystery aforesaid for the time being, to the 
number of Thirteen Persons or more, (whereof We will, that the 
Master of the Mystery aforesaid for the time being to be one), as 
often as they shall make, ordain, or establish such Laws, Institutions, 
Decrees, Ordinances and Constitutions, such and the like pains, 
punishments, and penalties, by Fines or Amerciaments, or by either 
of them, towards and upon all Offenders against such Laws, In- 
stitutions, Decrees, Ordinances and Constitutions, or any one or 
more of them, shall make, ordain, limit, and provide, as and which 
unto the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Mystery afore- 
said for the time being, or the greater part of them (whereof We will, 
the Master of the Mystery and Society aforesaid for the time being to 
be one), shall be thought fit, necessary, requisite, and more fit for the 
observation of the same Laws, Ordinances, and Constitutions. And 
that the same Master, Wardens, and Society of the Mystery aforesaid, 
and their Successors, the same Fines and Amerciaments, by the 
proper minister of the same Master, Wardens, and Society for the 
time being, by distress, or otherwise, according to the Laws and 
Customs of our Realm of England^ may and shall be able to levy, 
have, and take to the use of the Master, Wardens, and Society afore- 
said, and of their Successors, without the let of Us, our Heirs or 
Successors, or one or more of the Officers or Ministers of Us, our 
Heirs or Successors, and without any account unto Us, our Heirs 
or Successors, thereof to be yielded or made. All and singular 
which Ordinances, Laws, Decrees and Constitutions, so as aforesaid 
to be made. We will to be kept under the pains in the same contained, 
so notwithstanding as that such Laws, Constitutions, Fines and 
Amerciaments, may be reasonable, and not repugnant nor contrary 
to the Laws, Statutes, Customs, or Rights of our Realm of England. 
And for the better execution of this our Will and Grant in this 
behalf, We have assigned, named, created and constituted, our 
well-beloved the said Edmond Phillips to be the first and present 



xxviii THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

Master of the Art, Mystery and Society aforesaid, and also the said 
Stephen Higgins and Thomas Fownes to be the first and present 
Wardens of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, to continue in the 
same offices from the date of these Presents until the 20th Day 
of August next ensuing, and from thence until three others shall 
be in due manner chosen and elected unto those Offices of the 
Master and Wardens of the Art or Mystery and Society aforesaid, 
according to the Ordinances and Provisions in these Presents ex- 
pressed and declared ; if the said Edmond Phillips^ Stephen Higgins, 
and Thomas Fownes shall so long live, unless in the mean time, for evil 
government or misbehaviour in that behalf, or for any other reasonable 
cause, they, or any of them, shall be removed from these Offices. And 
we have also assigned, named, created, constituted, and made, and by 
these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and Successors, do assign, create, 
name, and make our well-beloved fohn Wolfegange Rumler, Gideon 
de Lawney, Lewis Lamoire, Richard Bacon, Thomas Whitleby, John 
Parkinson, John Hewitt, William Chukeley, Daniel Darnelly, William 
Wells, Adrian Barton, Josias Harris, Thomas Christie, John Shepherd, 
Gabriel Sheriffe, Thomas Btillard, Richard Edwards, James Colwell, 
Thomas Hicks, Edward Cooke, and John Warkhouse, learned, skilful 
and expert in the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries, to be the first 
and present Assistants of the same Mystery and Society of Apothe- 
caries, to continue in the same Offices and Places during their 
natural lives, unless in the meantime for ill government or mis- 
behaviour of themselves in that behalf or for any other reason- 
able cause, they, or any of them shall be removed ; which 
Assistants of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, shall take 
their Corporal Oaths before Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, our Attor- 
ney-General, Sir Henry Yelverton, our Solicitor-General, Theodore 
Mayeme, and Henry Atkins, Doctors of Physic, and John Townley, 
Esquire, or before two of them, unto which Five, or Two of them, we 
do give and grant by these Presents, full power and authority the 
said Oath unto the Assistants of the Mystery aforesaid to give and 
minister, within forty days after the date of these Presents, well and 
faithfully to execute their said Offices. And also, that the Master and 
Wardens of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, or the greater part 
of them, within fifty days after the date of these Presents, well and 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON xxix 

faithfully to execute the said Offices of Master and Wardens 
of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, in all things touching or 
concerning the same Offices ; and so from time to time, as often as 
the Master and Wardens of the Mystery and Society aforesaid shall be 
chosen and elected, before they or any of them be, or shall bie 
admitted to the execution of their several Offices. 

And further^ We will, and by these Presents for Us, our Heirs and 
Successors, do grant unto the said Master, Wardens, and Society 
of the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries aforesaid, and to their 
Successors, that the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Mystery • 
and Society aforesaid for the time being, and their Successors, to the 
number of Thirteen Persons or more (if so many may conveniently 
be gathered together) from time to time, and at all times hereafter, 
shall and may have power and authority, yearly, and in every year for 
ever, upon the 20th Day of August, or within eight days before the 
said 20th Day of August, or within Eight Days next after the said 20th 
Day of August, to choose and name, and that they shall and may 
be able to choose and name. Three of the more wise and discreet Men 
of the said Society, whereof one shall be the Master, and the other 
two shall be the Wardens of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, for 
one whole Year from thence next following, and from thence until 
Three other wise and discreet Men of the said Mystery shall be chosen 
and elected, according to the Ordinances and Provisions in these 
Presents expressed and declared. 

And further f We will, and by these Presents for Us, our Heirs 
and Successors, do grant unto the said Master, Wardens, and Society 
of the Mystery of Apothecaries of our said City of London, and their 
Successors, that if it shall happen the Master and Wardens of the 
Mystery and Society aforesaid, or any one or more of them, at any 
time within one year after that they (so as aforesaid) shall be elected 
and preferred unto the Offices of the Master and Wardens of the 
Mystery and Society aforesaid, to die, or from those Offices to be 
removed (which Master and Wardens, and every of them, for ill 
government, or for any reasonable cause, by the rest of the Master 
and Wardens not offending, or transgressing, and the Assistants of the 
Mystery and Society aforesaid for the time being, to the number 
Thirteen Persons or more, from time to time. We will, shall be 



XXX THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

removable), that then, and so often, it shall and may be lawful to 
such and so many of the same Master, Wardens, and Assistants which 
then shall survive or remain, to the number of Thirteen Persons 
or more, at their pleasure, one or more others to choose and prefer 
to be Master, and Warden or Wardens of the Mystery and Society 
aforesaid, according to the Ordinance and Provision in these 
Presents declared, to execute and exercise the said Offices of Master 
and Wardens of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, until the 20th 
Day of August then next following, or within Eight Days before 
the same 20th Day of August, or within Eight Days next after the 
said 2oth Day of August, and from thence until Three other wise 
and discreet Men of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, shall be 
chosen and named unto the Offices of Master and Wardens of the 
Mystery and Society aforesaid, according to the Ordinances and 
Provisions in these Presents declared and expressed ; and so as 
often as the case shall so happen. 

And further^ We will, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and 
Successors, do ordain and grant to the Master, Wardens, and Society 
of the aforesaid Mystery, and their Successors, that as often as it shall 
happen any one or more of the said One and Twenty Assistants 
for the time being, of the said Mystery and Society to die, or for 
any reasonable cause to be removed from their Offices of Assistants 
of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, which Assistants, and every 
of them, if they shall not well behave themselves in their Offices, 
or for any other reasonable cause, from time to time, by the Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants to the number of Thirteen Persons, or more, 
which then shall remain or survive, (We will, shall be removeable 
at their pleasure from time to time), one or more others of the 
wiser and worthier persons, being of the said Mystery and Society 
of Apothecaries, to choose, name, and prefer in the place and places 
of the same Assistant or Assistants of the Mystery and Society afore- 
said so happening to die, or to be removed, to supply and make 
up the said Number of One and Twenty Assistants aforesaid. And 
that he and they, after they shall be so as aforesaid named and 
elected, before he or they be admitted to the execution of the said 
Office of Assistant or Assistants of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, 
shall yield and take a Corporal Oath upon the Holy Evangelists 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON xxxi 

before the Master and Wardens of the Mystery and Society aforesaid 
for the time being, well, faithfully and honestly to execute those 
Offices, and to keep all those Secrets which in the Court of Assistants 
aforesaid, by him or them shall be spoken and talked of, and so 
as often as occasion shall require the same. 

IVe do further give, and by these Presents for Us, our Heirs and 
Successors, do grant unto the aforesaid Master, Wardens, and Society 
of the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries aforesaid, and to their Suc- 
cessors, that the Master and Wardens of the Mystery and Society 
aforesaid for the time being, shall and may have full power and 
authority from time to time, to give and minister a Corporal Oath 
upon the Holy Evangelists, as well as to all Masters, Wardens, and 
Assistants of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, hereafter to be 
chosen in the same Offices and Places as is aforesaid to be admitted, 
and to all Officers of the Mystery and Society aforesaid, for the due 
execution of their Offices well, rightfully and faithfully in all things 
severally touching or concerning their Offices, as unto all Apprentices 
and other Freemen whatsoever, of the Mystery aforesaid. 

And further, that We, as much as in us lieth, may provide for the 
safety and public good of our Subjects, and that those perils and 
inconveniences daily happening by unskilful, unexpert, deceitful, and 
wicked men using the Art of Apothecaries aforesaid, might the better 
be avoided. We will, and of our special grace, certain knowledge, and 
mere motion, by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and Successors, do 
grant unto the said Master, Wardens, and Society of the Mystery and 
Art of Apothecaries, and to their Successors, that it shall not, nor may 
be lawful, from henceforth at any time hereafter, to, or for any Person 
or Persons whatsoever, now being, or that hereafter shall be Freemen 
of the Mystery of Grocers, or of any other Arts, Faculties, or Mysteries 
in the City of London, and brought up, or to be brought up in the 
same Arts, Faculties, or Mysteries, to furnish, have, hold, or keep 
an Apothecary's Shop, or to make, mix, compound, prepare, give, 
apply, or administer any Medicines, or any way to sell, set on sale, put 
forth, or put to sale to any person or persons whatsoever, any compound 
Medicines, or medicinable Compositions (viz.). Distilled Waters, Com- 
pounds, or Olea Chimica, Apozemata, Sirrups, Concerves, Eclegmata, 
Electuaria, Condita, Medicinalia, Pillulas, Pulveres, Troches, Olea 



xxxii THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

Unguenta, Emplastra, or by any other way whatsoever to use or 
exercise the Art, Faculty, or Mystery of an Apothecary, or any part 
thereof, within the City of London and the Suburbs thereof, or within 
Seven Miles of the same City, under the pain of Five Pounds for 
every Month wherein such Person or Persons shall exercise the Art 
or Mystery of Apothecaries as is aforesaid, contrary to the true meaning 
of these our Letters Patents, which said Forfeitures and Penalties to be 
levied by distress, or by Action of Debt, in the name of the Warden 
Junior for the time being, to be prosecuted or otherwise, they shall be 
levied and recovered in any of our Courts at Westminster^ from time 
to time, one Half whereof to be taken and applied to the use of Us, 
our Heirs and Successors, and the other Half to the use of the 
Master, Wardens, and Society of the Mystery of Apothecaries. 

And We will, and by these Presents for Us, our Heirs and Suc- 
cessors, do grant unto the aforesaid Master, Wardens, and Society of 
the Mystery of Apothecaries of the City of London aforesaid, and to 
their Successors, that no Person or Persons whatsoever may have, 
hold, or keep, an Apothecary's Shop or Warehouse, or that may 
exercise or use the Art or Mystery of Apothecaries, or make, mingle, 
work, compound, prepare, give, apply, or administer, any Medicines, 
or that may sell, set on sale, utter, set forth, or lend any Compound or 
Composition to any person or persons whatsoever, within the City of 
London and the Liberties thereof, or within Seven Miles of the 
said City, unless such person or persons as have been brought up, 
instructed, and taught by the space of Seven Years at the least, as 
Apprentice or Apprentices, with some Apothecary or Apothecaries 
exercising the same Art, and being a Freeman of the said Mystery. 
And after such Seven Years Service or Apprenticeship as is aforesaid, 
shall be expired and finished, that then every such Apprentice may 
appear and be presented to the Master and Wardens for the time 
being, and by the said Master and Wardens, calling unto them the 
President of the College or Commonalty of the Faculty of Physicians 
of London for the time being, or any Physician or Physicians by the 
said President to be nominated, and thereunto to be assigned from 
time to time, if upon warning thereof given, such Physician or 
Physicians as aforesaid, will be present, and taking advice with the 
same Physician or Physicians, shall be examined, proved and tried 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON xxxiii 

concerning his knowledge and election of Simples, and concerning 
the preparing, dispensing, handling, commixing and compounding 
of Medicines, and shall be by them the said Physicians, Master 
and Wardens, approved and allowed, before he shall presume to 
have, keep, or furnish an Apothecary's Shop, or to prepare, make, 
mingle, work, compound, give, apply, minister, utter, put forth, sell, 
or set on sale, any Medicines, or otherwise by any other ways or 
means exercise the Art of an Apothecary, or any part thereof, within 
the City of London and Liberties and Suburbs of the same, or within 
Seven Miles of the same City. 

And further^ of our more abundant and special grace, certain 
knowledge, and mere motion, for the better ordering and government 
of all Persons which now do, or hereafter shall exercise the Art or 
Mystery of Apothecaries aforesaid within the City of London^ the 
Suburbs thereof, or within Seven Miles of the same City, We have 
given and granted, and by these Presents for Us, our Heirs and 
Successors, do give and grant to the aforesaid Master, Wardens, and 
Fellowship of the Mystery of Apothecaries of the City of London 
aforesaid, and to their Successors, that the said Master and Wardens 
of the Mystery aforesaid for the time being, and their Successors for 
ever hereafter, ^hall and may have from time to time, full power and 
authority to have and take, survey, search, examination, government, 
and correction, of all and all manner, as well Freemen as others 
whatsoever, using or exercising the Art, Mystery, or Faculty of an 
Apothecary, or any part thereof as aforesaid, as well within our said 
City of London^ the Liberties, and Suburbs of the same City, or in 
other Villages, Hamlets, or places whatsoever, within Seven Miles of 
the same City, as well within Liberties as without, where any person 
using or exercising the Art, Mystery, or Faculty of Apothecaries, or 
any part thereof, shall dwell and inhabit, or shall happen to dwell or 
inhabit. And the said Master and Wardens, and their Successors, or 
one or more of them, or some Assistants by the Master and Wardens 
to be appointed and assigned, at fit and convenient times, and in 
manner and form convenient and lawful, from time to time, as often 
as to the said Master and Wardens shall seem meet and expedient, shall 
and may go and enter into any Shop or Shops, House or Houses, 
Cellar or Cellars, of any Persons whatsoever, using or exercising the 



xxxiv THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

Art or Mystery of Apothecaries, or any part thereof, within the City 
of London^ the Liberties and Suburbs thereof, or within Seven Miles 
of the same city, as well within the Liberty as without, where any 
Medicines, simple or compound, Wares, Drugs, Receipts, Distilled 
Waters, Chemical Oils, Sjrups, Conserves, Electuaries, Pills, Powders, 
Troches, Oils, Ointments, Emplasters, or any other things whatsoever, 
which belong or appertain to the Art or Mystery of Apothecaries as is 
aforesaid, shall be probable and likely to be found ; and to search, 
survey, and prove if the same Medicines, simple or compound. Wares, 
Drugs, Receipts, Distilled Waters, Chemical Oils, Syrups, Conserves, 
Eclegmata, Electuaries, Pills, Powders, Troches, Oils, Ointments, 
Emplasters, or any thing or things whatsoever belonging to the Art 
or Mystery of Apothecaries aforesaid, be and shall be wholesome, 
medicinable, meet, and fit for the cure, health, and ease of our 
Subjects. And also the aforesaid Master and Wardens of the Mystery 
aforesaid, and the said Assistants for the time being, thereunto 
nominated and appointed by the Master and Wardens, and their 
Successors from time to time, may have, and by virtue of these 
Presents, shall have full power and authority to examine and try all 
and singular Persons professing, using, or exercising, or which here- 
after shall profess, use, or exercise the Art or Mystery of Apothecaries, 
or any part thereof, within the aforesaid City of London, the Liberties 
or Suburbs thereof, or within Seven Miles of the same City, as well 
within Liberties as without, touching or concerning their and every 
of their knowledge, skill, and understanding in the aforesaid Art or 
Mystery of Apothecaries, and to remove and prohibit all those from the 
exercise, use, or practice of the said Art or Mystery, whom hereafter 
they shall find either unskilful, ignorant, or insufficient, or obstinate, 
or repugnant to be examined by virtue of these Presents, in the Art 
or Mystery aforesaid. And also all and singular Medicines, Wares, 
Drugs, Receipts, Distilled Waters, Oils, Chemical Preparations, 
Syrups, Conserves, Eclegmatas, Electuaries, Pills, Powders, Troches, 
Oils, Ointments, and Plaisters, and all other things belonging to the 
aforesaid Art, which they shall find unlawful, deceitful, inveterate, out 
out of use, unwholesome, corrupt, unmedicinable, pernicious, or 
hurtful, to burn before the Offender's Doors. And also they may 
lay, impose, and execute punishments, and other Pains and Penalties, 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON xxxv 

by Fines and Amerciaments, upon such Offenders ; according to their 
sound discretions, and the Ordinances by them and their Successors 
so as aforesaid to be made and appointed. Willing, and by these 
Presents for Us, our Heirs and Successors, straightly enjoining, charg- 
ing, and commanding all and singular Mayors, Justices, Bailiffs, 
Constables, and all other our Officers, Ministers, and Subjects what- 
soever, that they be aiding, helping, and assisting, to the said Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants of the Mystery and Fellowship of the 
Apothecaries aforesaid, and to every of them, and their Successors, 
to do, enjoy, have, and execute all and every, those things by Us to 
the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, and to their Successors 
by our Letters Patents granted, and every or any part or parcel 
thereof. 

And further^ We will, and by these Presents, of our more ample 
special grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, for Us, our Heirs 
and Successors, do grant to the said Masters, Wardens, and Fellow- 
ship of the Mystery of Apothecaries of the City of London^ and to 
their Successors, that they the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship 
of the Mystery of Apothecaries aforesaid, shall and may have, hold, 
retain, and enjoy so many, so great, such the same, and the like 
Franchises, Privileges, Customs, Immunities, and Acquittances, 
Profits, Commodities, Encreases, Advantages, Emoluments in Spices, 
Pharmaces, Drugs, and other matters and things whatsoever belonging 
and appertaining to the Art and Mystery of Apothecaries, to be 
bought, sold, or made fit, as many, as great, and which and in as 
ample manner and form as heretofore at any time they have had, 
holden, and enjoyed, or any way ought to have, hold and enjoy, 
when they remained with the said Freemen of the Mystery of Grocers, 
and was made and were one Body Corporate and Politic pro- 
miscuously, and undivided with the same. 

And further^ We will, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and 
Successors, do grant and give special and free License and lawful 
liberty, power, and authority, to the said Master, Wardens, and 
Fellowship of the Mystery or Art of Apothecaries aforesaid, and to 
their Successors, to have, receive, and obtain to them and their 
Successors for ever. Manors, Messuages, Lands, Tenements, Meadows, 
Feedings, Pastures, Woods, Underwoods, Rectories, Tithes, Rents, 



xxxvi THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

Reversions, Services, and other Hereditaments whatsoever, within our 
Realm of England, or elsewhere, within our Dominions, as well of 
Us, our Heirs and Successors, as of any other Person or Persons 
whatsoever which are not holden of Us, our Heirs and Successors 
immediately in chief ; or by Knight's Service, so that the same 
Manors, Messuages, Lands, Tenements, Meadows, Feedings, Pastures, 
Woods, Underwoods, Rectories, Tithes, Rents, Reversions, Services, 
and Hereditaments, so by them to be had, received, and purchased, 
do not exceed in the whole the clear value of Forty Pounds beyond 
all charges and reprizes ; the Statute of Lands and Tenements, not to 
be sold in Mortmaine, or any Statues, Act, Ordinance or Provision 
therefore had, made, ordained, or provided, or any other thing, cause 
or matter, to the contrary hereof in any wise notwithstanding. 

And also, We give, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and 
Successors, do grant to any Subject or Subjects whatsoever of Us, our 
Heirs and Successors, free and special Licence, and lawful power, 
faculty, and authority, that they, or any of them respectively, shall and 
may grant, sell, set over, or alienate Manors, Messuages, Lands, 
Tenements, Meadows, Feedings, Pastures, Woods, Underwoods, 
Rectories, Tithes, Rents, Reversions, Services and other Hereditaments 
whatsoever, which are not holden of Us, our Heirs and Successors 
immediately in chief, or otherwise by Knight's Service, to the said 
Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the Mystery of Apothecaries 
aforesaid, and to their Successors, so that all the said Manors, 
Messuages, Lands, Tenements, Meadows, Feedings, Pastures; Woods, 
Underwoods, Rectories, Tithes, Rents, Reversions, Services, and other 
Hereditaments so to be by virtue of these Presents given, granted, set 
over, and alienated to the said Master, Wardens and Fellowship of 
Apothecaries, and their Successors, do not exceed in the whole the 
clear yearly value of Forty Pounds beyond all charges and reprizes, 
the Statute of Lands and Tenements, not to be sold in Mortmaine, 
or any other thing, cause, or matter whatsoever heretofore had, made, 
set forth, ordained, or provided, to the contrary hereof in any wise 
notwithstanding. 

We will also, and by these Present, for Us, our Heirs and 
Successors, do grant to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of 
the Art or Mystery of Apothecaries of the City of London aforesaid. 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON xxxvii 

and to their Successors, that the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants 
for the time being, and their Successors, or the greater part of them, 
for ever hereafter, shall and may nominate and elect one honest and 
fit Man, who shall be and be called the Common Clerk of the said 
Company; and that such Clerk chosen, before he be admitted to 
execute that Office, shall take his Corporal Oath before the Master and 
Wardens of the said Company for the time being, to execute the said 
Office uprightly and faithfully, according to his best knowledge and 
skill in all things touching that Office ; and that after such Oath taken, 
he may exercise the same Office as long as it shall please the Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants of the said Company for the time being, or 
the greater part of them, (whereof the Master of the said Art and 
Mystery for the time being. We will, shall be one). 

And moreover^ We will, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs 
and Successors, do grant to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellow- 
ship of the said Mystery of Apothecaries aforesaid, and to their 
Successors, that the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants for the 
time being, and their Successors, or the greater part of them, from 
time to time for ever, shall, and may nominate and elect, one apt and 
fit Man, which shall be and be called the Beadle of the said Company ; 
and such Beadle, so as aforesaid elected and chosen, before he be 
admitted to exercise that Office, shall take his Corporal Oath before 
the Master and Wardens of the said Company for the time being, to 
execute the same Office uprightly and faithfully, according to his best 
knowledge and skill in all things touching that Office ; and that after 
such Oath taken, he may execute and hold the same Office as long as 
it shall please the Master, Wardens and Assistants aforesaid, and their 
Successors for the time being, (whereof the Master of the said Art and 
Mystery for the time being, shall be one). 

And lastly, We will, and by these Presents do declare our Royal 
Intent to be, that these our Letters Patents, or any thing in them 
contained, be not to the prejudice of the President and College or 
Commonalty of the Physicians of the City of London, nor to take 
away, break, or make void, the Jurisdiction, Authority, Oversight, or 
Correction of the said President and College Commonalty and their 
Successors ; but that the said President and Commonalty of 
Physicians, and all and singular the Physicians of the same College 



xxxviii THE CHARTER OF THE SOCIETY OF 

or Commonalty, and their Successors, as also the Physicians to the 
King, Queen, or Prince, hereafter ought, as for their pleasure, may 
exercise the Art of Physic in all its parts ; and moreover, shall have use, 
and enjoy, and may and ought to have use, and enjoy the same, and 
like Jurisdiction, Authority, Oversight, and Correction, and all other 
Powers, Privileges, and Liberties, as at any time heretofore in 
Pharmacy they were used to have and enjoy ; and further, more 
generally all other Authorities, Privileges and Powers, whensoever and 
for whatsoever cause, before this time granted them by reason or 
pretext of any Letters Patents by Us, or any of our Progenitors, or by 
reason or pretext of any Act or Acts of Parliament, or any other 
lawful manner, to the said President, and College or Commonalty of 
Physicians, and their Successors, given, granted or confirmed. 

We will also, and ordain by these Presents, that in whatsoever 
cause the President and College of Physicians of the City of London 
aforesaid, shall have the search of the Medicines, calling to them some 
of the Society of Grocers, by virtue of an Act of Parliament, that in 
the same, and the like case, the President and College shall have, 
enjoy, and exercise the like Power and Authority, calling to them the 
Master and Wardens of the Apothecaries aforesaid; without that 
it shall at all be lawful for the said Physicians to call any of the 
Mystery of the Grocers aforesaid to any such search, anything in the 
said Statute to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. 

Provided also, That these our Letters Patents, or any thing therein 
granted or contained, shall not be prejudicial to our City of London, 
or the Liberties thereof, or in any wise to diminish or take away the 
Liberties, Franchises, Government, Jurisdiction or Customs of the 
same City. 

And lastly, We will and declare our intention to be, that expert and 
approved Chirurgions may exercise their Art and Faculty, and use and 
enjoy all and singular their proper practice, as much as belongeth and 
appertaineth to the Composition and application of outward Salves or 
Medicines only, so that they do not vend or expose to sale to others, 
such Salves or Medicines, according to the common manner of the 
Apothecaries of our City of London. 

And although express mention is not made in these Presents, of 
the true yearly value or certainty of the Premises, or of any or other 



APOTHECARIES OF LONDON 



XXXIX 



Gifts or Grants by Us, or any of our Progenitors or Ancestors, to the 
said Master, Wardens, and Society of the Mystery of Apothecaries of 
the City of London aforesaid, before this time had or made, or any 
Statute, Act, Ordinance, Provision, Proclamation, or Restriction to 
the contrary thereof before this time had, made, ordained, or provided, 
or any other matter, cause, or thing whatsoever in any wise notwith- 
standing. In testimony whereof, we have caused these our Letters 
to be made Patents. 

Witness Our Self at Westminster ^ the Sixth Day of December, in the 
Fifteenth Year of our Reign over England, &c. and of Scotland the 
One and Fiftieth. 



0^^,k^ i^^ 



kO^iuuH 







AUTOGRAPHS OF EARLY APOTHECARIES. 




CHAPTER I 



THE EARLY YEARS OF THE SOCIETY, 1617 to 1620 




HE Society, then, received a Charter of Incorpora- 
tion, as has been related, by which the Apothecaries 
were for ever separated from the Grocers. This 
Charter, however, was not received with universal 
approval, as I shall presently show. The first note 
of discontent seems to have been sounded from 
within the ranks of the Apothecaries themselves, certain of them 
objecting to separation from the Grocers. Through representations 
to the City authorities — if an otherwise undated paper of 1617 is to 
be taken as evidence — the enrolment of the Charter was delayed. A 
request was even made to the King through the Recorder of London 
on behalf of the Grocers' Company and of those Apothecaries who 
yet remained unseparated from them ; that he would reunite the 
Companies by a new Charter, with authority to reform abuses, or 
at least would not compel all Apothecaries to separate from the 
Grocers and join the new Company. A note of the inconveniences 
resulting from the new Charter was added, stating that " it disables 
an Ancient Corporation giving foreign Apothecaries the same Hcense 
as English and begets confusion in other Companies." 

James I. was not, however, to be baulked in his intentions, and 
forthwith despatched a letter addressed to the Mayor (not Lord 
Mayor), &c., of London. He recounts that he has recently granted a 
Charter to the Apothecaries to become a Company, for the sake of 
avoiding the abuses of unskilful persons, but understands that they 
refuse to enrol this Charter. He orders an immediate conformity and 
the establishment of the Company " in the free practice of govern- 



T-""" 



i^f^i^pp—— ■■atiiii..*,^* ■ 



2 APOTHECARIES 

ment/' Another paper contains notes of alleged losses sustained 
by the Company of Grocers on account of the separation of the 
Apothecaries from them. The Charter was then enrolled, and on 
December i6, 1617, the Master, Wardens, and certain of the Assistants 
named appeared at Gray's Inn before "Mr. Attorney-General, Mr. 
Dr. Atkins and Mr. Dr. Mayerne, the King's Phifcons," and took 
the requisite oaths, being "thereunto authorized under the Great 
Seal." 

The first Master was Edmond Phillipps, the first Wardens Stephen 

Higgins and Thomas Fownes. Of the twenty-one Assistants sixteen 

attended and took the oaths, five not appearing on that occasion. On 

the same day, Robert Metcalfe was elected Clerk and took the oaths. 

Where the Company was located in the earlier stage of its career is 

unknown ; history is silent as to its place of meeting. The Minute 

Books, which are perfect as far as they go, give the name of Christopher 

Bridges as the first freeman, and his admission is dated March 5,. 

1617-18. Twelve days later one Tobias Wincke was elected Beadle 

and took the oaths, and among the items of business transacted on 

that date is the settlement of the sums to be paid by Assistants 

" towards the charges of the Company.*' ;^20 each was the amount 

fixed — a considerable one in those days — Mr. Phillipps, the Master, and 

one of the Wardens, Mr. Fownes, voluntarily offered £'^0. Livery 

gowns were, on April 13th, ordered to be provided by the Assistants 

against the 6th of May, " faced with sattin and welted with velvett.'^ 

Four more Assistants were sworn in, but in two cases they were not 

men named in the Charter. This is probably to be accounted for by 

an unwillingness to take the oaths required by that document. The 

meetings of the Company were now mainly concerned with getting 

members to join. Its position was one of no little difficulty in this 

way. Incorporated without any endowment and practically given a 

monopoly, they were face to face with the unwillingness of those wha 

followed the trade of Apothecaries to compulsorily subscribe towards 

the establishment. These men had to be coerced into paying a fine to 

obtain permission to carry on their established business, and, moreover, 

to take certain stringent oaths, which in those days often proved 

conscientious stumbling-blocks. 

Quite early in the career of the Company we find men *' desiring 



THE EARLY YEARS OF THE SOCIETY 3 

time to consider about the oath. " Nor were the Grocers idle. That 
Company deeply resented having a limb lopped oflf, even though no 
portion of their endowment went with it. Before June 14, 1618, 
they had already forwarded a petition in the hope of getting the 
Apothecaries' Charter annulled. The contents of this petition were 
discussed at the Court Meeting of the Apothecaries on that date. Four 
days later it was decided that if Mr. Attorney-General should think 
fitting, an information should be preferred against those who opposed 
his Majesty's Charter — Mr. Attorney being first informed of the 
Grocers' petition and the "reference thereby." 

On June 28th the Ordinances of the Company were first read in 
presence of the Master, Mr. Higgins, Warden, and twelve of the 
Assistants. On the same day it was ordered that all the Company 
should have the new " Dispensatorie Troy weights." The first 
Election Day was then appointed for the 18th of August. 

The Election Day duly arrived, and the old Master and Wardens 
were continued in office for another year. New auditors were, 
however, appointed to succeed those temporarily occupying those 
posts. 

On September 9, 1618, the business of the Company really began, 
and a search for defective and bad medicines was made in London, 
Westminster, and Southwark. Divers persons were summoned to 
appear for having inferior and adulterated drugs and medicines in 
their shops, among them being one Hanck a Weaver. This man, as 
well as another by name Pelwell, on acknowledgment of their faults 
and incapacity to "make compositions," were ordered thereafter 
"neither to make nor to sell any more medicines." 

A month later the Court acted as mediator in a dispute between 
an Apothecary and his servant. 

On November 17th a schedule of all medicines belonging to the 
art of an Apothecary was ordered to be made, the duty of so doing 
being imposed on Messrs. Delaune, Darnelley, Parkinson, and Barton. 
A Hst of the names of those Apothecaries who had been ordered by 
the Master and Assistants of the Grocers' Company to pay any money 
to the Grocers' Hall was also called for, and the sums they or any of 
them had paid were to be appended to their names. A third list, and 
an important one, was also requested, viz., "of those who have taken 



4 APOTHECARIES 

the oath of an Apothecary, and of such as consent to the separation as 
well as of such as refuse the oath." 

On January i8, 1618-19, a chest with locks and keys was ordered 
to be immediately bought for the keeping of all writings belonging to 
the Company, and any documents which might hitherto have been 
in the custody of various members of the Court were to be delivered 
to the Master and Wardens within four days. Record here occurs of 
various disputes between masters and apprentices which were settled 
by the Court. On April 19, 1619, one of the Assistants (a very un- 
willing one), by name William Chukeley, was ordered to appear and 
show cause why he should not be removed from office for several 
contempts by him committed against the orders and ordinances made 
for the good government of the Company. This was evidently what 
he wanted, for he failed to appear, and henceforward his name never 
again occurs in the Minute Books. 

The petition forwarded by the Grocers to the Council to annul the 
Charter of the Apothecaries now occupied the attention of the Court. 
Copies of the answer of the Lord Chancellor to this petition were 
obtained, and were directed to be forwarded by the Master and 
Wardens of the Apothecaries to the Lord Steward, the rest of the 
Commissioners, the Merchants and the Physicians. Next the schedules 
and lists respecting those who had paid sums of money on demand to 
the Grocers, and of those who favoured the separation or refused the 
oaths, were ordered to be delivered to the Lord Chief Justice, to 
Mr. Attorney-General, the Merchants and the Physicians. 

The hearing of the matter was appointed for an early date. That, 
however, Chukeley was the only dissentient Assistant seems unlikely, 
for at this very juncture it became needful to appoint two new 
Assistants. On July 27, 1619, a curious entry concerns a man who 
belonged to the Skinners Company. He was an Apothecary by trade, 
and was ordered to take up his freedom. He appeared before the 
Master and Wardens, but craved respite for one week "to take his 
leave of the Company of Skinners." This date is an important one in 
the history of the Society, as marking its earliest examination. One 
William Whitwell, an apprentice, who had served his full time, desired 
to take up his freedom. Examined by the Master and Wardens, he was 
dismissed till he can give better proof of his sufficiencie to exercise 



u 



THE EARLY YEARS OF THE SOCIETY 5 

the Arte of an Apothecarie." Examinations and rejections for 
insufficiency are now of frequent occurrence in the Minute Books. 
In some cases when '*not found passable" candidates were ordered 
to serve as journeymen for another year and then to present themselves 
for re-examination. Much inconvenience at the Courts was even at 
this time felt by the non-attendance of Assistants after due warning, in 
consequence of which the business was often at a standstill. To 
remedy this condition of things a fine of 2s. 6d. was decreed to be 
strictly imposed for absence after due warning, unless a valid excuse 
could be made. 

On October 7, 1619, a certain Nicholas Mabbs was made free of 
the Company by virtue of an order of the Court of Aldermen, he 
paying a fine for the time of his apprenticeship yet unexpired. It 
may be noted that at the usual August Election the old Master, Mr. 
Phillipps, was continued in office, but the Wardens were changed, 
Messrs. Bacon and Darnelley being elected. For several meetings 
the Court was now occupied with the punishment of persons convicted 
of selling corrupt medicines, and also in composing the differences 
between masters and journeymen or apprentices. The case of one 
Eason, a frequent offender in the way of selling bad drugs and 
making compositions "without public viewe," was met by fines 
amounting to ;^6 13s. 4d. His bad medicines, " Methridatie " and 
" London Treacle," were seized and destroyed privately. The usual 
custom was to burn them publicly before the door of the culprit. Mr. 
Eason, bad offender though he was, a few weeks later, had no less 
than ;^6 13s. of his fines remitted ; why, it is hard to say. Another 
case was peculiar; it was that of John Wilkinson, formerly apprenticed 
to Mr. Hide, a grocer. Wilkinson served three or four years of his 
time and then procured the freedom of the Drapers Company by way 
of redemption. Next he started an Apothecary's shop, where he both 
made and sold medicines ; as the Clerk in the Minute Book gravely 
adds : " contrary to his Majesty's Charter and Ordinances." Wilkin- 
son was called before the Court, and asked whether he would submit 
himself to " such order as they should make concerning him, and 
conform himself thereunto." The offender point-blank refused. How- 
ever, he thought better of it, and two months later offered himself for 
examination, and petitioned to be allowed to take up his freedom as 



6 APOTHECARIES 

an Apothecary. He was examined and was found "insufficient to use 
the Arte," but with a clemency hardly to be expected after his 
previous contempt, was encouraged to try again, "as he seemed 
desirous to be tietter informed." Often in cases of dispute we find 
recalcitrant apprentices and journeymen "stoutlie refusing" to 
acknowledge the authority of the Company or to submit to its 
orders. Truly the position of the Court of the young corporate 
body was in its early days not one of unmixed bliss. 

On April 6, 1620, we find the Company far enough advanced in 



TheTIRNS of rte. SOCrETY:- 

position to feel a desire for Arms of Community, and the Master and 
Wardens are empowered to give the fees " they shall think fitt to the 
Harrolds for the Armes of the Companie, and to provide a Common 
Coate." A Royal Proclamation forbidding the compounding of 
medicines within seven miles of London {a Proclamation confirmatory 
of the Charter), without " viewe " of the Apothecaries, was now about 
to be made, and the Master and Wardens, together with three 
Assistants, viz., Messrs. Fownes, Parkinson, and Sheriffe, are ap- 
pointed to meet at " Mr. Phillipps his house," about nine of the clock 
to discuss the matter. This Proclamation duly appeared a few months 



THE EARLY YEARS OF THE SOCIETY 7 

later and confirmed the clause in the Charter, specially mentioning 
that the medicines were to be according to the Pharmacopeia 
Londinensis. From this document it would seem that the differences 
between the Apothecaries and the Grocers had, for a time at least, been 
settled, as a recent decision in Chancery, composing these differences, 
is ordered to be observed. 

On April 20, 162c, Mr. John Woolf (? Woolfgang) Rumbler, his 
Majesty's Apothecary, having obtained from the King a monopoly for 
the making of " Mercurie Sublimate," became a suitor to the Court of 
Assistants to consent that he might, "without their contradiction," 
enjoy the same. This the Court, " upon advised consideration," refused 
to grant, in regard to the breach it might make in their Charter. Yet 
the whole Court acknowledges that the said Mr. Woolf (the 
remainder of his name is at this period often left out of the 
Minutes) is well deserving of the Company. Some elaborate experi- 
ments with regard to sublimating mercury are to be met with later in 
the Minutes. They are, however, far too lengthy to quote. 

In this year, 1620, the general Search Day was appointed for 
the " Thursday after Whitsun week," and the Company was ordered 
to meet "at Paules at five in the morning at furthest." Truly the 
seventeenth-century Apothecaries set about their business betimes I 

At the annual election of Master and Wardens held on August 25, 
1620, the old Master, Mr. Phillipps, was continued in office, the 
new Wardens being Thomas Fownes and John Parkinson. The 
accounts for this year were then audited, the total receipts being 
;^5i 15s. 6d. This is interesting as showing how terribly impecu- 
nious the Company was, and what struggles of a monetary nature 
it had for its existence. Indeed, unless some of its wealthy members 
had lent sums of money on the sealed bonds of the Company for 
repayment, it is impossible to see how the whole Society could have 
been saved from collapse. Having for the time been delivered from 
the opposition of the Grocers' Company, the Society of Apothecaries 
now initiated a campaign against the Distillers, who were then 
agitating for a Charter of incorporation. The grant of this Charter 
the Apothecaries determined to prevent if possible. On October 
12th, the Master, Wardens, and a number of Assistants met at the 
Master's house to concert measures to this effect. They began 



8 APOTHECARIES 

by setting down "such doubts touching the Reformacon of Abuses 
committed by the makers and distillers of hott waters and the makers 
of emplastors and conserves." It was decided to take the advice of 
Mr. Heneage Finch, and their attorney, Mr. Stone. The case was 
this : — By Charter, the Apothecaries laid claim to the sole right of 
distilling within the City and for seven miles round. The Distillers 
demurred to this and declared the Charter only applied to medicinal 
distillation. To settle the question they, therefore, petitioned for 
a Charter of incorporation. Early in the next year a Bill was 
prepared for the relief of the distillers of "Aqua Vitae and Aqua 
Composita" from the penalties and impeachments of the Apothe- 
caries' Company, who "avail themselves of some words in their 
patent to threaten the suppression of the Distillers." Wiser, and 
indeed cheaper, would it have been for the Society to have left 
the Distillers in peace. On the first breath of opposition, back to 
the charge came the Grocers, and petitioned the House of Commons 
for the revocation of the patent separating the Apothecaries from 
them and incorporating the former so that they had the* sole privilege 
of selling drugs, " composing " receipts, and distilling "waters." The 
petitioners go on to state that the patent was procured by " indirect 
means," that it contains several illegal clauses, that it proves injurious 
to Grocers and other Companies, and to the vendors of distilled waters. 
The document winds up with the announcement that the late Lord 
Chancellor EUesmere refused to seal the patent as long as he lived ; 
but that it was done only by the present Lord Chancellor. A list 
of detailed objections is annexed to this paper. This dispute, to the 
manifest disquiet of the Company, lasted for several years before it was 
finally settled. For this reason it will be better here to continue the 
domestic history of the Apothecaries in its chronological sequence, 
resuming, as occasion needs, further mention of the Distillers. It will 
be remembered that one, John Wilkinson, formerly apprenticed to a 
grocer, and afterwards a freeman of the Drapers' Company, had 
applied for the freedom of the Apothecaries. His application was 
entertained, but, on examination, being found insufficient in his "Art," 
he was declined. More than once this application was renewed, and, 
for various reasons, failed in its object. Finally, on October 26, 
1620, on payment of a fine of ;^5o, the man received his Apothecary 



THE EARLY YEARS OF THE SOCIETY 9 

freedom and was permitted (with a proviso) to open business. It 
appears that he designed to enter into partnership with an established 
apothecary. The proviso, as recorded in the Minute Books, runs as 
follows : " That if he shall leave or give over his partnership within 
the yeare, then he shall receive such a suiS&cient journeyman as the 
Court of Assistants shall allow of, and give unto him such yearly 
allowance as this Society shall think meete." 

Several Courts at this time were occupied in soothing the ruffled 
feelings of two prominent Assistants, viz., Mr. Higgins (one of the first 
Wardens) and Mr. Darnelley. The first two had quarrelled over some 
paltry matter and had mutually given utterance to very hard words. 
They were called upon to appear and submit themselves to the judg- 
ment of the Court. They did so, and were enjoined to live hereafter 
in peace and charity as becoming brethren. This, however,, did not 
satisfy either party and, despite the injunction to "continue long 
friends as brethren of one company ought to do," it became needful 
to take further measures. The Company, therefore, threatened to 
make a certificate against the first which renewed the strife, "that 
he was an obstinate, contentious, and troublesome person" ; but 
wisely, in addition, decreed the imposition of a fine as a punish- 
ment. Darnelley then wrote to Mr. Phillipps, the Master, a kind of 
apologetic letter, in which he averred that as Mr. Higgins was free 
from all imputations and objections wherewith he had charged him 
either by word or on paper, he also shall be declared free, and that 
if either hereafter renewed the difference a fine of ;^io should be 
imposed. This was solemnly agreed to, and the unpleasant incident 
was supposed to have terminated. The amusing part of the matter is 
that in the Minute Book, though all of this is recorded at length, the 
original cause of dispute is unnamed I A later entry, however, shows 
us that the matter was reconsidered. Evidently the reconciliation was 
hollow and the fine of ;^io not esteemed enough. It was, therefore, 
increased to ;^2o, with a disqualification for ever holding office 
attached as an addition. This was effectual. Two or three entries 
in October and November need notice. One is that all freemen were 
ordered to bring a copy of their freedom for inspection. Strange, 
this, seeing that all were duly registered. The second marks the 
beginning of a custom, which for years obtained, viz., that of 



lo APOTHECARIES 

presenting the Company, on taking up freedom, with a silver or 
silver-gilt spoon. The first three gifts were those of Henry Parker, 
son of John Parker, a " silver spoone parcel guilt " ; of Thomas 
Clarke, servant (journeyman) to William Clarke, a " guilt spoone " ; 
and of George Symmes, servant to Mr. Phillipps, a "guilt spoone." 
For years, in fact for a century, this custom, with but few exceptions, 
obtained. Where are they now? Some I have traced as melted 
down or sold to be converted into other plate, but of the fate of 
hundreds — several hundreds — there is no trace whatever. Sometimes, 
though rarely, sums of money were given in lieu, the largest being 
20S., though the more ordinary payment was 13s. 4d. Plate at 
times was sold when pecuniary troubles weighed heavily on the 
Company, but the records of the sales are scanty and the beautiful 
and valuable cups, tankards, " monteiths," bowls, &c., are non-existent 
in these latter days, nor is there even one spoon of antiquity in 
evidence. On November 2nd a certain Mr. Abraham Hugobert was 
fined for not presenting an apprentice. This seems to have annoyed 
the Court, for on the next applicant, a Mr. Garrett, presenting an 
apprentice a few minutes later, the luckless youth was examined, 
found insufficient, and thereupon his intending master was ordered 
" to turn him away." It would appear that applicants had been in the 
habit of privately canvassing the Assistants for their "voices" at the 
meetings, and this malpractice was met by the imposition of a fine of 
;^io. Secrecy in the matters deliberated on by the Court of Assist- 
ants at their meetings was, in the then state of affairs as it is now, most 
desirable, and such secrecy does not seem to have been maintained. 
At any rate it was found needful to impose a penalty of 40s. on 
any member who was detected in the indiscretion of chattering 
about the private affairs of the Company. We have now reached 
the month of December, 1620, and the Apothecaries were still meeting 
in some unknown house or Hall. Their business and corporate 
importance were increasing, though slowly, and it was eminently 
needful that they should have a Hall of their own. Accordingly the 
question of purchasing or renting premises was raised. The Master 
and Wardens were empowered to "bargain with the owner of the 
house wherein one, Mr. Atkinson, lately dwelt in Foster Lane," for 
the dwelling, in order that "the said house shall be converted into 



THE EARLY YEARS OF THE SOCIETY ii 

a Hall for this Company/' every member of the Company being called 
upon to contribute such sums towards the "purchase of the said 
house and the repairing thereof as the greater number of the 
Assistants shall think meete." 

And now a demand was made on the City of London for no less 
a sum than ;^io,ooo, to be paid into the Exchequer "for the aid and 
relief of the Palatinate." To this the Apothecaries were called upon 
to contribute and to furnish ;^20, a sum they could ill afford, having 
in view the purchase of a Hall. However, they paid with what grace 
they might, and then proceeded to form a committee to carry 
through their purchase. The next entry tells us that the Master and 
Wardens were ordered " to appoint a sufficient person to ride to 
Mr. Trappe, who shall bargain with him for the inheritance of 
his house in Foster Lane, wherein Mr. Atkinson dwelt." The 
irrepressible Mr. Higgins now appears again, and in an unpleasant, 
or at any rate troublesome, way. He made demands on the Company, 
alleging that he was entitled to certain moneys. The matter was 
referred to a committee of six, three chosen by the Master and 
Wardens, and three by Higgins. After some negotiation the affair 
was settled satisfactorily, though the details are not given. 



CHAPTER II 

1621 TO SEPTEMBER, 1623 

now fresh troubles, and this time from without, 

ireatened the Society. Their Charter, evidently 

ill unpopular in the City, was again to be assailed, 

id it became needful to concert measures to en- 

iavour to obtain from Parliament a confirmation 

of both Charter and Corporation, Accordingly Mr. 

Heneage Finch was ordered to draw a Bill to be preferred to the 

High Court of Parhament for confirmation of the Charter, and as 

many of the Assistants as could conveniently, were likewise enjoined 

to meet at the Master's house to consult together on this weighty 

matter. At the same time they were to be furnished with copies of 

the "Bills and printed briefs preferred to the House by the Physicians, 

Chirurgeons, and the Distillers." Meanwhile it was felt that there 

ought to be some security against the misappropriation of the "plate, 

jewels, &c.," of the Company, and from this date forward the Masters 

and Wardens were required to enter severally into bonds with two 

sureties for its preservation. These bonds amounted to ^^20 each at 

first, though the sum was later greatly increased, and these were duly 

sealed, after which they were delivered into the custody of one of the 

Assistants, by name, Mr. Bacon. 

The negotiations for the purchase of the house in Foster Lane 
meanwhile had progressed. Mr. Stone, the attorney, and a Mr. 
Thomas Crewe, or failing him, a Mr. Cason, were ordered to draw the 
conveyance. Next, several of the Assistants were sent forth to collect 
subscriptions from the freemen of the Company according to rank. 
For this purpose the city was divided into three walks. One party 



i62l TO SEPTEMBER, 1623 13 

visited the east from the " hither part of Lombard Street," others went 
between that and Ludgate, while a third worked from Ludgate west- 
wards. Many refusals to contribute were, however, met with, and the 
money came in but slowly in sums varying from 40s. to £2^. One, 
a Mr. Butler, agreed to pay " 40s. on Saturday next and 40s. at mid- 
summer next." But all were not alike. Prominent members came 
forward handsomely, some giving sums of from ;^5 to ;^io outright, 
others offering to lend ;^5o for a year or more. 

Meanwhile, the lawyers had been at work on the purchase of the 
house, and it would appear that they had either discovered some flaw in 
title or some difficulty. An entry dated February 20, 1620-21, runs as 
follows : "Ordered that Mr. Stone shall be entreated to set down in 
writing how the Record in the Exchequer for the Tenant in Capite of 
Mr. Trappe his house in ffoster Lane may be avoided and how we may 
safely proceed in the purchase thereof notwithstanding the said 
record." Whereupon " his opinion is to be shewed to Mr. Recorder 
(Heneage Finch), Mr. Sason, and Mr. Thomas Crewe according to 
which advice we shall provide or give over that purchase." 

March i, 1620-21, shows us a Committee of Assistants, viz., Messrs. 
Delaune, Darnelley, Barton, Cooke, Lamere, Edwards, and Sheriffe in 
earnest consultation at the house of Mr. Fownes, the object of the 
meeting being to try and arrive at conclusive reasons by which Parlia- 
ment might be induced not to pass the Distillers' Bill then before the 
House. Added to this they debated how, having attained this object, 
they might succeed in obtaining the passing of their own Bill. 

The difficulty with the "Tener in Capite," so called in the Minutes, 
seems, pro tem.f to have been surmounted, at any rate the promised sub- 
scriptions to the purchase of the hall were peremptorily called in. 
This entry is dated April 5, 1621, but apparently some further hitch 
occurred, for within two months the whole idea of buying this 
property was abandoned. On July 12th the Master and Wardens were 
empowered to look out for another property, and by August 8th their 
decision was arrived at. This was no other than to rent at a cost 
of ;^io per annum the Hall of the Paynter-Stainers, an arrangement 
which was duly carried out, and at this Hall the Company of the 
Apothecaries transacted all their business till they purchased their pre- 
sent estate in Water Lane. It will be remembered that ;^io,ooo had 



14 APOTHECARIES 

been demanded as a loan from the city, and that the proportion 
allotted to the Company amounted to £20 only. This sum does not 
seem to have met with the approval of the Lords of the Council. The 
Grocers, ready to do their foes a good turn, represented that the sum 
was altogether small. In this they were backed up by the Court of 
Aldermen. The latter assessed the Grocers and Apothecaries together 
at ;^500, and of this the Grocers contributed ;^300, leaving the 
impecunious Apothecaries to furnish the remainder. The Apothecaries, 
in the first instance, refused, pointing out that they had no funds on 
which to draw ; next they petitioned the Lords to approve of their first 
payment of ;^2o and to disallow the exorbitant demand of the Grocers. 
Eventually, however, the money had to be found. The whole trans- 
action shows the curious intrigues which were rife in the City in those 
days, days so soon to be even more troublous. 

At the Election Court held on August 23, 1621, the first business 
was to order that the money hitherto subscribed for the purchase of 
a Hall should be held in trust, pro tern., by the Master and Wardens for 
the time being, until such period as a suitable estate could be obtained. 
Mr. Higgins was then elected Master and accepted the office, but 
Messrs. Darnelley and Wells, elected Upper and Under Wardens re- 
spectively, both refused office. In these days the Junior Warden was 
designated " Under Warden," the term "Renter" not yet having come 
into use. At a subsequent election Mr. Wells and Mr. Colwell were 
chosen for the vacant offices and accepted the trust. 

A minute, erased, points to some dispute (the first) as to pre- 
cedence among the Assistants. It runs as follows : " Ordered that 
every of the Assistants shall take place according to the antiquity of 
being freemen and housekeepers or according to the offices they have 
borne in the Company." So ambiguous an order and one so likely to 
lead to strife might well be expunged. Two very vague entries now 
occur relating to the drawing of petitions (subjects unmentioned) to 
be presented to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen. A third 
entry dated November 3rd announces that the Company should submit 
to the judgment of the Court of Aldermen, and that a petition should 
be drawn to that purpose and duly presented by the Master, Wardens, 
and Messrs. Phillipps, Fownes, and Darnelley. Mr. Robert Metcalfe, 
the clerk, cannot be complimented on the lucidity of his entries in 



i62i TO SEPTEMBER, 1623 15 

the Minute Books at this period. On December 3rd the Bill drawn 
by the Apothecaries was ordered to be delivered to Mr. Speaker 
"without taking any further advice of learned counsel." The men 
of the law had apparently wearied the Company by the length 
of their deliberations. 

It will be remembered that the subscriptions towards the purchase 
of a Hall had been entrusted to the Master and Wardens. This 
arrangement on December 20th was allowed, and an order was made 
that it should be '* placed at the disposal of and employed for the good 
of the Company in such manner as a Court of Assistants shall think 
fit; and the Assistants then present did undertake to be answerable for 
the same money at any time hereafter when there shall be occasion to 
purchase a Hall for the Company." This was decided in open court, 
but " when the younger brethren had departed " the seniors agreed 
and ordered that " so much money shall be presently paid in discharge 
of the debts of the Company as may conveniently be spared." This 
entry reads as if this cash came out of the subscriptions, but a later 
extract shows such not to have been the case. It was only another 
muddle made by the Clerk. On January 16, 1621-22, one of the 
Assistants, a Mr. Parkinson, who had for some time owed ;^22 to the 
Company, was asked for the debt. Failing payment, a demand was 
made on his sureties, one Mr. Ray and another. This brought the 
debtor to book, and he duly appeared on January 28th, when, to quote 
the Minute Book, he did " earnestly request and entreat the Court that 
he might have leave and give over the said place of Assistant and that 
some other fit man might be elected into his place. Whereunto this 
Court for divers good considerations them thereunto moving con- 
sented, and therefor having well considered of divers good offices by 
him done for the good of the Company, they were contented to allow 
and did allow unto him for his pains taken for his Company the sum 
of ;£22, being as much as he heretofore paid when he came to be an 
Assistant of this Company. Which he hath now received, and hath 
thereupon promised to do hereafter the best he can for the good of 
this Company as often as he shall be by this Court reguarded there- 
unto. And it is further ordered that the bond formerlie entered into 
to the Company in the custody of Mr. Bacon, shall be delivered unto 
Mr. Park'' This is a good specimen of the clear style of Mr. Robert 



i6 APOTHECARIES 

Metcalfe, clerk to the Apothecaries. On this occasion Mr. Darnelley 
paid a fine of £20 for refusing to hold the place of Upper Warden. 

A curious case between the wife of an Apothecary and her hus- 
band's apprentice, one James Pitman, occurs in January of this year. 
The woman sent the apprentice to fetch three pails of water. The lad 
brought two and refused to carry more. Whereupon she told him to 
bring the third or be gone. Thereupon the apprentice went away 
from the house. A witoess who was called before the Court of 
Assistants proved that the apprentice had hitherto been of good 
character, understood his business as far as he had learned, and was 
willing and obliging. The Court decreed that the lad's master should 
receive him back again, treat him well, and instruct him in his trade. 
The apprentice was admonished to still continue in his good behaviour, 
and the master, should he refuse to submit to the Court, was sentenced 
to repay " x^, being part of xx marks which he had received " with 
the apprentice, and moreover to turn the latter over to another 
master. 

On February 5, 1621, the Company decided to draft a Bill in the 
Star Chamber against certain persons whose names are given. The 
Bill was to be presented before the end of term, and the counsel to be 
employed were Sir Henry Yelverton and Mr. Rudlon. Thanks to 
Mr. Metcalfe, we are not informed of the object of these pro- 
ceedings. 

By the Ordinances of the Company it would appear that no member 
was allowed to take legal proceedings against any other member or 
members without leave from the Court. An entry dated February 14, 
1621-22, shows this, and is as follows: "Ordered that if John 
Wilkinson, a brother of this Company, shall not upon notice hereof 
stay a suit which he hath commenced in the Sheriflf's Court against 
Thomas Lorde, a brother of this Company for a pretended debt of ;^5, 
due as he says for rose-water and drugs, then the said Wilkinson shall 
pay a fine of 50s. imposed on him for prosecuting the said suit with- 
out leave of the Master and Wardens, contrary to the Ordinances in 
that behalf made and approved by the Lord Chancellor, the Lord 
Treasurer, and the Lord Chief Justice of England." At this time a 
very litigious member of the Company, one Mr. Eason, occupied 
many Courts with the settlement of disputes he had with various 



i62i TO SEPTEMBER, 1623 17 

brethren. In most cases he was adjudged to be wrong, but in one 
the other party, a man named Sewell, did not appear after summons 
by the Beadle, and hence Eason was given leave to proceed at law for 
the recovery of ;^5. 

The King had now endeavoured to strengthen the position of the 
Company by means of a proclamation, and had also endeavoured 
to put an end to the dispute between the Apothecaries and the Grocers. 
He referred the matter to certain Lords Commissioners, and their 
decision (though what it was is not stated) is ordered to be enrolled 
by the Company. 

Mention is again made of the Star Chamber affair, and in a rather 
curious way. It seems that the Company were pressing their suit, 
but that the proceedings against " one " are to be stayed " upon the 
signification of the Lord Keeper's pleasure by Mr. Doctor Moore," and 
and Dr. Moore is entreated to acquaint the Lord Keeper thereof. 
The entries at this period are of particular interest. Various subscrip- 
tions to the Hall are promised ; certain apprentices take up their 
freedom after examination, and are permitted, with not a few restric- 
tions, to open business on their own account ; and two makers and 
sellers of bad medicines, viz. Mr. Garrett at the sign of the Three 
Cocks in Southwark and Mr. Thomas Pimble at the Crane in the 
same district are brought to book and punished by fine and confisca- 
tion. An order dated May 14, 1622, empowers Mr. Colwell to deliver 
to the Clerk of the Company forthwith so much money as shall defray 
the charges of the " Star Chamber suit against Groyn and the rest " for 
this term, and he is to pay to Mr. Bryan Giddall the sum of 17s. 

Domestic business occupied the Courts during the months of June, 
July and August. No entry is of importance save that Mr. Delaune is 
excused from paying " hereafter as a forrayner." The fine for holding 
the place of Assistant was fixed at ;^30, the penalty for not holding at 
£6 13s. 4d. Several refusals to take the oaths required by the Charter 
both by freemen and others appear. In most cases time was asked 
for consideration, and the oaths were subsequently taken, spoons 
being duly presented. 

At the election held on August 28, 1622, John Woolf was by a 
majority (the first notice this of more than one candidate) elected 
Master ; the Wardens being Mr. Barton and Mr. Harryes. Hitherto 

3 






i8 APOTHECARIES 

all the apprentices bound had been Londoners, but on September 
26th a countryman makes his appearance. He was George Payte, son 
of Robert Payte, of Lichfield, Staffordshire. Two boys brought to 
be bound apprentices were examined at the same court, and were both 
found defective in learning ; one was entirely dismissed, the other 
referred back to his studies for a month. The Company now had 
some trouble with a former Warden, Mr. Colwell. The latter con- 
fessed to owing the Society ;^8 2s. lod., and was ordered to pay it 
to Mr. Harryes in public, otherwise the clerk was directed to apply to 
his sureties for payment and put his bond in suit. Mr. Colwell was 
also required to publicly produce the accounts of his Wardenship, 
and to submit himself to the Court. He appears to have refused, for 
by a later order the Clerk is commanded to proceed by " due peine of 
law " against the debtor. This affair caused a change in the security 
given by the Wardens. Hitherto they had only been obliged to give 
bonds for the safety of the plate and jewels ; now these bonds were 
increased, and they became answerable also for the stock of the Com- 
pany. A reward of 30s. for " special service " was in October given 
to Tobias Wincke, the Beadle. 

Here, for the first time, we find a Deputy Master appointed who 
was to act in the absence of the Master. Two names are given, 
both of them Past Masters, viz., Mr. Phillipps and Mr. Higgins, and 
either of them was to serve if required. 

Against the admission of Thomas Baker of Clerkenwell Close to 
the freedom of the Company is the entry " he gave no spoone." 

On November 13, 1622, one William Compton was elected an Assis- 
tant, and refused either to serve or to pay a fine of " xx nobles." He, 
however, desired fourteen days' respite, and "he would give his farther 
answer what he will do, and said withal that he will first speak with 
the Grocers, which was granted." 

The same day a certain Caleb Stevens, four times warned for some 
unstated offence, is ordered to be fined " as deepe as the Ordinances 
will maintain." Mr. Caleb Stevens duly appeared on the 14th of 
November and flatly refused to pay his fine, but pressure being put on 
him he unconditionally surrendered December 5th. His fine, which 
should have been a heavy one, was then reduced to a nominal sum, 
viz. 5s., in discharge of all contempts. 



i62i TO SEPTEMBER, 1623 19 

On December 19th, among four apprentices who took up their 
freedom, the name of one Jeffrey Bradshaw has the following note 
appended to his admission, "received by Mr. Attorney General his 
letter, paid only the fine of 4s. 8d. for all and no more." 

At the same Court the Warden, Mr. Harryes, was appointed " to 
buy a sugar loafe and to send the same as a guifte from the Company 
to Mr. Clarke Cotton, the Registrar of the Star Chamber Office." A 
curious entry this, but sugar was precious in those days. 

The money advanced at the time of the Incorporation by various 
members of the Company upon bonds was now gradually being 
paid off, and entries of bonds delivered up to be cancelled are 
of frequent occurrence. The total amount redeemed amounted to 
several hundred pounds. All cancelled bonds were to be filed and 
entered into the Court Book. Mr. Phillipps, the first Master, and 
one of the Deputy Masters is now mentioned as " absent and sicklie." 

On January 21, 1622, the Ordinances were ordered to be *' fairlie 
engrossed " and entered in a book. 

It was now wisely determined to endeavour to establish cordial 
relations with the Court of Aldermen, for which purpose Mr. Garrett 
was retained as counsel to go to the Lord Mayor and desire his lord- 
ship to take the Company into his protection in order that such 
refractory persons as disobey the ordinances and government of the 
Company may be punished. 

Mr. Phillipps, having recovered, was appointed sole Deputy Master 
by an order signed J. Rumler. This shows that Mr. Woolf of the 
election entry should have been J. Woolfgang Rumler, the King's 
Apothecary, a man already heard of in connection with the monopoly 
for making sublimate of mercury. It would appear that the order for 
providing gowns had been but loosely obeyed, for three of the 
original Assistants, viz. Lamere, Delaune, and Fownes are commanded 
forthwith to provide themselves with the regulation garments, " faced 
with sattin and >yelted with velvett." Others of the Court whose gowns 
were not according to pattern were ordered to have those which they 
wore immediately "translated and made suy teable unto the description 
of the said order." 

On the Search Day, Tuesday, February 18, 1622, the President of 
the College of Physicians is for the first time noted as accompanying 



20 APOTHECARIES 

the Apothecaries. Various captures of bad medicines were made, 
and the offenders (some of whom pleaded ignorance) were duly fined, 
Mr. Eason among the number. From an entry of this same date it 
appears that the wages of a journeyman who had, after taking up his 
freedom, entered into his former master's service, was ;^8 per annum. 
On May 2, 1623, three grocers, by name W. Stanlake, J. Brigham, and 
H. Chitty, of Westminster, came to the court and "desired that they 
might be dispensed withall to sell Conserve of Barbary, Conserve of 
Roses, a preparation of ginger and some other drugs," all of which were 
mentioned in the schedule of the Apothecaries, but which the Grocers 
are forbidden to sell by patent. The Master, Wardens, and Court 
answered that it was not in their power to alter anything that was 
formerly concluded by the Lords Commissioners and already ex- 
emplified under the Great Seal. To this the Grocers replied that they 
would then go to the hearing of the cause in the Star Chamber, rather 
than put in bonds according to the Lord Keeper's order. This throws 
a little light on the Star Chamber suit, though the exact point at issue 
does not appear ; still it must have concerned the Grocers. 

It has been noted that Delaune was a foreigner — and this fact led 
to the issue of two interesting papers. The first is the petition of the 
Master and Wardens of the Apothecaries to the King, and bears date 
April 9, 1623. Therein they beg a letter of recommendation to the 
Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen that Delaune should be made 
free of the City. Delaune, they state, was already an Assistant of their 
Company, and likely in time to become Master. As Master, being 
an alien and not free of the City, " differences " might arise the which 
would be best avoided. 

In compliance with this petition the King wrote to the Lord Mayor, 
etc. of IvOndon, requesting that Gideon Delaune, in consideration of 
faithful service to the late Queen Anne (he had been her apothecary), 
may be made a free man, which, as he is a stranger born, cannot be 
done without an Act of Common Council. The Court acquiesced and 
Delaune was given his freedom, but the effect of this act cropped up 
later in a very curious way, as will be read hereafter. 

Mr. Colwell, after an interval of several months having been 
allowed him for reflection and submission, was now dealt with. He 
had been chosen Warden in August, 1621, and had had money and 



i62i TO SEPTEMBER, 1623 21 

goods belonging to the Company committed to his charge. For 
some of these he had accounted ; but for others he had refused 
or neglected to account. While Warden he had been wilfully absent 
from the greater part of the Courts, thereby delaying business. As 
an Assistant he had been equally lax in attendance. He had detained 
money due to the Company — money to that time yet unpaid. He was 
consequently dismissed from serving in any office whatsoever. But 
at this time, May, 1623, the Court of Assistants was by no means full, 
and an election was ordered — Mr. William Clapham, Mr, Wheatley, 
and Mr. Christie being elected. That there were vacancies is hardly 
to be wondered at. The Company was as yet not six years old. It 
was in its operations sadly hampered for want of funds, and for nearly 
the whole of this period had been engaged in a severe struggle 
to maintain its Charter, and in suits at law with those who infringed 
or were held to infringe on the rights given by that Charter. Whether 
defending itself or attacking others the cost was great, and this cost 
fell mainly upon the Court of Assistants, who either supplied the 
funds as a gift — a sort of forced gift — or felt themselves constrained 
to lend money on the questionable security of the Company's bonds. 
A new solicitor, by name Mr. Thomas Hudson, was, with the 
Clerk, now employed to push on the Company's business in the Star 
Chamber. Lists of the names of those persons employed by various 
traders in compounding medicines were ordered to be procured in 
order that proceedings might be taken. Researches were instituted 
and several offenders pulled up and fined. Mr. Wheatley, the 
new assistant, among others was charged with making *'Theraica 
Londinensis." He offered to take oath that he was ignorant of the 
ordinance against making medicines "without viewe." To this the 
Court replied that had he attended as he ought the meeting when the 
ordinances were read, he would not have been ignorant. Hence they 
fined him 30s. All these matters gave the Beadle extra duty, and he 
was duly rewarded by a payment from Mr. Warden Harryes of 30s., 
the new solicitor receiving a fee of ids. The Beadle also obtained 
payment for certain small sums disbursed by him in the interests of 
the Company, and had an addition of £io extra made to his pay. 
Mr. Hudson's fee for acting in the Star Chamber was fixed at 13s. 4d. 
per term. Truly this was not a high rate of recompense. On June 



22 APOTHECARIES 

9th one Thomas Thrale, who was presented by Roger Harry Young 
to be bound apprentice, was examined and found " defective in his 
schollershipp/' but " a moneth or tyme longer to keepe him at his 
booke " is granted, and the boy is then to ht presented anew. It is 
worth note that this man with one exception is the only person men- 
tioned in the minute books for a century who possessed more than a 
single Christian name. On the Election Day, August 28, 1623, Richard 
Bacon was elected Master, Adam Barton Upper, and John Sheppard 
Under Warden. A call was made of 40s. per man among the 
Assistants on September 18, 1623, to meet the expenses of the Star 
Chamber suit against the Grocers. 




CHAPTER III 

LEGAL TROUBLES AND ATTACKS ON THE SOCIETY 

UT a new danger threatened the Company, and this 
was even more serious than those which had gone 
before. The Mayor and Corporation entered into 
direct communication with the King with a view 
to obtaining the abrogation of the Apothecaries' 
Charter. A letter from Conway to Solicitor 
General Heath, dated May 25, 1624, tells us how the King met 
the civic authorities and explained to them that he passed the 
patent to the Apothecaries Company "from his own judgement 
for the health of his people, knowing that grocers are not competent 
judges of the practice of medicine." He further gave them plainly 
to understand that he was resolved to make good his well-founded 
act, and his intentions are to be made known to the Speaker. 
His Majesty was determined to preserve his proper right to care 
for the good of his people. This reference to the Speaker is 
easily explained. As early as March it was known to the Company 
that the granting of their Charter was about to form one of a list of 
grievances, the redress of which the House of Commons had it in 
contemplation to demand from the King. Alarmed, and not unnatu- 
rally, the Company sought the advice of the Attorney General in the 
first instance, but failing him they appealed to Sergeant Headley, who 
together with Mr. Gerrard and Mr. John Finch they retained as counsel 
to defend their interests. A consultation took place, which was 
attended by the Master and Wardens, and it was decided to draw up 
and print a brief of the matters in dispute between the Apothecaries and 
the Grocers. This was to be done with all speed, and " delivered to as 

33 



24 APOTHECARIES 

many parliament men as shall be thought fit." To defray the expense 
a call of 20S. a man was voted. On May 28, 1624, among a number 
of grievances, the Incorporation of the Apothecaries as separate from 
the Grocers, was presented to the King. It is interesting to note that 
the Incorporation of the London Wire Drawers was also held objection- 
able. The King agreed to redress some of the alleged grievances, but 
refused to entertain the idea of revoking the Charter of the Apothe- 
caries. He said that he intended to maintain these Companies separate, 
and added what was quite true, that the Grocers had no skill in their 
wares. Sir Francis Nethersole, writing to Carleton, gives a good 
account of the King's Speech in the Upper House on June 2nd. He 
begged Parliament always to be well advised in presenting grievances, 
and rejoiced that none greater could be found than those presented 
now, winding up with a statement that he considered the establishment 
of the Company to be " a general good." 

Ten days later the Court of Assistants drafted a paper of which the 
following is a portion : — 

*' Whereas the Charter granted by his Majesty to the Apothecaries 
was by the House of Parliament delivered as a grievance to his 
Majesty for some reasons they received on an information of the 
Company of Grocers. And having been since by his Majesty's pleasure 
(as we conceive) by the consent of the House delivered to the said 
Company. The Company desirous to shew their obedience and 
humble thanks to his Majesty and desirous likewise to shew all due 
submission and conformity to the House of Parliament do hereby 
signify their intention to put their Charter no further in operation, but 
only to bind and make free apprentices and choose officers until they 
shall have further power from the House of Parliament at the next 
Session. And in testimony that this is our Agreement we, whose 
names are above written, do consent that what charge shall be 
imposed on the Master and Wardens for the execution of their Charter 
be ... as is herein expressed, we shall with them bear an equal 
share." All the same, the Company viewed a " dispensacon of Meth- 
ridate" on the same day. James I., however, followed up his speech 
in the House by a document which took the form of a warrant to the 
Company of Apothecaries of London to proceed in the due execution 
of their Charter, separating them from the Grocers Company, " not- 



TROUBLES AND ATTACKS ON THE SOCIETY 25 

withstanding the proceedings in the House of Commons last Session 
complaining of it as a grievance." This warrant was dated from 
Westminster, July 2, 1624. This matter so far settled, the College of 
Physicians now began to trouble the Apothecaries. The latter were 
first invited to a conference at the College with the President and 
the Censors, the subject thereof being some matter vaguely named as 
one which '^ concerns this society." Later on this will be related at 
length. 

On the Election Day, August 17, 1624, Mr. Fownes became Master, 
Mr. Harryes Upper, and Mr. Delaune Under Warden. Various 
Assistants were also elected on to the Court. 

An entry dated November 25th is amusing, as it records the 
freedom of one Edward Graves of the " Mineryes " ; he paid 5s. in 
part towards his fine due to the " Hall of the Company," but, sad to 
relate, "pd to the clarke and beadle no fees." 

On April 7, 1625, Mr. Edward Cooke, an Assistant, "did bring into 
the Halle a faire standing sillver Bowie and a cover to it double guilt, 
and did freelie bestowe the same upon the said Company and to their 
use for ever, in testimony of his love and aflfection unto the said 
Company." 

The Minute Books at this date are ill kept and the handwriting 
varies ; this is only to be accounted for by the possible illness of the 
clerk. 

At a bye-election held on December 7, 1625, Mr. Lamere was 
chosen to the post hitherto called Under, but henceforward Renter 
Warden. On February 6th an entry records the binding of the 
nephew of Mr. Delaune to his uncle. The nephew's name was Peter, 
and he was the son of Peter Delaune deceased, of Norwich, '* preacher 
of Godswoorde." 

On the Election Day, August 18, 1626, Paul Whitmore, who had 
been acting as Deputy Clerk, was duly sworn in. The new Master was 
Adam Barton, John Sheppard Upper Warden, and William Clapham 
Renter Warden. Mr. Clapham fined and Woolfgang Rumler was 
elected in his stead. The keys of the chest and the plate were handed 
over by the outgoing officials to the custody of those newly elected, 
and the latter had each to enter into bonds for ;^3oo for the safe- 
guarding of stock, plate, jewels, etc. 



26 APOTHECARIES 

On December 24, 1626, the new Clerk either proving unsatis- 
factory or having died — it is not stated which — a new one was 
appointed, by name Walter Meredith, and he was immediately 
sworn. 

Early in February, 1626-7, Mr. Sheppard the Upper Warden died, 
and Mr. Delaune was chosen in his place to serve the remainder of 
his term ; " albeit he might excuse himself, yet he took the place most 
lovingly and willingly to the great content of the Company, and was 
sworn according to the Ordinances." 

The entries for the next few weeks are rather devoid of interest. 
Various persons were petitioners for freedom, one Henry Simcox 
was the servant of the widow of a deceased apothecary — subse- 
quently Simcox married that widow. Another one Saunderson, a 
" Scottishman," who offered ;^io as a fine. The offer of cash was 
accepted " in respect that there appeared in him an humble disposition 
and a likelihood that he would prove a good member." Still, for 
reasons the freedom was not to be then granted, and when it was 
discovered that the cash was not at present forthcoming the matter 
was off. Our "Scottishman" appeared no more. 

On the Search Day, May 15, 1626, many niembers of the Company 
were found " faulty in the particulars " of the medicines they made or 
sold, several Assistants even having their goods seized. 

The njeeting place appointed for "simpUng"on June 21, 1627, was 
" Graies Inne in holborne " at five in the morning. An early hour 
this it seems to us in these days, and a quaint place also for the 
starting point of a botanical excursion. 

At the election held on August 27th, Josias Harryes was chosen 
Master, Israel Wolfe Upper Warden, and Thomas Christie Renter 
Warden. All accepted "lovingly and were presently sworn." 
Meredith, the new Clerk, was continued in office, and the original 
Beadle, Tobias Wincke, was retained. 

An entry to which I have been unable to find any clue occurs on 
the same day, and is as follows : " The clock which is in Mr. Phillipps' 
hands is to be called for by appointment of the Master and Wardens." 
What clock was this ? 

On October 11, 1627, the first notice of a man being fined for 
keeping more apprentices than he ought is met with. The offender 



TROUBLES AND ATTACKS ON THE SOCIETY 27 

was one Mathewes, his fine amounted to £2 los. which he paid. 
A few days later a Mr. Buridge was fined the same sum for not pre- 
senting his boy to be bound within the limits prescribed by the 
Ordinances. 

The City and the Grocers Company had now returned to the charge, 
and a list of the freemen of the Apothecaries was demanded by the 
" Aldermen Committee " from the Court of Aldermen, the list to be 
furnished by " flfriday nexte." Somehow it leaked out that a fresh attack 
on the Charter was intended, and as that lengthy document only 
existed in Latin, a translation was ordered to be made by the Clerk, 
who was, at the discretion of the Master and Wardens, to receive for 
his pains " such money as should be fit, and to content him for his 
other paines extraordinary." Mr. Meredith may have been scholar 
enough to translate the Charter, but his minutes do not lead one to 
that conclusion. By the way of perhaps obtaining a little favour 
from the civic authorities, a deputation consisting of the Master, 
Wardens, and several Assistants politely waited on the Lord Mayor 
to invoke his aid in punishing certain persons who "broke the 
orders " of the Court and disobeyed the Government, i.c^ disregarded 
the Charter. 

How this operated we do not learn, but the next move was perhaps 
wiser. A similar deputation waited on the Recorder and asked his 
advice touching some charge which the Grocers were endeavouring to 
lay on the Company. The Apothecaries met at " Christe Churche " 
on Monday morning by 7 of the clock, and having interviewed Mr. 
Recorder, paid him a fee of 40s. 

On June 11, 1628, Mr. Eason again makes himself prominent, this 
time by accepting an invitation to dine with the Lord Mayor, and 
then failing to keep his engagement. For this breach of good manners 
he was fined iis. 

Stewards were first appointed for " Simpling Day " this year. 
This was an office involving some expense and no credit, and it is not 
unusual to find that members of the Company willingly paid fines 
rather than hold the office. 

Some time in July the Beadle, Tobias Wincke, died, leaving a 
widow. His successor was one William Lythall, who was sworn on 
July 24th. On the Election Day, August 20, 1628, the first contest for 






28 APOTHECARIES 

the Mastership occurs, Mr. Harryes and Gideon Delaune being put in 
election. The choice fell upon Delaune. Mr. Christie was chosen 
Upper, but some delay occurred in the selection of Renter Warden. 
Three members of the Court were put forward, viz., Messrs. SheriflFe, 
Bulwer, and Edwards. Sheriffe was chosen, but desired that he 
might be spared " in respect of the inabilities of his body." A fine 
was therefore accepted. Next, Mr. Hicks was added to the two 
remaining Assistants nominated. After a show of hands Mr. Bulwer 
was elected. The new Master and the Wardens then took their oaths 
and entered into securities. The Clerk and Beadle were continued in 
office, the former receiving a gratuity of ;^3 for his " extraordinary 
paines in their service." A gift of 40s. was made to " widow Wincke " 
as a benefaction in respect of the services of Jier late husband the 
deceased Beadle. A member of the Company, one Mr. Haughton, 
then appeared with his servant, by name John Lloyd. The latter was 
accused of applying " contemptuous names " to his master. Before 
the Court he refused either to retract or to submit himself. Haughton 
was then called up to answer a complaint against him by the Court. 
This was that he, having accepted an invitation to dine with the Lord 
Mayor, had not appeared. A fine of ids. was imposed as a penalty. 

The Clerk on September i8th was ordered to make two rolls of the 
names of all members of the Company. One of these was to be 
engrossed on parchment and to remain in the custody of Warden 
Bulwer, the other to be retained by himself " for his better collecting 
of the Quarterage." This quarterage was a small payment made four 
times a year on certain days (not quarter days) which were fixed by 
the Court in a somewhat arbitrary manner. The custom no longer 
obtains. An " Alphabett " was also ordered for the same rolls " for 
the ready finding of the said names " as " occasion shall require." 
There is a curious entry dated December 4, 1628, of the seizure of some 
" Oyle of Maie " at the house of one Mr. Brooke. Called before the 
Court he averred that he made it not, but that it had been left at his 
house as "a sample" to see if he would buy thereof. The seizure 
was, however, ordered to be sent to Dr. Clement at the College of 
Physicians for examination. Mention has been made of a journeyman 
who applied for freedom while serving the widow of a deceased 
apothecary, and that he subsequently married the widow. His appli- 



i 



TROUBLES AND ATTACKS ON THE SOCIETY 29 

cation was refused time after time. There appear to have been 
difficulties in the way of granting him a freedom owing to a clause in 
the Charter. Several earnest consultations took place on the subject 
and counsel's opinion was also taken. Eventually it was decided that 
he could be admitted provided he kept a journeyman and entered into 
a bond for j^ioo to perform the same, and to give a gratuity of ;£^io 
and a spoon to the Company. Also to take the oaths at once and to 
pay the counsel's fees ! This entry is interesting from having the 
signature of the man himself, Wm. Lyons, and those of " Gideon de 
Laune," Thomas Christie and Thomas Bulwer. The Society of 
Apothecaries now had arrayed against them the Physicians, the Chi- 
rurgeons, and also the Grocers, who were moving heaven and earth in 
Parliament to obtain certain concessions detrimental to the interests 
of the Apothecaries. To the House, therefore, the Clerk is sent to 
endeavour to ascertain what the exact lines of attack would be. A 
case on his information was drawn up and submitted to Sir Heneage 
Finch, the Recorder, while Mr. Stone, the old Attorney of the Company, 
was called in to give an opinion. A document (now lost) is in the 
minute stated to be " deposited in the Hall Chest " and to contain the 
case at length. 

On June 4, 1629, the custom of reading in full the Minutes of the 
last previous Court was established, and an order was made that all 
Minutes should hereafter be similarly read. The troubles of the 
Company with non-attending Assistants were now considerable, a Mr. 
Clapham and a Mr. Warkhouse being particularly negligent of their 
duties. The entries referring to their respective contempts and fines 
— fines, by the way, which they always refused to pay — occupy too 
much space to be here recounted in detail ; Mr. Clapham, however, was 
at length condemned to expulsion from the Society, but later on we 
find that the sentence was revoked. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE GRADUAL STRENGTHENING OF THE POSITION 
OF THE SOCIETY 

OR some time the Company had been located at the 
Paynter Stainers' Hall, which they rented for ;^io. 
But a proposal was made in June, 1629, that they 
should remove to the Scriveners' Hall, " there to 
keepe their Courte," the reason being that the rent 
ot the new Hall would only be ^8 per annum. By 
the end of July, through the kindly offices of two Physicians, Dr. 
Atkins and Dr. Argent, the Company became aware in detail of the 
exact points in the proposed renewal of the Chirurgeons' Charter 
which trenched upon the Charter of the Apothecaries. A copy of the 
Chirurgeons' Charter was therefore obtained, though how, it is not 
possible to discover, and on this document a petition was drawn up 
for presentation to the King, praying him not to permit such altera- 
tions in the new Charter as would imperil the liberties and privileges 
of the Apothecaries. On Election Day, August 29, 1629, Mr. Israel 
Wolfe was elected Master, Bulwer and Edwards t>eing Upper and 
Renter Wardens respectively. Mr. Clapham was out of spite put up 
and elected, and had to pay a fine of ^^6 13s. 4d. on refusal to hold 
office. The next entry tells us that the Clerk is ordered to provide 
a "faire standish " for the Company and also a book to enter all the 
particular receipts of money for the Company's use, both for fines, 
freedoms, and binding of apprentices. On October 21, 1629, the 
Company having received a summons to attend the Lord Mayor on 
the Lord Mayor's Day, the matter was debated in the Court. Finally 
it was resolved that "in respect to the shortness of time and want of 



GRADUAL STRENGTHENING OF THE SOCIETY 31 

necessaries, the Lxi. Mayor should be desired for the present to excuse 
them from that service." 

The number of spoons in the possession of the Company was now 
considerable. They were found to weigh 186 oz. 2 dr. Of these, two 
dozen are on Nov. 23, 1629, ordered to be reserved for the Company 
and the rest to be sold, and the money they produce to be expended 
in other plate according as the Court of Assistants shall think fit. It 
appears that threescore and ten spoons were thus sold. Permission 
was also given to take an additional ;^5 from the Company's funds to 
add to the price of the new plate. Mr. Warkhouse, the troublesome 
Assistant, is now heard of again. He had fallen into difficulties and 
was in prison. The Warden Edwards was at once given permission 
to hand him ^^5 as a benefaction. 

On December 4, 1629, Widow Wincke comes to the Court with a 
complaint. On her husband's death (the late beadle) she had taken an 
apprentice, one Henry Stirrell. This youth she accused of abusing 
her, "both words and laying violent hands upon her." Stirrell, 
brought before the Master and Wardens, was most contrite. It was 
ordered that he be kept by his mistress "till he could get another con- 
venient service," when he was to be turned over. 

The questions of civic precedence and " corn money " now caused 
some little excitement among the Company. In the Minute Books it 
is called "ranking and rating." The Common Council issued an 
order, on which the Master, Wardens, and certain Assistants repaired 
to the Lord Mayor to raise objections. The Apothecaries were rated 
at 60 quarters of wheat, and this his lordship saw his way to reduce 
to 20 quarters; but he stated that the " ranking " being settled by Act 
of Common Council, he could not interfere with. The money to 
provide this corn was in the first instance drawn from the common 
stock, but subsequently it appears from the frequent entries against 
names of " corne money," in sums varying from 2s. 6d. to 20s., to have 
been raised by a species of levy. Oddly enough the first payment out 
of the Company's stock was met in this way. The Clerk was sent to 
the Grocers Company to deniand certain funds belonging to the 
Apothecaries which had been entrusted to them. What these funds 
were is not stated, and it would be interesting to' know how the hated 
Grocers came to be the bankers of their rivals. 



32 APOTHECARIES 

The Clerk, who only a few days previously had received an extra 
gift of ;^5 for particular services, was evidently growing greedy. 
Appended as a note to the order to go to the Grocers, in his hand but 
in a different ink, we read " and he is to be considered for his paines." 

Lord Mayors in those days had their pickings for services per- 
formed. Out of gratitude for reducing the corn levy, the Company 
presented his lordship with no less than " two hogsheads of clarett." 
This claret, a handsome present truly, was subscribed for by the 
Assistants at the rate of 9s. each. 

A curious entry dated April i, 1630, reads to the effect that some 
of the Company's papers and books had got into the hands of one 
Codder. Warden Edwards is thereupon ordered to pay him 20s. to 
redeem them. 

The Company now contracted with one Anthony Ward, a citizen 
and haberdasher, to provide for ^^4 the city corn for one year. 
Ward entered into a bond of £dfi to duly perform his contract. 

" Mr. the Recorder of London" is now consulted in state by the 
Company on the question of "ranking." After tendering him their 
thanks "for his love expressed towards the Company at the Court of 
Common Council when the ranking of this Company was in motion," 
they proceeded to show him the opinion of the Aldermen Committee 
touching their place of rank. They appealed for advice as to how they 
should obtain a higher place than that which had been allotted them 
by the Act of Common Council. 

On May 25, 1630, the term "Livery" is first used in an order 
that all " Livery " men should pay 20s. towards corn money and also a 
fine of ;^I5 on admission. All " younger brethren " not being of the 
Livery are to pay los. towards the corn, 6s. 8d. to the Clerk, and 2s. to 
the Beadle, on their admission. 

At the same Court " the pretended bezar stones (bezoar) sent by the 
Lord Mayor to be viewed were found to be false and counterfiet and 
fitt to be destroyed, and the whole 'table' (Court) certified the same to 
the Lord Mayor." The word table is still in use to designate the Court, 
but this is the first time it is met with in the Minutes. Shortly after, 
a jury composed partly of druggists and partly of apothecaries was 
empanelled solemnly at the Guildhall before the Lord Mayor and 
Aldermen to determine the genuineness or falsity of the same bezoar 






GRADUAL STRENGTHENING OF THE SOCIETY 33 

stones. The jury came to the same conclusion as the Court had 
previously done and adjudged the *' stones " to be burnt ; the 
entry tersely ends " and burnt accordingly." 

This episode of the Guildhall jury is, however, written in a strange 
hand, not the clerk's, and has evidently been added at a subsequent 
date. And now, long lists of names appear in the Minute Book of 
those who "subscribed to be of the Livery," and of others who, 
refusing, were duly fined. 

On July 20, 1630, the efforts of the Beadle to collect these fines 
having failed, the Lord Mayor's officer is appointed to perform the 
function of summoning offenders in contempt for the non-payment of 
fines. That same day a "motion" was made touching the provision 
of banners and streamers against the Lord Mayor's Day. This was, 
however, deferred till a full Court. On August 29, 1630, the Election 
Day, Mr. Christie was elected Master, Mr. Edwards Upper, and Mr. 
Hicks Renter Warden ; and then a most important ceremony took 
place. The Master, assisted by Mr. Israel Wolfe, invested all the 
Assistants present into the Livery, " it being the first calling that ever 
was had for a Livery in this Company." When Mr. Edwards' account 
as Renter Warden was audited a spoon was found missing, and this he 
duly replaced on September 9, 1630. A payment (13s. 4d.) in lieu of a 
spoon is here found for the first time, the occasion being the taking 
up of his freedom by one Daniel White. A member of the Company 
who had fallen into evil plight now petitioned to have a certain sub- 
scription of ;^3 towards the purchase of the Hall returned to him. 
Such petitions occur more than once. The Court declined to accede, 
but the poor man was ordered "to have 30s. paid to him for the 
present." 

On October 19, 1630, the five " most ancient " of the Company were 
desired to " settle those chosen into the Livery." It was decided that all 
Assistants and the Livery should meet at the Hall on October 28, clad 
"in their gowns, and to bring with them their hoods," to the end that 
they may be brought into the livery " according to the ancient custom 
of the Company." And it was also ordered that a convenient dinner 
should be provided from the common stock to "give the Company 
entertainment that day." This entry is rather of a puzzle. If the first 
livery dated only from August 29th, the " ancient custom " could not 

4 



34 APOTHECARIES 

have possessed much antiquity. Gowns, we know, were used by the 
Assistants, but hoods have never before been mentioned. A feast, too, 
is a novelty. Hospitality has been received by the Assistants from 
the Lord Mayors, but we nowhere previously read of their offering 
any to him or to anybody else. Two dozen spoons were esteemed 
enough to be retained for use — a fact which does not point to an 
extravagant amount of entertaining. 

At the meeting held on October 28 the first question which cropped 
up was this : Mr. Delaune, a short time before, had been called to be 
an Alderman, though he had been excused from holding office for 
good and sufficient reasons. The Master of the Apothecaries now 
proposed that, as Mr. Delaune had so been honoured by the City, it 
was " meet for him to sitt at the table above the rest of the Assistants 
that had been before him in the Company." It will be remembered 
that though Delaune was one of the original Assistants, it was long 
before he became Warden. All consented thereto save Mr. Phillipps, 
who had lately been called to be Sheriff of London, and had fined for 
the same. To him Mr. Delaune, of his own accord, gave place, " in 
respect he was of the same rank with him, and had been first Master 
of the Company," and had been so created by his Majesty, and also 
because he had held the office '* divers yeare hereafter." 

The matter was thus for a time dropped, and the investiture of 
the Livery into their gowns and hoods took place. After the " solem- 
nity" the Master and Livery repaired to church to hear a sermon 
preached by Mr. Valentyne, " an excellent divine and Lecturer," at 
St. Dunstan's in the West. The text was out of the 30th chapter of 
Exodus ; but, though it is not specifically given, a likely guess is easy 
to be made. We are told that the preacher '* proved both the lawful- 
ness and antiquity of the Apothecary and taught the right use of the 
Arte, wherein he gave good satisfaction to the Company and all the 
auditory." After the sermon they all " repaired to their repast, where 
they lovingly dyned together, and so departed." 

One entry at this time of the method of settling a dispute is rather 
amusing. The parties were ordered to keep the peace, and neither 
directly nor indirectly to utter words of disparagement one of the 
other, and it was added that all accounts between them were closed 
from the beginning of the world till this day. But — and this is the 



GRADUAL STRENGTHENING OF THE SOCIETY 35 

quaint portion — " for the better observance of this order they are to 
enter into bonds of £^0 each to obey it " ! 

At the end of November, 1630, a small dispute occurred with 
the College of Physicians. It appears that during a search for bad 
medicines some "Brooke's powder" had been found. A small box 
of this was taken off to the College of Physicians, and the President 
and Censors sent an order to the Master and Wardens of the Apothe- 
caries Company to attend at the College and bring the remainder 
of the powder with them. The Master and Wardens summoned a 
Court of the Company and discussed the matter. The Court refused 
to carry the powder or to have it conveyed, but said that as a 
Company they would attend the College. Accordingly, a deputa- 
tion, accompanied by Mr. Brooke, the inventor of the powder, went 
to the College. The Physicians insisted on the powder being brought, 
and adjourned the "viewe" till it should be. Eventually they detained 
two boxes, but delivered the remainder " unbeeten upp " to the owner, 
Mr. Brooke. 

On December 16, 1630, the Master was engaged in searching the 
house of one John Simson in St. Paul's Churchyard, where he found 
*' something defective" — to wit, a ''bad pill." He gently reproved 
Mr. Simson, who, it appears, " seemed offended, and gave the Master 
unbecoming speeches." For this offence he was summoned, rebuked, 
and fined, after submission. 

A lengthy entry of some importance must now here be given in 
full. It runs as follows, and has an important bearing on the ranking 
of the Company : "About a week before the feast of the birth of the 
Lord God commonly called Xmas Day, word was left at the Paynter 
Stainers' Hall with the Clerk there that one Mr. Raven the Lord 
Mayor's oflBcer had given notice to the Livery of this Company 
should attend his Lordship on Xmas Day in the afternoon to St. 
Paul's Church, as other Companies of the City anciently use to do. 
Whereof the Master enquiring a little after it, finds the notice then 
left was done only by the said officer ex officio^ and therefore did 
forbear to summon the Livery on that mofning. But afterwards 
the said officer came in the Lord Mayor's name and left notice the 
Company was to attend that day. Whereupon the Master before 
he would send to trouble the Company in respect it was not known 



36 APOTHECARIES 

in what place this Company should stand, because it was the first 
time of their attendance. Thought fit that the Master and Mr. 
Warden Hicks and the Clerk of the Company should repair to 
the Ld. Mayor to know his pleasure concerning the said attend- 
ance; and also in what place they should stand. His Lordship 
resolved the Master, Mr. Hicks and the Clerk that he had caused 
the Company to be summoned to that purpose, and did expect 
their attendance. Whereunto the Master summoned the Livery to 
meet on Xmas Day at 2 of the clock in the afternoon at the 
Hall, where the greatest part attended the coming of the Lord 
Mayor's officer to bring them to St. Paul's. The Lord Mayor 
appointed the Company to attend at the sermon about 4, but his 
officer named Weaver was to wait on the Company to St. Paul's ; 
and to place them in the seat of the Merchant Taylors, where 
they sat accordingly. After the sermon the Lord Mayor and the 
Aldermen, with all their attendance, came in most noble and cour- 
teous manner and saluted the Company, and seemed to accept of 
their attendance very respectively. In like sort the Livery attended 
on 12th Day, and were seated in the same place, which by the Lord 
Mayor s direction and Mr. Under Chamberlain Moss is appointed 
for their continual place upon any attendance in that kind." My 
Lord Mayor's condescension was recognised by the Company by 
presenting him with a tun of wine. This was paid for by a call 
of 9s. per man among the Assistants and a smaller contribution 
from the Livery. 

And now in January, 1630-31, it was felt that a hired Hall was 
hardly becoming to the dignity of the Company, and consequently 
a committee was charged with the duty of looking out for a suit- 
able building or else a suitable site. On February 25 a proposal was 
made touching the purchase of a house "now offered to the Com- 
pany to be sold to make them a hall, and situate in Bucklersbury." 
It was agreed that such of the Assistants as had not seen the same 
should ''take their time as soon as they could to viewe it," and 
give their opinion on it at the next Court. It was put to the vote 
whether the said purchase should be brought forward or not, and 
was decided that it could, as twelve were present who favoured the 
proposal. But there was some divergence of opinion, as it is noted 



GRADUAL STRENGTHENING OF THE SOCIETY 37 

that " two only subscribed against it, and other two refused to 
subscribe at all." 

By March 7 the business was in hand. A committee was em- 
powered to treat with Mr. Draper, the owner, and to learn the 
price, investigate the title, estimate the repairs needed, rent and 
other yearly charges, and also the duties payable to the parish. 
The committee had full powers given to them, and by May 15 
reported to the Court that they were that day to give the owner 
a final decision. They had appeared on the previous day at a 
Court with a similar statement, but a quorum was lacking, and the 
Court adjourned. The same happened on the 15th. However, by 
a stretch of authority, the Master directed the committee to go to 
the owner and buy the property. They went, prepared to do so, but 
in the interval it had been otherwise disposed of, and, as the minute 
concludes, "so that business there ended." 

On June 7, 1631, Walter Meredith, the Clerk, petitioned for the 
loan of some money towards his expense in being "translated" 
from the Company, whereof he was then free, to another. He 
stated that it was "for his good and preferment" to be the Clerk 
of the Company of Scriveners. The Company advanced him ;^5 as 
a loan, taking his bill for repayment, but also stating their intention 
to annex his fees till it was repaid. 

On the Search Day, August 11, 1631, the Physicians were politely 
invited to accompany the Apothecaries, and, for the first time, asked 
to dinner. The feast was appointed to be held at the "Myter in 
Bread Street," and, of course, "at the proper coste and chargde 
of this Company." 

On August 19 the ordering and providing of banners and streamers 
for the Company is again noted. A committee is formed, to which 
the Clerk is added, and they are directed to "agree for all pre- 
parations for a barge and other things against the Lord Mayor's Day." 

It will be remembered that hurried consent had been given at 
a previous Court meeting to the precedence of Mr. Delaune. This 
unfortunately bore evil fruit, and caused no little ill-will to Mr. 
Higgins. On Wednesday, August 24th, that gentleman duly appeared 
at a meeting, but on the " sitting down of the Court departed 
discontented." 



rf 



38 APOTHECARIES 

The Minutes tell us that, "this being St. Bartholomew's Daie," 
it was appointed for the Election. It is somewhat strange to find 
Mr. Clapham elected Master, and more so that he accepted the 
place. Hicks became Upper and Cooke Renter Warden. After 
the Election the Court and Livery went to Bow Church, where 
a sermon was preached by Dr. Siballs. On return from church 
the matter in dispute between Messrs. Higgins and Delaune was 
considered. Mr. Higgins was understood to refuse to give place 
to Mr. Delaune. Higgins had held office in the Company before 
Delaune, and he was English by birth, whereas Delaune was an 
alien. Delaune, it is true, had been chosen Alderman of the City 
but had never served, and his fine for non-acceptance of that 
place had been remitted. Mr. Higgins was, however, held to be 
in the wrong, and it was ordered that "he shall sit no more as an 
Assistant until he hath conformed himself," and (this is probably 
the real reason) "brought in the moneys demanded of him by the 
Company." At the next Court, held Aug. 29, 1631, Mr. Delaune 
and a Committee were engaged on the business of providing 
banners and a barge against the next Lord Mayor's Day. On 
which occasion "Mr. Tailor did undertake. to provide three ban- 
ners, one with the Kinges Armes, another with the Cittie Armes, 
and the third with the Company's Armes, and two long streamers, 
with staves to bear them and rowling staves and papers to wrap 
them in, and to paint the bearing staves, for which he is to have 
^^38," while into the bargain he is to "mend the patent of the 
Company's Armes, if there be any defect in the heraldry." 

It is interesting to note that legitimate successors of these ban- 
ners and streamers are still preserved at the Apothecaries' Hall. 
The mention of " papers to wrap them in " is quaint, but the con- 
cluding clause of the bargain is even more curious. The heraldic 
drawing of the original grant could hardly have required " mending " 
at so early a stage of its career had it been properly preserved, and 
how would a banner maker mend it I Next, " for the provision 
of a Barge and watermen and a cloth for the barge," one Athanasius 
Whyniard, a waterman, did agree to "find and provide for the 
Company on Lord Mayor's Day a decent barge, to carry fifty at 
the least, and to provide oars and steeresman and hearbes" (oh, 



GRADUAL STRENGTHENING OF THE SOCIETY 39 

the odiferous Thames 1) " and rushes, and to fetch the streamers 
and cushions to and from the barge, and find them then" (the 
watermen) " their breakfast, for which he is to have ;^3 ids., whereof 
by the way of earnest he received of Mr. Warden Hicks Xs." 

On September 22, 1631, Mr. Delaune presented the Company 

with a "faire silver Colledg pot," which Mr. Cook received and 

duly acknowledged. 

At a Court held on October 17, 1631, the first business of impor- 
tance was the consideration of a petition. This was presented by 
"Zacharia Brecknock, a poore brother of the Company," for restitution 
of the j^3 formerly given by him towards the purchase of a hall. The 
Company refused to grant the request, but ''on sight of the misfortunate 
case of the poore man, who seemed to be half starved, they gave him 
20s. for the present." 

It was also determined that in respect that the Company had 
resolved that the Livery should attend on the Lord Mayor's Day next, 
as other Companies were accustomed to do, two or more Stewards 
should be elected according to the ordinances (what ordinances ?) for 
the providing of a dinner for the Company. Messrs. Sotherton and 
Reynolds were chosen, and were to be fined if they did not serve. 
Certain younger brethren were also named to act as " Bachelors " on 
that day, and on refusal to serve a fine of 20s. was to be imposed. 
The duties of the Stewards were to provide a dinner, to which a 
contribution of 2s. 6d. each was called for from the Assistants and 
Livery. It was settled that the " Myter " in Bread Street should be 
the scene of the festivity, and that Stewards and Bachelors should meet 
there as early as 8 a.m., the Bachelors being required to be " decently 
apparelled." The Clerk on each Lord Mayor's Day was to have an 
allowance of two dishes of meat or 5s. in money, at his choice. Mr. 
Higgins now referred his grievance about priority of place to the Lord 
Mayor. Mr. Delaune thereon had his case drawn up by counsel, and 
carried it to the Recorder, whose opinion was given thus : " I think no 
Commoner ever made question of precedency before any that had been 
elected Alderman, tho' he were discharged of it for fine or without fine, 
and without doubt Mr. Higgins is of too much discretion to contend 
in it, and he" (? Delaune or Higgins) "ought without question to 
have " (? give, or yield) "the place." This, ambiguously expressed 



40 APOTHECARIES y 

though it is, points to a belief that Delaune was adjudged to be in the 
right. 

On October i8, 1631, Mr. Higgins, attended by Counsel, viz., 
Mr. Stone and Mr. Morse (the Under-Chamberlain of London), ap- 
peared before the Lord Mayor. The Master and Wardens of the 
Company were also present. Mr. Delaune was unattended by Counsel, 
but presented the written opinion of Sir Heneage Finch, the Recorder. 
This Higgins refused to accept. Delaune then asked for and obtained 
an adjournment to instruct Counsel. During the interval all kinds of 
negotiations were entered into to prevent the dispute from becoming 
a public scandal. These, however, through the obstinacy of Higgins, 
failed, and finally a case was drawn up by the Clerk, who thus quaintly 
words his performance thereof : " The Clarke with all the integrity he 
could as standing noe waie partiall drew up the case, and next daie 
delivered it to Mr. Higgins, being Friday, the 21st of October, 163 1, 
but nothing more was done till Satterdaie night following." Then 
Higgins returned the case with additions and a summons to the Master 
and Wardens to appear at a Court of Aldermen on the following 
Tuesday morning. In the result, the question was decided in favour 
of Mr. Delaune, but with the following strange rider, viz., that " noe 
stranger borne can be an Alderman." Still Higgins refused to abide 
by the decision, and a few months later, in consequence of his 
obnoxious opposition, he was dismissed from being an Assistant. 

On November 2, 1631, the Assistants and the Livery were summoned 
to meet to deliver an opinion concerning their going to dine with the 
new Lord Mayor, and also whether they should or should not send 
him a present of three hogsheads of wine. It was decided to make 
the gift and share the expense, one member alone, a certain Richard 
Holland, dissenting therefrom. 

The early months of 1631-32 give no entries of interest till on 
April 12th we read of the expulsion of Higgins. The sentence was 
confirmed on April 27th, and Mr. John Lawrence was elected Assistant 
in his place. 

On June 11, 1632, the beginning of a most serious matter is noted. 
It appears that a messenger arrived from the Lords of the Council 
summoning the Master, Wardens, and others of the Company to 
appear before them. A Committee was appointed by the Apothecaries 



GRADUAL STRENGTHENING OF THE SOCIETY 41 

to attend as ordered, to know the pleasure of the Lords and what the 
business might be. From the Lords they heard, and speedily, that at 
the instance of the College of Physicians a new oath to be taken by 
all Apothecaries was proposed. To take this oath the Master and 
Wardens at once refused. How this matter ended we shall hear 
hereafter. 

At the Election held on August 28, 1632, Mr. Bulwer was chosen 
Master, but being " lame " and living out of town he either could not 
or would not attend the meetings, hence a fresh Master was chosen 
in the person of Mr. Richard Edwards. Edward Cook became Upper, 
and Leonard Stone Renter Warden. For the ensuing Lord Mayor's 
Day Stewards were nominated and eight Bachelors also, the latter 
being carefully instructed " what to doe, howe to be apparrelled, and 
when to appeare." We have now reached a time in the Company's 
history when a hall was absolutely purchased, and of the events 
connected therewith we propose to deal in a fresh chapter. 



CHAPTER V 

THE PURCHASE OF A HALL 

N October 19, 1632, a proposal was made at the Court 
Meeting held that day that a house and ground in 
Btackfriars should be purchased for the Company. 
The Master, Wardens, and certain of the Assistants 
were appointed as a Committee to treat about the 
said purchase, and not only this, but to devise the 
means by which the needful funds should be raised. Rather more 
than a month later, viz., on November 27th, the Committee met at 
the Blackfriars with Sir Oliver Luke and Sir Christopher Darcy, Kt, 
Commissioners appointed by the Right Hon. Anne Lady Howaid of 
Effingham, about the sale of the great house called Cobham House, in 
Blackfriars. Luke and Darcy on this occasion promised, on t)ehalf of 
her ladyship, that she was prepared to come to terms, and the following 
sum was agreed upon : the Company was to pay ^1,800, viz., ;£i,o40 
down, and £,'j(>o within six months " after the passing of the assurance 
such as Counsel shall devise." 20s. earnest money was thereupon 
paid in the afternoon, and the Master and Wardens at once departed 
to consult Counsel. They employed Mr. Tailor, of Lincoln's Inn, and 
Mr. Bryan, of Gray's Inn. Counsel found the title to be good, the 
only possible delay likely to arise being owing to the need for 
obtaining a license in mortmain. On this account it was arranged 
that the conveyance should pass to feoffees, and because it was 
dangerous to let the place fall into the hands of the mortgagee, 
Counsel advised that the money should be paid on the day. 
Accordingly, on November 23rd, £i,o^ was paid in by the Company 
to Sir Oliver Luke and Sir Christopher Darcy on her ladyship's 



THE PURCHASE OF A HALL 43 

account. But for repayment thereof in case the assurance should 
not pass, Sir Christopher Darcy gave his bond for ;^2,ooo. On that 
same day £^2^ was subscribed by the Company towards the payment 
in the future of the remaining ;^76o. 

On December ist the Lord Mayor received a present of no less 
than four hogsheads of wine from the Company. Two days later 
Walter Meredith, the Clerk, entered and took peaceable possession 
of the newly purchased house in Blackfriars, and immediately after- 
wards delivered over possession to Warden Cooke, at the performance 
of which " divers of the Company and others were present." 

On December ii, 1632, took place the first meeting of the 
'* generality " of the Company at the New Hall, and the ordinances of 
the Company were read by the Clerk to the younger brethren. 

As far as the Apothecaries Company was concerned, Walter 
Meredith's task was now completed. Having seen the purchase of 
the Hall through in a satisfactory manner he resigned, or, as he 
phrases it, "did surrender his clerkship" — probably to become the 
Clerk to the Scriveners, of which Company, it will be remembered, 
he had taken up his freedom. His successor was Thomas Tailor, 
who, on election, " promised that he would not for his service expect 
other than his fees for binding apprentice and making free and 
admission to the Livery and Assistants, but for the fees and stipends 
he submits to the free pleasure and good will of the Company." 
Having now a Hall, and consequently for their dinners no longer 
any need to frequent taverns, a cook was required, and one William 
Hobson was duly appointed. But though habitable in a way, much 
required to be done to the buildings in respect to repairs. The 
outlying houses attached to it were some of them let and others 
vacant, the waste land between the main building and the river 
also wanted looking after. Hence the old Committee which had 
carried out the purchase was reappointed, this time as a committee 
to see to repairs, tenants, and the property generally. 

On January 10, 1632-3, various tradesmen were appointed to 
execute needful repairs. One Mills was the bricklayer, Owen 
Glendenen the mason, Clinson the carpenter, Nicholas Bannister 
the glazier, and Thomas Gilby the smith. 

A minute of the repairs ordered is curious reading : — 



44 APOTHECARIES 

"The house of office new planked, whited and glassed. The 
Kitchen Dore mended and a lock put to it. A dore made to the 
entry going to the Granary with a lock to it and another doore as you 
go from the cellar to the hall with a lock to it, and also barrs of iron 
for the windows neere the same doore . . . and the gate on the water- 
side dore to be underpinned and the lock at the O dore to be primed 
and the brickwall in the yard to be pulled down and the tileing of the 
house where need is to be amended." 

On January 27th Mr. Delaune (whose private house, by the way, 
abutted on the Company's Hall) was requested to find out what house 
duty the Company had to pay to the parsotiy scavenger, and others ! 
Sir Oliver Luke now became tenant of the Company for one of the 
houses, paying £2>^ a year and a fine of ;^5o. Other prospective 
tenants soon made application. Lord "Hartford" wanted stables 
and a portion of ground on which to build them. It was offered to 
him at a rental of £2>^ and a fine of ;^io. Dr. Argent, the physician 
of whom we have already casually heard, required a cellar ; but it was 
discovered that to make this, the risk of weakening the hall walls 
would be incurred, and the application was perforce refused. Still, 
several small plots of ground were let, existent tenants were in some 
cases warned to leave, and all granting of leases was deferred till the 
licence in mortmain had been obtained. One lease only was granted, 
and this was to a man named Lourkin, who paid a fine of £^0 for the 
lease of his house. 

On February 22, 1632-3, Mills, the bricklayer, was ordered to tile 
the " Gallary," at least " that part which is untiled." The staircase roof 
also was to be covered, and the cost was to be £^. Next, three roofs of 
the house lying north, south, and west were to be tiled at 12s. a 
square. After reconsideration it was decided to grant Dr. Argent's 
application as to renting a cellar hereafter, the present settlement of 
this matter being deferred till the licence in mortmain had passed. 
Next we read that the pew or seat of the Company in Blackfriars 
Church was ordered to be reserved for the " brothers of the clothinge 
of this Company," and that four keys were forthwith to be provided for 
the said pew. Three of these were to be in the possession of the 
Master and Wardens, and the fourth " at the hall or some adjoyning 
neighbours " for the use of any of the " clothinge." No stranger was to 



THE PURCHASE OF A HALL 45 

be suffered to go into the said pew until the sermon be begun. The 
Company did not desire their devotions to be disturbed, though 
evidently not averse to strangers sharing the discourse of the parson. 
A proviso against the misuse of the keys is contained in the words 
" none of the Company are to send keys to any friends to make use of 
before the sermon." 

Rough repairs having been completed, a battlement is, by way of 
ornamentation, ordered to be made " all along the west range of the 
roof of the hall and parlour," and about two "out windows" ( ? oriels) 
on the said west side of the said range. A " cornishe " throughout 
the range and over the windows is also to be constructed. The range 
is to be covered with tiles "well and workmanlike," and the said 
battlement and range is to cost ;^ii 2s. The same entry includes an 
order for " whiting " the " sealing of gallory and parlour." Repairing 
was, however, still the order of the day. Two stacks of chimneys 
are directed to be pulled down at the " Barber's house " (one of the tene- 
ments). These are to be re-erected and made like the others. Mr. Mills, 
the bricklayer, is to make the three "Ganill" ends of the said house suit- 
able to the others, mend the tiles broken by doing this, and mend and 
point the barber's house. He is to " newe hippe " one place at the south 
end of the "house of office," and also to new point and new joint all the 
courtyard, colouring the same with oker and size from top to bottom, 
and digging out all the rotten bricks, replacing them with new. Next 
he is to finish all the brick windows of the "Ganill ends" both inside 
and out, and to mend the stone windows on the outside. Lastly, the 
cornices and the arch of the gallery are to be completed and whitened, 
the chimneys on the east side of the hall are to be repaired, and a 
course of bricks is to be laid round the " Cante window," the slating 
above it and over the gallery window which looked on the street 
being entirely renewed. But all this work cost money, and funds 
were sadly lacking. The Company possessing none of its own, was 
compelled to borrow. There are entries of several sums of ;^3oo and 
;^40o which were raised both for purchase and repairs. These were 
borrowed on the Company's sealed bonds. Other sums varying from 
^5 *o £ZS were lent either for a period at a moderate interest, or were 
freely given by members of the Company. 

The entry in the Minute Book under date June 7, 1633, is inter- 



46 APOTHECARIES 

esting, as it gives a brief abstract of the long lost title-deeds belonging 
to the purchase of the Blackfriars Estate. Of these abstracts twenty 
are dated and three (evidently added later) are without date. They 
are as follows : — 

1. 13th May, 2nd James. Grant to Charles Earl of Nottingham, 
the Earl of Suffolk, Sir John Levison and Sir John Trener 
( ? Trevor), and their heirs at the petition of the Lady Frances 
Kildare. 

2. 29th May, 7th James. Charles Earl of Nottingham, Earl of 
Suffolk, Sir Henry Hubbard, Sir John Levison, Sir J. Trevor, 
to Sir W. Howard and Lord Howard of Effingham and his heirs 
by direction of Lady Frances Kildare. Executed by Baron 
Trevor ; Francis Haris, Attorney. 

3. ist June, 7th James. The letter of Attorney from the Lord of 

Effingham to receive seizin. 

4. 15th June, 7th James. Sir W. Howard, Lord Howard of 
Effingham, to Edward Lord Zouche, Sir Thomas Vavasour, 
Sir Oliver St. John and Sir Francis Englefield and their heirs in 
trust, to be at disposal of the Lady Howard. 

5. 19th Dec, loth James. William Lord Howard, the Lady Anne 
his wife, the Lord Zouche, Sir Thomas Vavasour, Sir F. Engle- 
field, Sir O. St. John to Cuthbert Burbage and Richard Burbage 
a yard or piece of the waste ground part of the premises, to have 
to them and their heirs. These were the sons of Burbage of 
theatrical fame, and refer to the Blackfriars Theatre. 

6. 29th May, 15th James. The pardon under the Great Seal for 
the alienation to the Lord Zouche, Sir Thomas Vavasour, Sir 
Oliver St. John, and Sir Francis Englefield. 

7. 5th Feb., 15th James. The Lady Anne Howard, Dowager, 

Lord Zouche, Sir Oliver St. John, Lord Deputy, Sir Thomas 
Vavasour, Sir Francis Englefield lease to Henry Batson a parcel 
of the voide ground as then enclosed for 31 years, payment to 
be made after the first year to Lady Anne Howard, viz. £^ by 
the year. Sir O. St. John and Sir Thomas Vavasour, it is noted, 
did not seal this deed. 

8. 25th Feb., 15th James. The aforesaid lease for 31 years to 



THE PURCHASE OF A HALL 47 

William Fleid, Bricklayer, the other part of the void ground on 
the same terms. 

9. 20th June, 15th James. The aforesaid lease for 31 years the 
Three Blackbirds to Mr. Thorne, reserving the rooms on the 
ground floor to the great house, paying a peppercorn a year. 

10. 2nd July, 20th James. Lord Zouche, Sir O. St. John, Sir F. 
Englefield and the Lady Howard mortgages to Sir W. Russell 
under the hand and seal of the Lady Howard, but neither 
enrolled nor livery, nor seizin executed. 

11. ist July, 2ist James. Sir O. St. John, Viscount Grandifont, 
Lord Zouche, Sir F. Englefield to Lady Howard of Effingham. 

12. 27th May, 4th Charles. Power of Attorney to Sir W. Russell 
to give livery upon a deed by him supposed to be made the 
nth March, 3rd Charles, of the premises. 

13. 27th May, 4th Charles. Power of Attorney of Lady Howard 
to accept livery. 

14. 22nd June, 8th Charles. Mortgage of the purchase to Mr. 
Wincke and the surrender. 

15. ist Nov., 8th Charles. A licence of alienation for Lord Howard 
and Sir W. Russell to Richard Edwards and others with two 
fines. 

16. 26th Nov., 8th Charles. Lady Howard, Sir W. Russell, power 
of Attorney to give livery and seizin to Richard Edwards. 

17. ist Dec, 8th Charles. Sir W. Russell, his ratification of his 
former Acte by the title of Knight and Baronette. 

18. — May, 9th Charles. The plea in the Chequer of the aliena- 
tion and fine. 

20. 4th May, 9th Charles. Mr. Floud and Mr. Roper, their assign- 
ment of release of parte of the ground at Waterside. 

Undated. Part of a court roll concerning the whole purchase 
" sicut continentur in 70 parte original ac de anno 2 Jacobi, being 
parcel of the possession of the Lord Cobham and by his attainte 
I Jacobi came to the Crowne prout by the patente." 

Ditto. Licence of Mortmain. 

Ditto. A deed of bargain and sale or conveyance from the said 
Richard Edwards and others to the Wardens and Livery of the 
Company of Apothecaries of London. 



'■ *J M 



I 



48 APOTHECARIES 

Of these documents, now unfortunately missing, without doubt 
that numbered 5, which concerns the grant to Cuthbert and Richard 
Burbage, is most interesting from an historical point of view. The 
absolute connection between James Burbage, the father, and his sons 
Cuthbert and Richard with Blackfriars has been the subject of some 
controversy. The finding of this abstract, however, may be of 
interest to students of theatrical history, and will certainly increase 
our knowledge as to the facts of the holding of the Burbages. 

All the documents named above were delivered by Mr. Delaune 
to Mr. Neal, to be kept at the Hall, in the chest, on 7th June, 1633. 

One more tenant may just be briefly mentioned, this was John 
Lidford, a beaver maker, who had a lease of the tenement at the 
waterside for 21 years. He had to do all repairs, thus making the 
house habitable. He was bound by contract to lay out £\0y and paid 
;^3oper annum rent. In the agreement a passage or entry from and to 
the waterside *' about 13 foot wide" is specially reserved for the use of 
the Company. 

Finding plenty of tenements, large and small, attached to the Hall, 
the Beadle plucked up courage to apply for one '* in respect that his 
wages were very small." His petition was refused, but he had a 
slight increase in pay, so that from the Company he now received 
;^5 per annum. 

From this time forward the Physicians were invited to be present 
at the examination of those made freemen. Possessed of a Hall, the 
Company now determined to turn its attention more thoroughly to 
botany. Hitherto the " simpling " days, as they had been called, had 
been botanical excursions in which medicinal plants were searched for 
and gathered, the search being solemnly conducted by the Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants. A determination to scientifically enter upon 
a fostering course towards the science of botany was now arrived at, 
and the excursions were arranged with far greater care, fines being 
instituted as punishments for those of the livery who failed to go 
" simpling." Stewards to manage the excursions were appointed, and 
a levy of 2S. each was imposed on the members of the Company to 
defray expenses. 

At the election held August 21, 1633, Mr. Edwards was chosen 
Master, Mr. Cooke Upper, and Mr. Stone Renter Warden. Apparently 



THE PURCHASE OF A HALL Af) 

the figure cut by the Company at the Lord Mayor's Show the last 
year was not sufficiently striking to please their dignity, for on Sep- 
tember 7th we find Messrs. Edwards, Cooke, Wolfe, Clapham and 
Stone promising a new banner each, Messrs. Hicks and Shambrooke 
shared the cost of one between them, while half the cost of another 
was presented by one of the Junior Assistants, by name Ralph 
Yardley. 

Two days later one Henry Snow, on the recommendation of divers 
aldermen of the City, was appointed butler to the Company ; — a sort of 
acting butler this, as the entry concludes with the words " at all feasts 
they need one, on reasonable terms." 

On November 28, 1633, the nucleus of a library was formed by the 
generosity of Mr. Thomas Johnson, of Snow Hill. He on that date 
presented to the Company "as a guifte a booke called Gerrard's 
herbal." As a return Mr. Johnson was made free of the Livery, and 
presented with a gown and hood. 

At length the licence of Mortmain was procured, and the feoffees 
were freed of their engagement at once. The veteran John Woolfgang 
Rumler was on the same date given precedence of all others in the 
Company after the Master, " for divers considerations digested," he 
being the sole Apothecary of his Majesty in Ordinary. 

Another entry of the same date is curious, though brief. It 
announces that " Mr. William Goughe, Doctor of Divinity, prayed to 
be admitted freeman, and was so." A parallel case to this is the 
admission of a parson to be a Trinity Brother on account of the good 
sermon he preached one Trinity Monday. 



5 



CHAPTER Vr 



" QUO- WARRANTO "—LEGAL DISPUTES AND OTHER 
TROUBLES 



N January 3, 1633-4, ^^^ dispute with the College of 

Physicians advanced a stage. The demands of the 

College in brief were these. They desired to impose 

a far more stringent oath on the Apothecaries than 

the comprehensive one already in use, and also 

required some alterations in the examination of those 

who desired to take up their freedom. But these demands were not 

formulated apparently in such direct terms as the Company thought 

fitting, and consequently a committee was appointed to answer the 

somewhat vague objections urged by the College against the practice 

of the Company, and likewise to certify in precise terms to the 

objectors what the practice of the Company exactly was. 

A good numl>er of seizures of bad drugs took place at this time^ 
and among others some defective medicines from Mr. Clapham's 
shop. These last were duly burned at the Hall. During this month 
the possession of a poor-box is first noted at the Hall, and 5s, is 
recorded as being given to the poor of Ludgate. The licence of 
Mortmain having been obtained the expenses thereof were paid, but 
the amount is not stated. 

On March 5th an entry referring to (he beadle is not without 
interest — " for his better encouragement he shall henceforth be allowed 
4d. for each member" whom he shall summon to the Hall to answer 
for any delinquency. The beadle is, however, first to certify to the 
Master that he has so summoned a member. Violets were much used 
at this time for making " sirrop." It is curious to read that under a 



THE "QUO- WARRANTO" 51 

penalty of twenty shillings no apothecary is henceforward to buy these 
flowers from any " huckster, hagler or forestaller." 

A number of entries now describe the testing of a new process 
for the making of " Lac Sulpheris." 

On May 14, 1634, a handsome gift of Unen was made to the Hall 
by Mrs, Younge, the wife of one of the Assistants. The list given 
comprises ; One large tablecloth eight yards long, one towel and one 
tablecloth for the round table, thirty napkins all of damask and a 
cloth to wrap all in. This was accepted gratefully. A new rule with 



regard to the Election Day dinner was now made. In future half the 
cost of this feast was to be borne by the Company. 

At the election held on August 18, 1634, Mr. Hicks was chosen 
Master, Messrs. Cooke and Fothergill Upper and Renter Wardens 
respectively. On the same day Richard Garle and John Pearce were 
appointed "painters on all occasions" to the Company, "so that they 
do their work well and workmanlike and at reasonable rates." 
Meanwhile the Physicians had not ceased their agitation. They 
despatched a document to the Master and Wardens formulating their 
demands regarding the examination of freemen. The Company sent 
no reply to this until they had taken counsel's opinion as to the right 
course to pursue. The payment of the Clerk's fees seems to have been 
somewhat irregular at this juncture, and it was found needful to make 



52 APOTHECARIES 

a fresh order concerning the matter. Henceforward, every Assistant 
on election was appointed to pay him twenty shillings. Several 
members of the Company now became involved in lawsuits ; the cause 
in the brief entry referring to them is not stated, but it was decided 
that the Company should bear the charges of defending its individual 
members. Early in February, 1634-5, ^ letter was received from 
Archbishop Laud asking for money to restore St. Paul's Cathedral. 
To this the Company sent a reply of which the following is a digest : 
By the Physicians our Charter is now being questioned, and until 
we know what will be done therein and whether we shall subsist 
as a Company we must beg to be excused. Some of our members 
have, however, already privately subscribed to the restorations. If 
we should come out of our disputes with undiminished rights and 
privileges, we promise to do as much as we are able towards so good 
an object. 

Following on this came a demand for Ship money, according to 
an assessment made on them. It was duly considered by the Court, 
and in reply a document was forwarded in which the assessment was 
stated to be too heavy, and, that it was so, the Company was prepared 
to satisfy both the Court of Aldermen as well as the Lords of the 
Council. The Company asks but for a reasonable abatement, and 
then states willingness to pay. A suit of a very serious nature was 
now entered into against the Company by the King's Attorney 
General in the Exchequer for "a breach of the Charter," and this 
it was unanimously determined to defend tooth and nail. That the 
Company to the best of its powers executed the supervision over 
apothecaries demanded by its Charter is evident from many entries. 
One at this time, March 24, 1634-5, when the Physicians were doing 
all they could to ruin the Apothecaries, showing that despite all their 
troubles the Company adhered to the right course, is worth note. 
One Biscoe accused of tampering with a Physician's prescription 
and making up a bad pill was, on the Physician's complaint, fined 
five marks, and in addition turned out of the Livery. This meant his 
ruin. He could neither carry on business on his own account, nor 
could he even act as journeyman to an established apothecary within 
seven miles of London. The man's defence was that he had not the 
particular drug, and so substituted some other. On April 24, 1635, 



THE '' QUO-WARRANTO'' S3 

the widow and executrix of the late Mr. Christie (a former Master and 
Warden) presented to the Company, in accordance with her late 
husband's will, a " standing silver guilt cuppe " of the value of ;^io. 
Meanwhile money was needed for defending the suit against the 
Company in the Exchequer. This suit is here first called by its 
proper name, viz., a suit of " Quo- Warranto." Subscriptions were 
demanded from all the Assistants and the Livery, and lists of the 
subscribers here and elsewhere are duly recorded in the Minutes. 
Mr. Christie, however, despite his gift by will to the Company of the 
silver cup, did not die a rich man. His will was the subject of a suit 
in the Spiritual Court, and this expense pressed heavily on the widow. 
An entry shows that the Company discharged the costs of the Proctor 
for her. A curious entry of the date, August 24th (the Election Day), 
brings the troublesome Mr. Clapham again before our notice, Mr. 
Hicks being the complainant. He charged Clapham with "pulling 
him by the beard and striking him on the breast " on the last search 
day. Mr. Hicks desired the Court to take this serious assault into 
consideration, and to punish Clapham according to the ordinances. 
In the event Clapham acknowledged his fault, and humbly apologised 
in public, whereon " Mr. Hicks freely forgave." For the ensuing 
year Mr. Harris was elected Master, Mr. Morecrofte Upper, and Mr. 
Bell Renter Warden ; the three being duly sworn on August 27th. 
A paper dated September 4th to which are attached sixteen interesting 
autographs tells us that the Master and Wardens were appointed to 
wait on the President and former Censors of the College of Physicians 
and such other Physicians as they shall think fit, to try by enquiry to 
arrive at a basis of agreement. They carried with them for delivery 
to the President certain remonstrances " faire written under the hand 
of divers Assistants." The Company now petitioned the Council, who 
referred the matter to the College of Physicians. The reply of the 
Physicians was to the effect that they have no doubt that some of the 
Apothecaries are innocent of any malpractices, but that malpractices 
exist and that the declaration of the Apothecaries, though doubtless 
in part sincere, is not sufficient to lead them to concur in a stay of 
Mr. Attorney General's " Quo- Warranto." They add that while they 
are a Company, neither the College of Physicians nor the sincere part 
of the Apothecaries can give any guarantee that in future the abuses 



54 APOTHECARIES 

complained of will not occur again. These abuses, they state, are 
dangerous to government as well as to the safety of individual 
subjects. As an additional reason it is averred that the number of 
Apothecaries has so increased since the granting of the Charter, shops 
having multiplied immensely and numerous hidden trading places 
existing as well, so that it is impossible for the Company to oversee 
them, still less for the College to govern the Company. Accordingly 
on December 4th the Council ordered the Attorney General to 
proceed on his Quo- Warranto. The Distillers now renewed their 
agitation for a new Charter, and were duly petitioned against. Next, 
the Court books of the Company were demanded to be produced. 
This demand was refused until counsel's opinion was taken on the 
matter. The Counsel, Sergeant Henden, advised that the Master and 
Wardens should carry the Court books to the Star Chamber Office, 
according to the orders of the Lords of the Council, provided that 
the College will be satisfied on the sight thereof. The Company is, 
however, to obtain a paper first under the hand of the President of 
the College to testify the receipt of the Court books and to guarantee 
their return within a week. At the election in this troublous year 
Mr. Wolfgang Rumbler was chosen Master, Mr. Stone Upper, and 
Mr. Yardley Renter Warden. On the loth of November an extra- 
ordinary demand was levied on the Company by the Exchequer. 
This took the form of ;^598 i6s. 8d. stated to be due on the lands 
of the Company as forming part of the lands of the late Lord Cobham. 
There was also an additional impost of £6 for two subsidies stated 
to be owing by the Lady Anne Howard. Such a preposterous 
attempt at extortion was resisted, and successfully. The very fact 
of resistance seems to have caused it to be abandoned. On January 
25, 1636, a date for the hearing of the Quo- Warranto was appointed, 
and certain members of the Company were officially named to attend 
the Judges on the occasion. The case was not, however, then decided. 
On Election Day Mr. Delaune was again chosen Master, the strongest 
man, as far as influence and wealth went, in the whole Company. 
Messrs. Bell and Field were elected Wardens, but fined, and at a 
subsequent election Mr. Yardley was chosen Upper, while Mr. 
Shambrook became Renter Warden. 

Nothing further of importance occurs during the year 1637 which 



THE '' QUO-WARRANTO'' SS 

need be noted, except a curious change of term employed. The 
officials on Lord Mayor's Day hitherto called Bachelors or " Young 
men" are this year styled "Whifflers." A "whiffler" Nares defines 
as one who clears the way for a procession, and specially mentions 
" bachelor whifHers " in connection with the Lord Mayor's Day. On 
January 30, 1637-8, a somewhat novel claim was laid (as it turned 
out unofficially) by the College of Physicians. It appears that 
Mr. Shambrook had occasion to call at the College ; — suit or no 
suit pending, business had to be attended to. There he saw Dr. 
Argent, who informed him that henceforward candidates for freedom 
would first have to be examined by the Apothecaries and then remitted 
to the College for further examination. This, of course, meant that 
all candidates would be indiscriminately rejected, and that thus the 
Company would be brought to an end. It was obvious that such 
a course could not be acquiesced in by the Company, and reference 
was at once made to the President. He, to his honour be it said, 
at once disclaimed any such regulation on the part of the College, 
and stated that Dr. Argent on his own authority had devised the 
matter. Again the Company petitioned the Council with regard to 
the matters pending between them and the College. The Apothecaries 
also complained of the delay in the settlement of the dispute. To 
this the Physicians made answer that the delay was caused not by 
them, but was owing to the sickness (plague). They stated that the 
dispute had been going on since February 6, 1636, and that unless 
compelled the Apothecaries had stirred not one inch. 

To four grievances annexed to the petitions by the Apothecaries 
they answer : — 

I. That no fellow of the College keeps an apothecary in his house, 

although by law they might do so. 

II. In 40 years not more than eight physicians have been "dis- 
commoned," and of these, five were brought for judgement 
before the Star Chamber, whereby the Lords may discern 
whether the College had not good cause to do so. 

III. That the physicians never searched for nor destroyed any 
drug but as by Act of Parliament prescribed. 

IV. That unknown names are sometimes given to known things, 
lest the patient might suffer sometimes in his fame, and some- 



1 

1 



56 APOTHECARIES 



times for other causes. The Physicians seem to have been 
specially wrath at this last charge, reflecting as it did on their 
prescriptions and practice, for they add that the Apothecaries 
cannot be grieved on this account but merely insert it to show 
"even before the Lords their respect to the College to be 
none at all." 
The Lords of the Council now came to a very wise decision, had it 
but succeeded in its object. This was to refer all matters in variance 
to the two Lord Chief Justices, that is to say all matters between the 
Company and the College. It was, however, specially appointed that 
matters depending between certain Physicians and certain Apothe- 
caries in the Star Chamber should not be meddled with by the 
referees. These were to take their course and to be held no impedi- 
ment to the entire agreement. 

Through the Election on August 14, 1638, unpleasantness occurred. 
In the first instance Mr. Rumbler was re-elected Master, and accepted 
office. Mr. Shambrook was chosen Upper Warden after both Mr. 
Young and Mr. Field had been chosen and paid fines. Mr. Glover 
was elected Renter Warden and accepted office. The election of Mr. 
Rumbler, however, gave umbrage to Mr. Hicks, an old Past-Master, 
and he consequently went out of the Court Room because he considered 
that Mr. Cooke ought to have been elected. He said, so the minutes 
tell us, " the Court should answer for it, and that he would not come 
any more amongst them," adding that " they had done vilely." Owing 
to this unhappy incident Mr. Rumbler on August 22nd forwarded a 
letter in which he stated that he was unwilling to be Master unless 
Mr. Hicks, Mr. Cooke, and Mr. Edwards would, in writing, consent 
thereto. They did not happen to be present, and consequently after a 
new election the former troubler of the peace, Mr. Higgins, was 
elected Master. After various delays, the Distillers had at length 
received a Charter of Incorporation, and this charter the Apothecaries, 
unwisely as one cannot but think, determined if possible to get 
revoked. They accordingly petitioned the Council, and as a matter 
of courtesy informed the Physicians of their petition. This was 
decided on September 21, 1638. It was presented to the Lords of the 
Council on the following Sunday ; objections to any petition against 
the Charter by the Apothecaries having already been lodged. 



THE '' QUO'WARRANTO'' 57 

Now it appears that Mayerne (now Sir Theodore), who had been 
one of the moving spirits in obtaining a Charter for the Apothecaries, 
was equally desirous to incorporate the Distillers into a Company. 
He therefore in association with Sir William Brouncker and Dr. 
Cadiman was ordered to reply to the petition of the Apothecaries. 
The position was this. Sir Theodore had been most active in getting 
the Charter for the Apothecaries which separated them from the 
Grocers, and which according to the letter of the law gave them 
complete power over distillation of all kinds. He had now been as 
industrious in obtaining a Charter for the Distillers which would free 
them from all control from the Apothecaries. The reply to the 
petition of the Apothecaries is dated September 30th. In it he, 
Brouncker and Cadiman indite a document full of detail. Its main 
points, however, were these. The Charter granted to the Apothe- 
caries they opine was limited (or intended to be) to the preparations 
in the Pharmacopeia Londinensis and such others as physicians 
should prescribe. Distillers, however, as a trading body had existed 
long before the granting of this Charter, and also it was averred that 
the new Charter was granted for new inventions. 

Mayerne & Co. call upon the Lords of the Council to admonish 
the Apothecaries to content themselves with their proper trades, to 
speak with reverence of the Lords (what has this to do with the 
matter ?) to acknowledge their teachers and superiors the physicians 
" after a more respective manner," to think of nothing more than to 
furnish their shops well, and to use diligence about their patients. 
This answer was ordered to be delivered to the Company, and the 
Lords appointed October 24th as the day on which the said differences 
should be discussed before them, on which occasion all papers were 
to be produced. Meanwhile the questions of the Quo- Warranto and 
the Star Chamber suits remained unheard and therefore unsettled. 
After appearing before the Lords of the Council the decision was un- 
favourable to the Apothecaries, and the Distillers henceforward 
possessed their Charter in peace, save that early in February the next 
year a petition was sent to the King by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
urging various reasons why they should not enrol the Charter. The 
reasons, however, are but frivolous and need not be recapitulated. 
More amusing it is to read an undated paper which professes to be 



58 APOTHECARIES 

a statement of the manifold and dangerous abuses committed by the 
distillers of strong waters. It is therein asserted that the material 
ingredients of their distillations are principally the emptyings of 
brewers' vessels, droppings of alewives' taps, and washings of beer 
hogsheads, which " they call a low wine " ; adding thereto spices, 
seeds, and herbs, and " dulcifying it with the refuse or dross of sugar 
fit only for hogs' treacle." To this is added a list of "the barabarous 
names" of thirty-three of these pretended strong waters. To the 
Lord Mayor the King replied that the Charter of the Distillers was to 
be enrolled, and this was accordingly done. Matters seem meanwhile 
to have quieted down between the Physicians and the Apothecaries ; 
the decision was never absolutely given one way or another. Some 
mention of further arbitration occurs in an Order of Council dated 
January 29, 1639-40 : two clerks of the Council, by names William 
Beecher and Edward Nicholas (both afterwards to become dis- 
tinguished), were appointed arbitrators, but the fact is, far more 
important issues were then vexing men's minds and the unseemly 
quarrel was allowed pro lent, to lapse. How it broke out afresh we 
shall tell later on. The events of the year 1640 are devoid of interest ; 
the Company was sadly in debt, its stock had greatly diminished 
owing to the costly law charges incurred, and some attempt was made 
to retrench. One entry dated July 2, 1640, deserves notice as being 
directed against the sale of poisonous or dangerous drugs, such as 
Antimony, Hellebore, and Mercury Sublimate. Offenders against this 
order are to be fined at the discretion of the Master and Wardens. 
In this same month the old kitchen copper was sold to buy a new 
leaden cistern, the wainscot of one of the old rooms being thrown into 
the bargain. 

At the Election in August there were an extraordinary number of 
refusals to hold office, and in fact it was with the greatest difficulty 
that a selection of men who would hold was made. Mr. Cooke 
became Master, Mr. Glover Upper, and Mr. Webb Renter Wardens, 
with the proviso that all expenses should be for that year borne by 
the Company. On October ist, a precept arrived from the Lord 
Mayor requiring the Company to supply four barrels of powder, with 
match, bullets and shot, and two muskets for the use of the Company. 
To effect this each Assistant was called on to pay 6s. and each livery 



THE '' QUO'WARRANTO'' 59 

man 3s. Next, the unfortunate Company was compelled to lend 
;f 300 to his Majesty, for which they took a bond for repayment. 
Unfortunately for their own finances they had to give their own bond 
at a good rate of interest to raise the cash for the loan. A note in 
the Minutes tells us that the copper, when sold, fetched ;^3 8s., the 
wainscot ;f 3, and that some sheet lead, the sale of which was evidently 
an afterthought, realised 70s. Money troubles and debt pressed hard 
on the Apothecaries ; this must have been the case, for we find on 
November 4th, the Hall was let to Lady Darcy and her family at a 
rent of £/\Oy "to dwell therein." By the agreement the Company 
were permitted to hold their Courts or Festivals in the Hall, and 
Lady Darcy also promised " not to meddle with anything in the 
Clerk's rooms which he hath in his custody, without providing him 
other rooms for his own use elsewhere." Lady Darcy was also to pay 
one half of the parish dues. We now find an election for the Clerk- 
ship — the old Clerk, Thomas Tailor, being opposed by a new 
candidate one Richard Love. The latter was elected and im- 
mediately sworn. Mr. Bell was chosen Master, Mr. Webb Upper, 
and Mr. Southerton Renter Warden for 1641-2. All sorts of changes 
in the various tenants of the tenements attached to the Hall are now 
mentioned. The " low gallery," until this time open, was to be made 
up with brick so as to be included in the yard, and then to be let. 
The Master himself proposed to take some of the land at the water- 
side on a building lease. This was agreed to, and the then tenant 
received notice to quit. At this depressing time, Mr. Cooke made a 
proposal which marks an era in the annals of the Society. 

On October 12, 1641, he offered to expend ;^5oo of his own 
money to erect a laboratory for the Company on the waste ground by 
the waterside. Next there seems to have been trouble with the out- 
going Clerk, and it became needful to eject him from the rooms 
he occupied and to secure the goods of the Company. The hard 
times affected others besides the members of the Company. Hitherto 
a stipend of four nobles had been paid to one Hodges, the Lord 
Mayor's officer, in consideration of certain services in the way of 
summoning people which he performed. This henceforward was 
no longer paid. Still, when the Lord Mayor entertained the King, 
Queen, Princes, and nobility, the Company could not avoid very con- 



6o APOTHECARIES 

siderable expense ; this, however, was met by a levy of 6s. on all 
the freemen, those not of the livery paying half that amount. 

Dated January 27, 1641, is a long list of payments against names. 
The City seems to have been divided into four divisions for the 
purposes of collection, and the payments are made under three heads, 
viz., quarterage 2s., ryding money 3s., powder 6s. Irregularities are 
now hinted at very plainly — the Hall appears to have become a kind of 
rookery. The tenancy of Lady Darcy terminated at the end of a year, 
and various unauthorised persons seem to have taken up their quarters 
in parts of the buildings. These had to be forbidden by special 
order. Next the practice of making copies without authority so to do 
of the Company's books and ordinances required to be sternly 
repressed. Debts weighed heavily on the Society ; the money bor- 
rowed when the Hall was purchased was still unpaid, and collections 
specially made for that purpose were singularly barren of results. 
With a view to retrenchment the Quarter Day and Simpling Day 
feasts in July, 1642, were given up for that year. The elections came 
off duly in August, and resulted in Mr. Yardley being chosen as 
Master, Mr. Southerton Upper, and Mr. Reynolds Renter Warden. 
It was a few days after this election that Mr. Delaune presented his 
portrait to the Company, a portrait which has survived till this day, 
and adorns the Court Room wall. Another gift was received about a 
month later in the shape of a *' lowe silver trencher salt." This was 
presented by one Thomas Warner on taking up his freedom, and 
as a somewhat welcome variation from the usual "spoone." Some 
opposition seems now to have been offered to the right of search 
enjoyed under their Charter by the Company. Not long previously 
one Virot had offered violence; he was only an apprentice, but is 
stated to have "assailed the Master and Wardens in a very ill 
manner." A new form of resistance was now met with, and this 
consisted in actions at law for trespass. Naturally, in self-defence, the 
Company felt obliged to defend these actions as a Corporate body. 
On February 15, 1642, an acquittance was received for money lent 
" upon the public faith " and several ordinances of Parliament con- 
cerning the matter. The sum extracted from the Apothecaries 
amounted to ;^6oo. The documents in question were ordered to 
be "put into the black boxes with the purchase of the Hall." In 



THE '' QUO-WARRANTO'' 6i 

addition to this heavy sum the Lord Mayor by precept ordered fifty 
quarters of corn to be procured and held in readiness. This was 
done, the corn being stored in the gallery. 

How hard pressed financially the Company now was can easily 
be understood by the next extract. 

On April 20, 1643, "in regard of the great and extraordinary 
taxation and payments laid on this Company, and in regard of their 
debts and disabilities, It is ordered that all gratuities and extraordinary 
payments to any person or persons shall be suspended till further 
order." At this date it is recorded that four successive Courts of 
Assistants failed to fill. The whole outlook was hopeless, the Company 
practically bankrupt and the political state of affairs outside not one 
calculated to bring about any improvement. So matters dragged on, 
till August 14, 1643, when it became absolutely needful to raise money 
somehow. Accordingly, immediately after the election of the new 
Master, Mr. Webb, with Mr. Lawrence Upper and Mr. Hanison 
Renter Warden, a request for a loan of £jfio from the City for the 
Parliament required instant attention. "Whereupon," to quote the 
Minute Book, "and for that they have no moneys to lend the same, it 
is ordered that the plate belonging to the Company shall forthwith 
be sold towards the raising of £100 thereof." A wealthy member of 
the Company, Mr. Young, offered generously to lend the remaining 
;^2oo on the bond of the Company. Luckily at this juncture the 
aged Delaune came to the rescue, and, advancing the ;^ioo, saved 
for the time the sacrifice of the plate. Matters remained in this state 
for the entire year. The Election Day again came round, Mr. Young 
was chosen Master, but refused and was fined, upon which Mr. 
Shambrook again accepted the office. Mr. Reynolds was elected 
Upper and Mr. Shelton Renter Warden, Mr. Hoare being excused, 
" owing to his frailty," from serving. On the 3rd September a receipt 
was received by the Court of Aldermen for the sum of ;f 10,000 
lent to Parliament " to release and preserve the Kingdom of Ireland, 
and for urgent affairs of this Kingdom." Of this the Apothecaries had 
contributed ;f 600. According to the receipt, the entire loan was to 
be repaid, and was to bear interest at 8 per cent. A list of those 
members of the Company who lent money to make up the sum from 
^^300 to ;f 600 is also given, the amounts contributed being from £^ 



62 APOTHECARIES 

to ;^40. It will be remembered that a sum of ;^300 had previously 
been lent to the King, and, hopeless though the task may have then 
seemed in 1644, attempts were made to obtain its repayment. From 
the Chamberlain of London, on November 22nd, the Apothecaries 
succeeded in getting no less a sum than £2^ ' O^i June 26, 1645, 
it was ordered that "some of the spoons and some of the cups" 
shall at the discretion of the Master and Wardens be exchanged for 
" salts." For some reason unknown at this period there was a great 
influx of spoons into the Company's plate chest. This is all the more 
curious considering the state of the nation. Possibly, however, many 
of these were second-hand, the former property of persons whom 
the trials and troubles of the war had forced to realise on their 
plate and jewels. 

In July, 1645, seventy-eight freemen were warned to take the livery. 
Of these only thirteen obeyed, but from all the rest a fine of £2> 6s. 8d. 
was duly exacted. 

On the Election Day Mr. Glover was chosen Master, Mr. Walsham 
Upper and Mr. Holland Renter Warden. Immediately it was 
necessary to formulate a complaint "concerning the great rate put 
on the Company for Sir Tho. ffaire fax advance." 

Four days later Hobson, who was still acting as cook, was in 
trouble before the Court of Assistants for abusing Mr. Webb (Master in 
1643-4). Hobson alleged that Webb owed him for dressing a dinner 
given at the Hall to the Lord General. Mr. Webb said this was false. 
It was put to the vote whether Hobson should or should not continue 
cook, and decided that " he should and dress the forthcoming dinner." 
This naturally did not satisfy Mr. Webb, who on August 21st loudly 
demanded justice. Again it was put to the vote and decided that the 
abusive cook should be retained. A hardly creditable episode this 
either to Hobson, Webb, or the Company generally. But such was 
the political state of the City, that one can hardly wonder at any 
odd occurrence at that date. 




CHAPTER VII 

MAINLY OF DOMESTIC AFFAIRS 

HE officials for the year 1646-7 were Mr. Southerton 
Master, and Messrs. Harrison and Hicks Upper and 
Renter Wardens respectively. With regard to the 
buildings proposed to be erected on the waste ground 
near the waterside during this year various proposals 
were put forward. It was suggested that the Company 
should themselves build on the ground, but corporate funds were 
lacking and it did not seem likely that they could be provided. Next, 
the plan of putting the land out to build on at a "reserve rent" 
was proposed. Somehow this last did not find favour, and the former 
alternative was adopted. Leave was, however, given to the members 
of the committee in charge of the business to personally bid for 
the right of building on the ground to the amount of ;^i5o. Any 
advance on this sum required to be referred to the Court of Assistants 
for confirmation. 

At the Election held on August 17, 1647, Mr. Lawrence was chosen 
Master and Mr. Spelton Upper Warden. Mr. James was elected 
Renter Warden and fined for the place. At a second election on 
September loth he was again chosen, and again paid a fine of 
£1^. Mr. Buckner was then elected in his place. Mr. Delaune 
was now put into an uncomfortable position through the action of 
his nephew, Peter Delaune, who some years previously had been 
apprenticed to him. The generous old Past-Master made a special 
request to the Court that his nephew should be made free without 
paying any fees, and this was granted as far as freedom went, but the 

young man had not served his full time and refused to pay the ;^io 

63 



I 

I 



64 APOTHECARIES 

fine imposed as an alternative, consequently " nothing done " as 
^ the Minute Book tersely puts it. A new official was now appointed 
who is called the " Surveyor," and whose fees as entered varied from 
25s. to 40S. He was probably either clerk of the works or architect, 
but as neither his name nor his functions are definitely expressed this 
is merely conjecture. Mr. Delaune's ruffled feelings — for he must have 
been not a little annoyed at the episode of his nephew's refusal to 
pay a fine — were now solaced by a handsome vote of thanks from 
the Company, in which the many benefits received from him are 
recounted and ordered to be thankfully acknowledged and recorded 
in the Minute Book. On the Election Day, August 15, 1648, a con- 
tribution of 40S. was ordered to be paid towards the "repaire of 
the Bridge." This was probably an assessment from the City, and 
was levied to mend London Bridge, then somewhat out of repair. 
Proceeding to choose officers, Mr. Reynolds was elected Master, 
Mr. Holland Upper Warden, and Mr. Stephens Renter Warden. 

At a meeting held on December 17, 1648, the Court sat "to advise 
about their plate, writings, goods, and their security." The writings 
were ordered to be put into a trunk and delivered to Mr. Webb 
to keep, "if they may not be secured at the Hall." What had 
become of the " Black Boxes " before mentioned ? Next so much 
of the small plate and spoons are to be sold as shall come to about 
loos. (?;£), "and so much debt as can be paid with it shall be 
paid forthwith." The duty of superintending the sale was committed 
to the Master, Wardens, and two of the Assistants. The remainder 
of the plate is to be committed to the charge of the other Assistants to 
be kept on behalf of the Company, due inventories being taken. 
Lastly, and this is a rather curious entry, ;^5o (? s.) is to be 
allowed to Mr. Lufkin (a hitherto unmentioned name) "as the 
gifte of the Company." On April 3, 1649, all the beds in the Hall 
are ordered to be put into one room and the Hall to be made 
clean, and notes to be taken of the beds by the Master and Wardens, 
or some of them. 

The officers for the year 1649-50 were Mr. Walsham, Master, 
Mr. Smith Upper and Mr. Martin Renter Warden. 

On August 25, 1649, John Lorymer, whose uncle's picture is 
now in the Great Hall, was bound apprentice, after examination, 



MAINLY OF DOMESTIC AFFAIRS 65 

to his kinsman of the same name for nine years. He was the son of 
a Somersetshire man who lived at Riversden. It is curious to note 
that the shield and crest in by no means modern glass which is 
to be seen still in one of the staircase windows, and which has 
painted beneath it, and part of the original, the name of John 
Lorymer, does not belong to that family. The arms of Lorymer 
are argent, a chevron sable between three spur rowels azure ; crest, 
an arm couped at the shoulder in a maunch embowed and resting 
on a wreath. The arms in the window are those of Lowman, a 
Devonshire family, and are as follows : — Argent, three escutcheons 
sable each charged with a dexter gauntlet or, back afIront6e. Crest, 
a lion's gamb erect erased sable, holding a battleaxe or. How this 
curious error originated cannot, however, now be traced. Three 
days later, the question of the payment of four nobles to the 
Lord Mayor's officer was debated. This payment had been inter- 
mitted by order. It was resolved that though "he has done nothing 
yet he may, and so paid," 

On December 7th one Lembrick, a "singer," was summoned, 
seeing that he kept an apothecary's shop within the limits of the 
Corporation. He appeared, and, confessing his guilt, desired to 
be admitted to the freedom of the Company. It is not, however, 
stated whether the request was granted. 

The officers for 1650-51 were Mr. Harrison, Master, Mr. James 
Upper and Mr. John Thomas Renter Warden. It must be assumed 
that the Parliamentarian party on the Court were in the majority now, 
for a week after the election the " Kinge's Armes " were ordered to 
be taken down from the Hall. 

And now, for the second time, the Hall was let, at least partially. 
The tenants were the Company of Feltmakers, who took the premises 
simply to hold their Courts in. The rent is stated to be 12s.; but 
this seems hardly likely to be the correct amount, and is probably 
another clerical error of shillings for pounds. 

On July 31st it was determined that ;^io should be allowed to 
the Master and Wardens for the Election Dinner, " in that the Livery 
has so increased in numbers." The Wardens had to find fire and 
water and all other charges, in addition to the feast itself. The fee 
of the preacher of the sermon, " if there shall be any," was also 

6 



66 APOTHECARIES 

included. All extra expenses were to be paid for by the Master and 
Wardens from their private resources. 

The officials for 165 1-2 were Mr. Samuel Shelton, Master, Mr. 
Leonard Buckner Upper and Mr. Michael Markland Renter Warden. 
No entry of importance occurred during this year, except that 
fifty shillings annually was to be spent '* on apparel for Lythall the 
Beadle on Lord Mayor's Day." The Master for 1652-3 was 
Richard Holland, the Upper Warden James Martyn, and the Renter 
Warden James Clarke. 

On going into an account of the sums lent by the Company to 
the State, it was found that only £i^Z l^^id been repaid out of 
;^i,666, thus leaving a balance of ;fi,5i3 still owing. The account 
was ordered to be sent to the Committee of the "twelve com- 
panies" at the Irish Court in the Guildhall. On December 31, 1652, 
the Master and Wardens were ordered to carry the Charter to the 
Committee of Corporations. They, however, to "gaine time," ask 
leave to have it first transcribed and translated. Alterations and 
amendments in the Charter were in the wind, and apparently these 
were descried by the Company, for we read that a Committee was 
formed of the Master, Wardens, and certain Assistants "to meet 
every week to expedite the business." 

A power was granted on February 11, 1652-3, to the Master and 
Wardens to mortgage the lands and tenements of the Hall to those 
who had lent the Company any money, or who should hereafter 
lend any. Mr. Clarke, the Renter Warden, having died, a new 
election was held, Mr. Shelbury being chosen. 

On August 12, 1653, the beadle's wife was appointed "Charr- 
woman," to clean and look after the Hall, at a wage of 6s. 8d. per 
quarter. 

The officers for 1653-4 were Mr. Smyth, Master, Mr. Thomas 
Upper and Mr. Richards Renter Warden. A petition was received 
in December of this year, forwarded by the " Physic-herb-women '^ 
in Cheapside. Unfortunately the subject thereof is not stated, but 
a note of the reply is as follows : " The Company promise to 
assist them as they shall be advised, when they see their Indict- 
ments." On August 15, 1654, Mr. John Lorymer (senior) was chosen 
Master, Mr. Stephens Upper Warden, and Mr. Lyons Renter Warden. 



MAINLY OF DOMESTIC AFFAIRS 67 

The granary was at this date found unfit for the storage of corn, 
owing to the weevils which bred there. 

On January 16th (called in the Minute Book " Perambulacon 
Daie") a warrant was received for the sale of "soe much of the 
lands in Ireland as was allotted to this Company for their Xth part 
of the money by them lent towards the ;^ 10,000 for worth 
there." 

The granary being useless, in reply to an order from the Lord 
Mayor to store corn the Company excuse themselves at present. A 
note on the same day tells us that "Chirurgeons that sett to sale 
medicines that are only to be sold by Apothecaries are to be prose- 
cuted henceforward." Freemen also on admission are to be com- 
pelled to pass their examination first before the Master, Wardens, 
and Assistants at the Apothecaries' Hall, and afterwards before the 
President and Censors of the College of Physicians. This, it will 
be remembered, was demanded a few years previously by Dr. Argent, 
and formed the subject of some difference of opinion. 

At the Election on August 15, 1655, Mr. James was chosen Master, 
and Mr. Collins Upper Warden. The latter fined, and Mr. Michael 
Markland was elected in his place, Mr. Michael North being chosen 
Renter Warden. By general consent, as we read, on this day it was 
forbidden henceforward to smoke in the Court Room while dining 
or sitting, under penalty of 2s. 6d. 

A quaint entry runs as follows, and is worth quoting. Mr. 
Lorymer, it seems, as Master, decorated in paint and gilt the white 
room, known as the Queen's Chamber. The Clerk goes on to state 
that "having performed that place (the Mastership) judiciously and 
well in all things, yet to add thereto (though noe thing needed to 
have been added) he did freely of his oune accord and at his 
oune chardge paint and guild " this room ; " which I purposely 
here insert for that it was done so freely that there was not by 
him any other note of remembrance thereof." 

A note, apparently added later, states that " Since, this free 
guifte was denoted in paint in the same roome by the succeeding 
Master and Wardens." Mr. James, perhaps moved thereto by the 
perusal of the above minute, in order "to initiate his mastership," 
as a free gift gave ij dozen of "faire turkis worke chaires and 



68 APOTHECARIES 

stooles to furnishe the white painted roome." These probably 
perished with the building in the Great Fire. 

For the Lord Mayor's Day this year the old watermen and the 
"olde musicke" are engaged at '*;^4 and 30s., the old rate." An 
extra 20s. is allowed to the watermen towards "the gravelling of 
the causeway at Blackfriars Staires." 

On October 25, 1655, water was ordered to be "taken into the Hall," 
and the present Master promises to superintend the work. In matters 
of livery dress the Assistants appear to have become very lax at this 
time, and a special order, dated November 20th, enjoins the regular 
wearing of gowns on Court days. 

The officers elected for the year 1656-7 were Mr. Bur kin. 
Master (? Buckner), Mr. Shelburne Upper Warden and Mr. Clarice 
Renter Warden. A large number of " supernumary spoones " were 
ordered to be sold, only reserving six or eight dozen for use. The 
account of the sale is appended, and is interesting. Three dozen 
and nine spoons were sold and six dozen and five gilt spoons 
were reserved. The spoons weighed nearly 75 ounces, and realised 
;^i8 14s. 4d. 

Mr. Buckner did not long survive his election to the Mastership. 
On November 20th, owing to his illness, Mr. James was appointed 
Deputy Master, and on December i6th his death caused a new election, 
at which Mr. Marlin was chosen. An entry of the same date mentions 
several sums paid to two " informers," by name Mark Fletcher and 
one Corfield. These men, it seems, were employed to spy out places 
where bad drugs were sold or defective medicines made. Mr. 
Buckner, who had been a tenant of the Company, died it seems in 
poor circumstances ; at any rate, " as a free gift," an addition of 
eight years is made to a lease recently granted to him. This is 
entered as being "for the benefit of his younger children, who 
petitioned therefor after his decease." 

On August 27, 1657, Mr. Thomas was elected Master, Mr. 
Richardson Upper Warden, and Mr. Heartley Renter Warden. 
The events of this year are unimportant. The gallery and great 
cellar at the Hall were rented to certain of the Livery for the 
storage of drugs. A new beadle, one William Garnett, was appointed 
and sworn. A prosecution was instituted against a certain chirurgeon 



•*rfM»*aB^ 



MAINLY OF DOMESTIC AFFAIRS 69 

by name Harris, for selling drugs. Water was again ordered to be 
laid on to the Hall. A demand made by the preacher on Election 
Day for an increase in his fee of 40s. was peremptorily refused by 
the Company. Lastly, the funeral expenses of Mr. Lythall, the 
former beadle, amounting to £/^ 4s. 5d., were paid by the Company 
to his widow, and she was to be allowed a pension of £1 per quarter 
during her widowhood. 

The officers for 1658-9 were Stevens, Master, Collins, Upper 
Warden, and Banister Renter Warden. A note this year on the 
question of precedence shows germs of the curious ritual used on 
Confirmation Day later. To this we shall draw attention in 
detail hereafter. Another change is also noted, and this is in the 
designation of the " Bachelors " or " Young Men " on the Lord 
Mayor's Day. Hereafter they are called ^'Gentlemen Ushers." This 
year it was determined to build a barge, and subscriptions towards 
the cost thereof were called for from the Assistants and Livery. 

On Election Day, 1659, Mr. Markland was#chosen Master, Mr. 
North Upper and Mr. Fige Renter Warden. It is somewhat strange 
to find that the death of Mr. Delaune should not have been men- 
tioned at the time. The first hint we get of this event is that 
";^200 owing to the late Mr. Delaune" is ordered to be paid to 
his executors." 

On February 9, 1659-60, an entry of great interest with regard to 
the plate is met with. Firstly, two dozen and ten spoons, weighing 
60J ounces, are ordered to be sold. Next, a quantity is pledged to one 
Mr. Peter Herringhookt, merchant, as part security for ;^20o owing 
to him. A bill of sale was to be given, and it is also explained that 
this ;^200 is part of a sum of ;^400 borrowed. The plate was esti- 
mated to fetch ;f 100. Mr. Fige had ;^ioo in hand, which he paid 
in to Mr. Herringhookt, and thus the Company owed ;^200 on 
its bond, and had given ;^ioo worth of plate as security for the 
remainder. 

The plate list is here quoted : " Eight dozen and seven gilt 
spoons, weighing 200 ounces ; four gilt cups, with covers, weighing 
92 oz. I J drams ; one standing white cup, with a cover, weighing 
34 ounces ; two white large salts (62 oz.) ; five small salts (sf oz.) ; 
four tankards (76J oz.) ; one beare bowle with come (?) cupps 



70 APOTHECARIES 

(15 J oz.); one beaker and two small sugar dishes (19J oz.); one 
large sugar box and two caudlecups (38I oz.) ; " in all, rather over 
251 ounces. 

It was found that the two *' college potts," weighing 68J ounces, 
had been omitted from the inventory, and a note also states that the 
Clerk has in his hands as well, a tankard weighing 25 ounces, the 
gift to the Company of a certain Mr. Thomas Moseley. Not a 
single item of this list of plate is now existing. 




CHAPTER VIII 

THE SOCIETY UNDER CHARLES II 

E have now reached the dale of the Restoration, and it 

may be remarked in passing that mention of the great 

political events of the last preceding years is most 

singularly absent from the recorded Minutes of the 

Company. Of the occurrences which followed the 

Restoration there is hardly more to be gathered from 

the same source, still, a few interesting particulars as to the domestic 

history of the Company are to be extracted. On May 3, 1660, the 

Apothecaries were called on to share in the present of ;^i 2,000 which 

the City had determined to make to the King on his Restoration. 

Towards this handsome sum the Apothecaries contributed £']2. An 

interesting precept received from the Lord Mayor, and dated May 22, 

gives details as to the part which the Company was designed to play 

in the Reception of the restored Monarch. I extract a portion : — 

"The full number of twelve persons of the most grave, tall and 

comely personages of the said Company" were to attend, "everyone of 

them to be well horsed and in the best array or furniture of velvett, 

plush or sattin and chaines of gold, and that both yourselves and they 

may be attended with one footeman apeece in decent habit, and also 

that you have in readiness and filled the railes, standing clothes, 

banners, streamers and other ornaments of triumph belonging to the 

Company. And that as by a former precept (missing) you had 

information you take the Commonwealth's Armes out of all things used 

by the Company and provide speedily that his Majesty's Armes may be 

putt in their stead, that so the Company be ready when required to do 

their service in reception of his Majesty to his great contentment and 

71 



72 APOTHECARIES 

the honour of this Cittie. And herein I hope you will not faile." 
Fifteen names were called over of those appointed to ride. The 
Company agreed to provide "habits" for their footmen and the 
Company's colours for the horses and footmen, an allowance being 
made of 5s. 6d. each for shoes. From this date, possibly because 
feasting, etc., was the order of the day, there is no entry in the minute 
books till July 30th. 

At the Election held on August 14th, Mr. Shelburie was chosen 
Master, Mr. Heartley Upper Warden, and Mr. Retherick Renter 
Warden. On October nth we find the new barge yet unbuilt, so 
recourse was had to the old hired one ; the bargeman provided barge 
and "light horsemen" for £t^ los. A "light horseman," be it observed, 
in those days signified a light boat or gig. The account of " Smith 
the Herauld Paynter " was this day paid for providing decorations on 
the occasion of the Royal Reception ; he received no less than £20. 
At the meeting held on February 23, 1660-61, Major Rousewell, a 
royalist and once an Apothecary, but who had declined to become an 
Assistant " in those p'illous tymes " or to " putt himself forward in the 
Companies busnies," offered now to resume his connection therewith. 
His offer was accepted at a fine of £2^^ 13s. 4d. Two months later 
the King sent a letter to the Company containing a request that this 
Major Rousewell should be elected Master. This letter stated that his 
nominee had been a Major and was a member of the Company. He 
had lost everything in the service of the King and his father (Charles), 
and was now merely an officer in the trained bands. The King 
recommends him to the Company as Master without holding any 
other office or paying any fine. The Company in consideration of 
their Charter, which gave them a right to choose a Master and 
Wardens, but only in August, at once determined to make Major 
Rousewell free of the Livery, and to elect him there and then as 
Assistant. This was done, and it was promised that he should be put 
in election for Master at the ensuing election, and the promise was 
scrupulously kept. Strangely enough, Rousewell turned out as good 
an official as the Company ever possessed — at any rate up to that date. 
On August 22nd Major Rousewell was then duly elected Master, Mr. 
Bannister being Upper and Mr. Laytori Renter Warden. A rather 
curious dispute now arose regarding precedence in the Court. As far 



THE SOCIETY UNDER CHARLES //. 73 

back as 1645, forty men had been called to the Livery, and of these 
only twelve accepted. Among these twelve were four by name 
Felling, Battersby, Palmer, and Stonehouse. Among those who 
refused to hold were two, Messrs. HoUingsworth and Johnson. These 
two had since paid fines and become Assistants, thus taking pre- 
cedence of the others. The four petitioned the Lord Mayor for 
redress, and the petition was forwarded to the Company for reference. 
The four stated that they were then and had been long willing to serve 
as Assistants, but could not get put in election. Eventually the case was 
argued at the Guildhall by counsel on both sides, and the decision was 
adverse to the Company, who were ordered to elect and give seniority 
to the complainants. But the Court of Assistants was full, and so, in 
reply, they state "they do forbeare a while to putt this order in 
execution." When an election for a vacancy arrived shortly after. 
Felling and Battersby were warned to attend and did not ; no election 
was therefore held, and the matter was referred to the Recorder for 
advice as to the next course to be taken, all elections to the Court of 
Assistants being in the meanwhile held over. Another case which 
cropped up at this date is also worth note. It was that of a man, an 
apothecary, who had taken, from motives of charity, a destitute boy 
into his house, feeding and clothing the waif. This boy, the Company 
alleged, was an apprentice, and they duly summoned the man to 
appear. He did so, and after stating the circumstances, as the 
easiest way out of the trouble "did confesse his error and crave 
forgiveness ! " 

At the Election held on August 28, 1662, Mr. Richardson became 
Master, Mr. Fige Upper and Mr. Chillingworth Renter Warden. A 
month later Felling was elected an Assistant, but refused to pay his 
admission fee. A payment that to the " bookebynder " is interesting 
from the quaint terms in which it is entered. He is to have "as much 
more added thereto as will make 8;^ to defray the cost of the Farch- 
ment Book with the Charter and Ordinances in it." On the Lord 
Mayor's Day it was ordered that the Watermen, Music and Butlers 
alone were to have ribbons, and not the sons or servants of freemen. At 
the general feasts, many abuses having crept in, it became needful to 
exclude all servants (journeymen) from the Hall except those of the 
Assistants and Stewards. On December 9, 1662, Mr. Battersby was 



74 APOTHECARIES 

chosen Assistant, and in the entry which follows the first mention of 
the term " Yeomanry " occurs. The entry is " William Firmin of the 
Yeomandrie." These yeomen of the Company were in future the grade 
below full livery men. It would be interesting to know if this William 
Firmin was related to either Thomas Firmin the Philanthropist or to 
Giles Firmin his brother the Nonconformist preacher of Ipswich, 
both of whom were distinguished men. 

And now troubles with the College of Physicians began afresh. 
On April 14, 1663, a copy of the Physicians' Charter was ordered to 
be obtained, and a committee was formed "to defend the business 
of the Phisitians " as well as to consult and pay the charges. 
Early in May it was ordered that an endeavour be made to put a 
proviso in the Physicians' Charter "that according to the Statute of 
14th Henry 8 whereby the Physicians are to call the Apothecaries 
to their searches," the Apothecaries may have reasonable and con- 
venient notice to go with them. Harris, the "free chirurgeon" who 
had been prosecuted, now finding further resistance useless, made his 
submission and prayed to be admitted as a member of the Livery. 
This was refused. At the Election on August 19, 1663, Mr. North 
was chosen Master, Mr. Retherick Upper and Mr. Litlar Renter 
Warden. On this day Mrs. Lorymer, widow of John Lorymer 
(senior), sent the picture of her husband as a gift to the Company. 
This picture still hangs in the Hall. Mr. North, the newly-elected 
Master, was, it appears, ill and could not attend the election. It was 
proposed to administer the oath to him at his house, but this he 
refused, urging that there was no authority for such a course. In 
consequence there was a new election, and Mr. Bannister was chosen 
Master. Two of the four complainants who had put the Company to 
the trouble of appearing at the Guildhall in 1661, now quarrelled 
among themselves as to their relative precedence. It was settled that 
they should rank in the following order after Mr. Hollingsworth and 
Mr. Johnson, viz., i, Pelling and 2, Battersby. The scheme of the 
Physicians was now propounded. They desired to insert a clause to 
the effect that no composition contained in the Pharmacopeia 
Londinensis or any "physical" prescription should be fraudulently 
falsified, but all to be truly made and prepared. A very proper clause, 
too, and one to which the Company neither could nor did offer any 



THE SOCIETY UNDER CHARLES //. 75 

objection. But what they demurred to was the intention to impose 
an oath and a fine on free sworn apothecaries. 

On May 24, 1664, the draught of the Act of Confirmation of the 
Physicians' Charter was read, and also the proviso of the Chirurgeons. 
The course to be pursued by the Company was to be advised upon by 
Sergeant Maynard and Sergeant Glyn. When duly drawn up on 
paper a copy was ordered to be shown to the Physicians with a view 
to obtaining their approval. 

Mr. Litlar then drafted an Act of Parliament and read it to the 
Court, who ordered it to be shown to the veteran Mr. Phillipps, 
who, after perusal, was to forward it to the Speaker, duly furnish- 
ing the College of Physicians with a copy. But the Physicians 
utterly refused to consent either to the proviso which concerned 
themselves and the Apothecaries, or to that which related to 
the Apothecaries and the Chirurgeons. Hence matters were again 
at a standstill ; nevertheless the Company determined " to push 
their proviso by all possible and regular means, but privately, 
till the bill be committed." On April 20th the Physicians' Bill was 
read in Parliament and the Apothecaries' proviso was neglected. Nor 
could they obtain any promise as to its consideration at a future 
date. What they required was merely to safeguard the rights con- 
tained in their Charter, and had not the least desire to trench on the 
liberties of the College of Physicians. Hence they still used every 
endeavour to carry their measure. Mr. Aylifle was therefore retained 
as counsel, to whom was added " Sir W. Scruggs if disengaged, or if 
not, Mr. Mathew Palmer." Counsel doubted the validity of the 
proposal contained in the proviso, and forthwith amended it. Mr. 
Ayliflfe then withdrew from the case, and Mr. Palmer was appointed 
in his place. On April 30th a modest request was forwarded from the 
Company of Druggists. They desired the Apothecaries to furnish 
them with a copy of the Charter of the College of Physicians. Rightly 
the Company " asked to be excused " from supplying the document, 
and sent them to Sir John Berkenhead. It would appear now that the 
Physicians made some efforts to have all future negotiations con- 
ducted in private, as the dispute bade fair to become a scandal. To 
this the Company demurred, their view being that the College were the 
aggressors and in the wrong, while the Apothecaries by openness had 
nothing to fear. 



76 APOTHECARIES 

At the Election held on August 26, 1664, Mr. Chase was chosen 
Master, Mr. Layton Upper and Mr. Williams Renter Warden. 

On September i, 1664, Mr. Bannister "presented the Kinges 
Armes but mentioned it not." The Clerk therefore informed the 
Court, who returned thanks for the gift, and ordered it to be duly 
registered in the Minutes. At the same Court a proposition for 
sharing a barge-house with the Chirurgeons was mooted. Mean- 
while Major Rousewell, at the instance of the Court of Assistants, 
singly approached the College of Physicians with a view to an 
amicable settlement of matters in dispute. On his return, after an 
interview with Dr. Merrett, he reported that the Physicians were 
determined "to stir no further" in the matter, and that therefore 
no treaty would be needed. Sleeping dogs were to be allowed to 
lie. On November 8, 1664, a very curious letter was received from 
the Lord Mayor, the subject being the lending of ;^io,ooo to the 
King by the City. Of this sum he asks the Apothecaries to furnish 
one-tenth. It was subscribed by eight of the Court, whose names 
are duly entered in the Minute Book with their respective 
contributions. 

The proposal to share a barge-house with the Chirurgeons had, in 
consequence, to be abandoned. The latter estimated a half-share in 
the cost to be ;^289 iSs. iid., besides the expense of painting and 
glazing. On receipt of a letter to this effect the Apothecaries politely 
returned "all thanks to the Company of Chirurgeons," and add as 
excuse, " they should be very glad could they conveniently join with 
them, but the intervening accident of the loan of ;^i,ooo hath soe 
put them out of stock that they cannot at present think of providing 
a barge." "Intervening accident" as an expression is distinctly 
precious. 

It should be mentioned that each of the subscribers to the loan 
received a bond as security under the common seal, while Govern- 
ment security for repayment of the entire sum was given to the City 
authorities. 

An entry otherwise unreferred to, and not to be explained without, 
is as follows : — 

November 24, 1664. Fearing that the Company may " entrench " 
on the Distillers, the Clerk and Mr. Litlar, Mr. Fige, and Mr. Hollings- 



THE SOCIETY UNDER CHARLES //. 77 

worth are to search the Public Rolls for the Distillers' Charter. Was 
this copy required merely to keep by them in case reference at any 
time should be advisable, or were the Company intending any 
proceedings ? 

But the Physicians, despite the assertion of Dr. Merrett, had not 
determined to "stir no further." On February 27, 1664, through 
their solicitor, the College proposed that three Physicians should 
meet three Apothecaries and come to an amicable agreement. To 
this the Company assented, and named as their representatives Major 
Rousewell, Mr. Richardson, and Mr. Litlar. On the part of the College 
the deputation consisted of Dr. Micklethwaite, Dr. Warton, and Sir 
Richard Napper. The Company, on its side, proposed — nay, 
insisted — "that the College considers no D", feliowes. Licentiates, 
Permiss, or Honorari feliowes that keep Apothecaries in their 
shoppes." The Physicians proposed — (i) That Apothecaries should 
not practice, and (2) that they should give assurance faithfully to 
prepare prescriptions. A partial agreement was arrived at, but the 
matter was not finally settled when the plague broke out. Of this 
terrible epidemic the only notice in the Minute Book is as follows : 
"22 June, 1665. In regard to the sickeness this yeare it is ordered 
that there be no herbarizing meeting this yeare." 

The only entry for the month of August is undated, and announces 
the election of Mr. Chase as Master, Mr. Litlar Upper and Mr. 
Hollingsworth Renter Warden. No other entry occurs till Feb- 
ruary 13, 1665-6. On March 22nd the beadle petitions for a rise 
in his wages, but this is refused. A debt of £'i which he owed to 
the Company is, however, remitted, and a present of £'] is made 
to him " in regard of his long services and povertie in the 
Contagion." 

On July 13, 1666, the Clerk petitions for an increase of salary, but 
is refused. The Company, however, present him with ;^2o. The 
Minute Book contains no entry of the Great Fire, in which, partly 
or entirely, the fabric of the Hall was destroyed. This is even more to 
be wondered at than the absence of any notice of the Plague. On 
December 16, 1666, one Smith is elected as Beadle, consequent on the 
death of the last holder of the post. At a Court held at some place 
unnamed on June 4, 1667, a committee is formed "to treat about 



78 APOTHECARIES 

the building of the Hall and consider for raising the money and to 
compute the charge." 

No feast was to be held that year, according to a vote taken on the 
day of election, it being the intention to save the money and apply 
it to the rebuilding of the Hall. But on October i8th the new 
Master Mr. Darnelly, the Upper Warden Mr. Hollingsworth, and the 
Renter Warden Mr. Johnson were fined £^^2 for not providing a 
feast. The absolute election on August 15th was held at the 
"Cooke's Hall." 



J 



CHAPTER IX 



THE HALL REBUILT 




T would nevertheless appear that the destruction of the 
Hall in the Great Fire exercised a most considerable 
influence on the Company. The strenuous efforts re- 
quired to rebuild their home had the effect of spurring 
the Court of Assistants on to make greater exertions 
than hitherto to extend the scope of the Society. 
It became larger and more powerful in numbers, and during the 
next half-century increased in wealth. Still, at no time could the 
Company, by any stretch of imagination, be considered rich. At 
the election held on August 13, 1668, a contest for all three places 
is first noted, there being three candidates for the Mastership, out of 
whom Mr. Litlar was chosen. A similar number were put up for 
both the wardenships, Mr. Felling being elected Upper and Mr. 
Battersby Renter Warden. On October ist the Master, Mr. Litlar, 
read the Ordinances which had been made in and since 1622. These 
were duly confirmed. In the Minute Book a detailed list of these 
Ordinances is given, but they present few points of peculiar interest, 
and may be therefore briefly touched upon. Punctuality at meetings 
was enjoined. Assistants were forbidden to leave the Court Room 
without the Master's leave. All business was to be propounded by 
the Master and Wardens, the proposed motions of Assistants having 
been submitted to them in writing previously for consideration, with 
a power of veto if deemed unadvisable. The Assistants were ordered 
to "hearken attentively," forbearing to interrupt one another, and 
"according to the decencie of all Courts of Companies." They 

were to speak in order of precedence, and be silent "when the 

79 



8o APOTHECARIES 

Master hammers." Swearing, scornful, reproachful, or unbecoming 
speeches were forbidden ; spleen, hatred, or malice were rebuked ; and 
every one was to comport himself " according to his dutie towards God 
and for the honourable reputacon of the Court" in all modesty. 
Freedom of speech, provided it be not contrary to the Ordinances, 
was invited, but every Assistant was enjoined when speaking to stand, 
" having his hatt off and to deliver his reasons orderly, modestly and 
discretely." None were to speak more than thrice on any business. 
When anybody required to be defended on account of alleged fault, 
such defence was not to be urged without good proof of innocence. 
In all difficult, ambiguous, or unusual business the aid of the Clerk was 
to be called in, and he was enjoined carefully to show precedents if any 
such be registered in the Hall book, or failing such, to satisfy the 
Master that none existed. Fines were, after warning, the penalties in 
all cases for a breach of the Ordinances. 

It was now determined to sell all the plate save the "gifts of 
benefactors " only, which were to be reserved. Subscriptions towards 
the building fund were invited, and these came in with a fair amount 
of rapidity, though not in nearly sufficient amount to carry out the 
work. It was now resolved to prosecute with vigour all " interlopers." 
An interloper would appear to have signified both any Apothecary 
who was not free of the Company, or any Chirurgeon who trenched 
upon the chartered rights of the Company. From a note we are led 
to conclude that the main architectural design of the Hall was the 
work of Mr. Cook. This is explained in the following order, viz., 
that the hall be " built flatt (roofed) contrarie to the modell and 
leaded and the other part finished as Mr. Cook proposed." 

The Company, and it is hardly to be wondered at, found itself, 
however, too poor to build more than the Hall and offices. To 
rebuild the tenements was out of their power, and consequently the 
land was " to be lett out to build as deere as can bee." Mr. Hinton 
then took the ground, paying ;^6oo as fine. When this decision was 
arrived at, he offered to lend ;^20 to the Company for the building 
fund. Election feasts were again proposed to be abandoned until 
better times, and a similar rule was considered with regard to the 
Quarter-day feasts, the dinners of the Courts of Assistants, and those 
after the Private Courts. These rules were made, but were never 



THE HALL REBUILT 8i 

kept. Mr. Fige was now spoken of as Master for the following year. 
In an almost pathetic letter he writes to excuse himself from holding 
tlje place. He has had losses, is ill, the fire has nearly ruined htm, 
and he has left London. Infirm in body and of advanced age, he 
begs ^10 to be accepted by the Company as a gift and not as a fine. 
Lastly, he recalls to the Court how he has " never shirked either office 
or purse" in their service. His offer is registered as accepted by the 
Company. Mr. Symon Williams was then chosen Master for 1669-70, 
with Mr. George Johnson Upper and Mr. Anthony Hinton Renter 
Warden. When the beautiful old chesnut chest was presented to the 
Company by William Clark was not mentioned in the Minutes. The 



date on the chest is 1668. Composed of only six planks of great size, 
decorated with brass studs, heavy bronze handles, and a singularly 
ornate key scutcheon, this chest is one of great interest. The lock is 
original, though it was slightly damaged by burglars a few years since. 
The chest stands at what is now the upper end of the Great Hall, 
beneath the bust of Gideon Delaune. In October, 1669, the build- 
ing operations were in full swing. On that date, a cellar 14 feet 
square, was ordered to be made beneath the " great staircase." At this 
meeting "the weather was cold and dirty," so the Assistants, because 
there were " several businesses to be don," determined that notwith- 
standing the order to the contrary, the Company should pay for their 
dinner. Spoons continued to be almost regularly given up to this 
7 



82 APOTHECARIES 

date by apprentices who took up their freedom, but henceforward in 
nearly every case we read, "and gave 13s. 4d. for (or in lieu of) a 
Spoone." A drop in value this, 15s. to 25s. having been not 
uncommon in time past. 

Under date January 18, 1669-70, we read that Mr. Young, the 
stonecutter (he was a tenant of the Company, and is elsewhere called 
the "freemason"), sent by his son the draft of the door-case to 
the Hall with the Company's arms. The son stated that the cost 



KEY SCUTCHEON OK MUNIMENT CHEST. 



would be ;^35, but that an alternative design, "the playnest," would 
come to ^5 less. The cheaper door-case was ordered. One Edward 
Salter seems to have been employed in rubbing and cutting bricks, 
the work when done proving useless. His bill amounted to ^£17 7s., 
to which the Company demur, but " for quietness' sake" offer him 
;gi5, which he declines and ultimately obtains an additional pound. 

On February 22nd, at a full Court, Dr. Merrett's book was publicly 
read. This book, the work of Dr. Christopher Merrett, physician, 
botanist, and miscellaneous writer, was entitled "A Short View of 



THE HALL REBUILT 83 

the Frauds and Abuses committed by Apothecaries, and ot the only 
Remedy thereof by Physicians making their own Medicines." It 
was published in 1669, a second edition appearing in 1670. Other 
works of a similar nature were published by Merrett, viz., " Self- 
Conviction, or an Enumeration of the Absurdities and Railings against 
the College and Physicians in General" (1670) ; and "The Honest 
Apothecary and the Skilful Chirurgeon delecting their necessary 
connexion and dependence on one another. Withall a Discovery 
of the Quackery Empirick, the Prescribing Surgeon, and the 
Practising Apothecary" (1670), At the Hall the reading of this 
book raised a storm, and it is hardly to be wondered at. A depu- 
tation was sent to the Physicians asking them to call a College, 
and this was agreed to. Considerable discussion took place at the 
Hall on the course to be pursued. Some proposed to ignore the 
book, others to hear what the Physicians proposed to do with 
respect to it ; a third — and this the cleverest view had it met with 
acceptance — was to take no notice until the Physicians " had owned 
the book" and then to come down on them for explanations. 
Finally a polite message was sent to the College "greatly desiring 
the continuance of the ancient love and ami tie, etc," but complaining 
of the injuries which were done the Company by some scandalous 
books which some members of that Society had written against the 
Company, and to know if the College would disavow such books. 
It seems that in addition to Dr. Merrett's attack. Dr. Jonathan Goddard 
had published something similar in the way of a book entitled "A 
Discourse Concerning Physick" (1668). Goddard subsequently, in 
1670, followed this up with a "Discourse on the Unhappy Condition 
of the Practice of Physick." Both were, of course, directed against 
the pretensions of the Apothecaries, but Goddard is reported to 
have written " of this matter more warily and with greater prudence " 
than Merrett. 

In reply the College stated that it desired the continuance of 
the ancient love and amity, etc., but as to the rest it was a question 
not fit for the Apothecaries to put to them or for them to 
answer, as the persons had put their names to the books in question. 
Various polite communications passed on both sides, during which 
the College was informed that " the Company, far from infringing 



84 APOTHECARIES 

their just rights and honour, preferred them before their own, and 
held their interest was endangered and wrapt up in ours, and that 
they were wounded through our sides, and if our Company did 
fall, then the College would not long stand." 

A meeting between four Physicians and four Apothecaries was 
then arranged to take place, and in the intervening time nothing 
on the subject was either to be written or printed by the request 
of the College. Drs. Goddard and Merrett were specially excluded 
from the four physicians named to treat of the matter. Prior to 
the meeting with the Physicians, the Apothecaries determined to 
hold private consultations at the Queen's Head in Paternoster Row, 
and ''under the Chapel at Lincoln's Inn." Unfortunately, there is 
no record of how the dispute ended to be read in the Minute 
Books, or what resulted from these meetings. 

We will now return to the building of the new Hall. Fearing 
fire, and probably evil odours, a clause was inserted in the building 
agreements of the tenements that "no tenant should be either a 
blacksmith or a tallowchandler." On July 19, 1670, Mr. Hinton 
reported to the Court that a private individual proposed to take 
young men abroad for two or three years (April 30th to August ist) 
for the purpose of botanical study. The party was to be "under 
a good government and free from drinking." The Company 
promised to promote so good a work in every way they were able. 

For the ensuing year, 1670-71, Mr. Hollingsworth became Master, 
Mr. Hinton Upper and Mr. Pilkington Renter Warden. On June 
24th, Mr. Young, the " freemason," being asked what rent he was 
willing to pay for the occupancy of some of the Company's ground, 
promised to make the Great Staircase to the Hall "for his own 
credit and gratefully for the Company," and he promised to shortly 
furnish a model thereof. On July 14th, Robert Surges and Roger 
Davies were paid £^V] 12s. for executing the wainscot of the 
Great Hall as far as the screen. A few days later the same persons 
were paid £^^ for the screen itself. At the same meeting it was ordered 
that a " course be taken to prevent the smoke coming into the Hall up 
the little stairs." Where these stairs were does not seem now to be 
known, but the probability is, and measurements point in this direc- 
tion, that they would be found in the thickness of the wall on 



UpparHirhon v\ Shiircosc 



86 APOTHECARIES 

the left-hand side of the passage leading to the factory. By this 
means access from the kitchens beneath the Hall would have been 
gained to the present lower end for the purpose of conveying thither 
dishes, etc. 

On September 8, 1671, it was ordered that a " Laboratory be 
erected and finished," the Assistants contributing 25s. each, the 
Livery 15s., and the Yeomanry los. For the year 1671-2 Mr. 
Felling was Master, Mr. Hunter Upper and Mr. Butler Renter 
Warden. Prior to the Lord Mayor's Day an order arrived desiring 
the attendance of the Company on the occasion "by land." It 
was determined that as the Company had only a " few banners and 
no railes" they "would make what show they could that year, 
and provide better for the next." On January 29, 167 1-2, the first 
" Operator " was elected for the Laboratory. There were two candi- 
dates, Messrs. Samuel Stringer and Samuel Hall, and of these the 
first-named was chosen. Mr. William Browne was the first Treasurer 
of the Laboratory. At the same meeting it was ordered that the ovens 
should be pulled down and set up in the late intended kitchen and the 
place be converted into a laboratory. The conditions under which 
Mr. Stringer was engaged are hardly comprehensible. He was to 
be provided with half the working stock, half the wages of the 
journeymen and labourers, to have a house of the rental of ;^2o, 
and no salary. The engagement was for three years, but where 
his profit came in is not apparent. It was at this date that the 
" King's Arms," now in the Great Hall, were ordered to be made 
and set up, but they were " to be done by any other than the lace 
carvers." On April i, 1672, it was debated whether the "selling 
place" for the Operator of the Laboratory should be in the Hall 
or the tenements, and it was settled to establish it in the latter. On 
the same day an offer made by the Feltmakers Company was 
discussed. This Company, having no Hall, desired to hire two 
rooms over the kitchen from the Apothecaries, and to have one 
Dinner per annum in the Hall. The events of the year until 
November are not very important. Mr. Stringer having made a 
catalogue for the Laboratory — a sort of trade price list or circular this 
— presented it to the Company, and was requested to furnish a copy 
to the College of Physicians. An amusing entry refers to ill-blood 



THE HALL REBUILT 8; 

between the Clerk and the Beadle, and is as follows : " Whereas 
this Court are very sensible of the greate animosities that are between 
the Clarke and the Beadle, which tend very much to the hindrance of 
the proceedings, it is ordered that except they doe agree they are 
resolved to casheire them both." Once in this year the Hall is noted 
as "let for a funerall," On October 22, 1672, the courtyard was ordered 



THE OLDEST WINDOW RBMAIMIHG. 



to be paved with flat stone, and a garden in the rear of the Great 
Hall to be enclosed, Mr. Johnson or Mr. Litlar being requested 
"to proceed to gardening." There was some irregularity in the 
election this year, for until this date there is no mention of any 
change in the officers. Mr. Gape was, however, the new Master, 
Mr. Pilkington Upper and Mr, Michell Renter Warden. 
On November 30th a very serious matter occupied the Court Mr. 



88 APOTHECARIES 

Burton, the Clerk, was called in and examined touching the informa- 
tion which had been exhibited against the late Master and Wardens. 
The Clerk confessed that he had heard of it, and that one Robert 
Hull, his son-in-law, was the informant, but that the information 
was laid without his (the Clerk's) consent. He was asked for his 
advice, "at that time not being suspected of ill-doing." His reply 
was, to plead not guilty to the information and "taking a licence 
from a judge to compound with the informer, and whatsoever the 
informer compoundeth for he makes oath the King should have 
no more." It was, however, determined to take Counsel's opinion, 
and ;^ioo was borrowed to defend the suit. Major Rousewell and 
two others were deputed to wait on the King in connection with 
the matter. This they did, and possibly the question of penalty 
was "squared," as we hear no more of it. 

On January 14, 1672, the Clerk was absolutely discharged for 
divers misdemeanours by him committed against the Company. He 
petitioned for reinstatement, and his petition was rejected, but a 
quarter's salary was paid to him. Five charges were laid against 
him and, presumably, proved, i. Conspiring against the Company 
by abetting Robert Hull to lay information against the late Master 
and Wardens on a penal statute involving £2,'j(>o forfeiture ; to 
do which he had permitted the Company's books to be carried out 
of the Hall and copied, in manifest breach of his oaths, and thereby 
putting the Company to great trouble and expense. 2. Antedating 
divers apprentices' indentures without the knowledge of the Master 
and Wardens, against his oath and the benefit of the Company. 
3. Abuse of trust in not going into Kent to take a fine of lands 
purchased by the Company, " though he had £'i for that purpose, 
and said he had been." What lands were these ? — there does not 
appear any trace of them elsewhere. 4. For removing the Company's 
books from the Hall, and refusing to redeliver them to the Master and 
Wardens when requested, without the warrant of Lord Chief Justice 
Hall. 5. For railing at, revilmg and abusing Mr. Walter Felling and 
others of the Court of Assistants, for not submitting himself according 
to orders, and for saying he would sell the Company man by man for 
2s. 6d. apiece, and slighting and neglecting the conservation of the 
Company. A formidable array of charges, truly, nevertheless Burton 



THE HALL REBUILT 89 

had the impudence to offer himself for re-election as Clerk. There 
were two other candidates, and Mr. John Meres was chosen. An 
order touching a barge at this time is rather interesting. " Whereas 
on the last Lord Mayor's Day divers good men of this Society, visibly 
perceiving the inconveniency and unhandsomeness of that and the 
other hired barges of former times, did voluntarily subscribe towards 
the building of a barge and purchasing of a bargehouse, being most 
useful for all herbarizing days besides the necessity of the Lord 
Mayor's Day, which members expressing thereby their goodwill 
towards the honour and reputation of this Society. It is hoped 
they will also use their further endeavours and incouragement to 
the rest of our brethren, and therefore this Court doth give them their 
hearty thanks and do desire their members hereunder written to go 
and solicit the said members of each degree to subscribe." Here 
follows a list of names, and a committee was formed to find a 
convenient place for a bargehouse. The ex-Clerk, scamp though he 
was, was treated with great magnanimity. "Out of charity" ;^5o 
was given him in two payments, half on leaving his rooms in the 
Hall, the other to follow on the next Michaelmas Day, provided 
he gave up possession without damaging the property of the Com- 
pany, and till then demeaned himself properly. This year at the 
Lord Mayor's Dinner Mr. William Standen, a liveryman, abused 
Mr. John Chase, an Assistant, in the presence of the Lord Mayor. 
The Beadle was ordered to summon the offender, who duly submitted 
and was fined. 

Fifty-one acceptances had been received for a dinner on Lord 
Mayor's Day, but of these a large number absented themselves, and 
not having paid their quota were ordered to pay at once to his 
lordship. Mr. Stringer finding, as was likely, his Laboratory contract 
was the reverse of profitable, resigned, and on being requested to 
continue to act as "Operator" refused point blank. On June 5th 
complaint was made at a Court meeting by the Wardens, that the 
Beadle was continually presenting bills and making demands for 
money which he pretended was due to him for services rendered to 
former Masters. It was ordered that if he in future troubled the 
Court with any arrears he should be discharged. His accounts were 
henceforth to be paid monthly. 



90 APOTHECARIES 

On July I, 1673, a precept was received from the Lord Mayor, and 
read at the Court meeting. It concerned the taking of the Sacrament 
and the oaths ordered to be taken by the Act for " preventing dangers 
which may happen from popish recusants." The Lord Mayor invited 
the Assistants to comply therewith in order to avoid penalty. 

Consequently, the Master and Wardens, accompanied by the 
Clerk, did so in the King's Bench, and the Beadle was ordered to 
summon the rest of the Livery to do the same. On July 22nd a 
contract for building a barge was signed, but it was stated that no 
convenient bargehouse could be found. At the election held August 
14th it was first put to the vote whether Mr. John Jones, the 
Apothecary to His Majesty's Household, should be nominated as a 
candidate for the Mastership. The proposal was negatived, and pro- 
ceeding to an election Mr. Johnson was chosen Master, Mr. Butler 
Upper and Mr. Warner Renter Warden. Mr. Jones, however, "if it be 
agreeable to those liverymen who are his seniors," was to be made an 
Assistant. The keys of the Hall and rooms therein were henceforward 
appointed to be in the custody of the Clerk, from whom the Beadle 
was required to fetch any that might be needed. The rooms in the 
occupation of the Clerk are at the same time set down. He had the 
use of four lower rooms, a cellar and pantry, three rooms over the 
gallery and the rooms over the Court Room, lastly the little closets 
above the study. He was forbidden to take lodgers or other inmates 
save his own family. The Beadle was allowed the two rooms below 
stairs "wherein he now is, and noe more." If, however, either 
" he or any of his be sick," he was to be permitted to use the little 
closet at the " stayre head next the garretts." To the Master are 
allotted the garrets over the kitchen on the north side of the 
Hall "for his lodging and to lay up rosemary and other herbs." On 
September 4th we read that the fine for refusing the place of Steward 
on the Lord Mayor's Day was raised to no less a sum than £12. The 
first mention of a garden at Chelsea occurs in the next entry, coupled 
with a statement that a Mr. Gape promises to wall it in within five years 
at his own cost. There was at once some legal dispute concerning 
the ground, and one Mr. Bering took action against the Company, 
pretending a forfeiture. The Company retaliated by bringing in a 
bill in Chancery against him. On April 28, 1674, we read that the 



THE HALL REBUILT 91 

Laboratory shop is ordered to be moved to the end of the walk under 
the gallery, "unto the first pillar and further if there be occasion." 
It now extends to the third pillar. A new Laboratory operator, one Mr. 
Hull, was now engaged at a salary of ^40 per annum. At the annual 
election, August i8th, Mr. Battersby was chosen Master, Mr. Michell 
Upper and Mr. Skynner Renter Warden. The Tallowchandlers 
Company now made an offer for some of the waste land by the 
waterside, on which they desired to build a bargehouse. They asked 



for a lease of forty-one years, and offered 40s. annual rent. The 
beadle was continued in office "on his good behaviour and promise 
to free the parish from his charge of children," being admonished by 
the Court to behave himself towards all the members of the Company 
with " better respect than formerlie." This admonition seems to have 
had but little effect, for on Octotier 8th both the beadle and his wife 
were summoned before the Assistants for using abusive language to 
Mr. Hull, the Laboratory Operator. For this offence the pair were 
turned out of'their rooms, being (subject to his future good behaviour) 



92 APOTHECARIES 

allowed 20s. a quarter lodging money. On November 12th ground 
for a bargehouse was taken on a fifty-one years lease from Sir John 
Sheldon and Mr. Charleton at a rental of 40s., but its locality is not 
stated. The Weavers Company now offered to become tenants for 
ground for a bargehouse, asking a forty-one years lease and proposing 
a rent of from ^1 los. to ^3 per annum. Then the Tallowchandlers 
requested a double plot, and this was granted. Having got rid of the 
abusive treadle and his rooms being vacant, Mr. Meres, who already 



had the use of nearly the whole of the premises, made a request for the 
two vacant apartments, and this also was granted. 

On February 25, 1674, four dozen and five spoons are ordered to 
be sold, A Mr. Whitworth, then just deceased, left a curious legacy 
to the Company. It was ^30 for the purpose of lending sums of 
money for three years to poor widows of members of the Livery, after 
which it was to revert to the Company. Security for repayment was, 
however, a condition imposed before the loans were to be paid. The 



THE HALL REBUILT 93 

whole legacy was void unless twelve Assistants and twenty-two of the 
Livery went to his funeral in gowns and hoods. His executors fixed 
the funeral for April 14th, and it was announced to start from 
Artillery House, Horsely Down, proceeding thence to the grave in 
St Olave's Church, South wark. An entry of the same date men- 
tions the setting up of " Mr. Lorrymer's coate of armes in the glass 
window." This we have already noticed as being spurious. 

On May 18, 1675, Mr. Litlar's executor brought " a silver tankard 
with his coate of armes upon it, with the inscription 'ex dono 
Richardi Litlar hujus societatis . . . magistri dignissimi,' and a note 
in writing of " soe much of his will of his own hand as concerns 
their Company." This tankard is no longer in the possession of the 
Society. The barge was now completed and was ordered to be paid 
for, but its cost is not stated. 



CHAPTER X 

THE "DISPENSARY" DISPUTE 

N the Election Day, August 24, 1675, the celebrated 
"Dispensary" dispute began between the College 
of Physicians and the Society of Apothecaries, The 
new Master was Mr. Hinton, the Upper Warden 
Mr. Warner and the Renter Warden Mr, Standen. 
The Master as his first act read a document from 
the College which ran as follows: — 

"The President-elect, Censors and Commonalty of the King's 
College of Physicians do give notice that besides every collegiate 
cheerful readyness to advise and prescribe for such of the poore who 
shall apply themselves to thera at their several respective habitations. 
We also have constituted and appointed two of our number, or 
more if occasion shall require, who shall from ten o'clock till twelve 
successively attend at our said College all such poor who shall bring 
certificates with them from either any of the Aldermen, Deputies, 
Common Council men. Churchwardens, or Overseers for the Poor 
that they are fitt objects of charity, to direct for and take care of 
them gratis in their several maladys and distempers. Not doubting 
but that the Company of the Apothecaries will suitably comply with 
our just and real intention and designe of serving the public in 
affording medicines prescribed by us to such poor at rates answerable 
to the lowness of their condition." 

To this was appended a list of thirteen names, that of Dr. Mickel- 
thwaite appearing first. A second paper states that the Company of 
Apothecaries is to be consulted to know if they have made any vote 
for the providing of medicines for the poor, and if not, that they may 



THE ''DISPENSARY'' DISPUTE 95 

be desired to meet the Committee at the College in Warwick Lane to 
consult. Both papers were read, seriously considered and debated. 
It was then decided that there was a want of formality about the 
documents, in that the signatures of the President-elect and the 
Censors were lacking. This was laid before the College after a pre- 
liminary meeting between certain Apothecaries and Drs. Allen and 
Hodges, at the Mitre in Stockmarket. The Physicians averred that it 
was contrary to the practice of the College to sign such orders or 
votes. They stated that the papers were merely copies made by their 
beadle, and so for a brief space the matter rested. How from this 
beginning much bitter strife arose will be related hereafter ; for the 
present, in order to retain some chronological order, it will be needful 
to return to the ordinary domestic history of the Company. Still, at 
this stage it may be mentioned that the Apothecaries agreed to make 
up prescriptions for properly accredited poor at as low rates as 
possible. But there was evidently ill-blood, for almost immediately it 
was agreed that " not more than six physicians " were ever to be 
present at any of the Company's feasts. 

Late in 1675 we read that "a pew" was to be built m the 
"Tabernacle," an entry which, in the absence of any explanation, 
is somewhat puzzling. On November 9, 1675, the barge-master 
was granted an allowance of £^ yearly, lodging money, until the 
Company can build him a house. The conduct of some of those 
present at the dinners led to the exclusion of women from the feast 
held in the Hall on Lord Mayor's Day. Mr. Smith, the beadle, was, 
together with his wife, complained of by Mr. Pelling as using abusive 
language to one Fage his tenant. It seems to have been a dispute, 
really, between Mrs. Smith and Mrs. Fage. The two husbands were, 
however, ordered to mutually enter into bonds within a fortnight under 
a penalty of 40s. to keep the peace. If Smith failed to do this he was to 
be discharged. On May 23, 1676, owing to a fire which had burnt 
some of the wainscotting of the great Hall, and which was caused by 
the overheating of the laboratory chimney, we find eighteen fire 
buckets ordered and two hand spouts as well. These were to be kept in 
the Hall against such accidents. The monetary rewards paid to those 
who extinguished the flames are thus entered : "x* to labourer, xx* to 
Mr. Meres his mayd, and Mr. Mere he paid xi vi** out of purse, and 



96 APOTHECARIES 

the other viij* vi'*. XL to be distributed among the men who worked 
at the fire." Repairs were ordered, the chimney wall was to be 
made secure against fire, and the wainscot also. Hence it is that 
that portion of panelling in the great Hall behind which the labora- 
tory flue ran projects some inches from the wall. 

The Court on the same day decided that " Mr. Delaune's head be 
sette upp in the hall before the same (repairs) be finished, and an 
inscription made." Mr. Jones, the Apothecary of the King's House- 
hold, on that occasion presented the picture of Charles I. to be hung 
in the Hall. This gift was in lieu of his Livery and Steward's fines. In 
June, 1676, the Company rented Mr. Gape's garden and the plants 
therein at Chelsea for one year and a quarter, at a rental of ;^i6. An 
Assistant, Mr. Cover, now offered to "gild the King's Armes in the 
Hall" in proper heraldic colours, and his offer was gratefully accepted. 

It appears that the measures taken to compel the beadle to keep 
the peace and behave himself with decorum were hardly successful. 
Ejected from the Hall, he now quarrelled with his wife, who laid an 
action against him in the Ecclesiastical Court, and succeeded. The 
beadle then petitioned the Court to pay his fees ! and seemingly with 
success, as £^ is awarded to him on condition that he and his wife 
"live in peace with their neighbours." From another extract it is 
gleaned that Mrs. Smith and her maid-servant were so abusive that 
their neighbours complained. Both are hereafter forbidden to set foot 
within the precincts of the Company's Hall, their occupation of 
washing the rooms and scouring the powder (? pewter) being trans- 
ferred to a charwoman whom the Renter Warden was directed to 
engage and pay. On the Election Day, August 15, 1676, Mr. 
Pilkington was chosen Master, Mr. Skinner Upper and Mr. Rand . 
Renter Warden. The garden wall, having been measured, was 
announced to be seventy-six rods. On the occasion of his election 
the Master presented the Company with eighteen "Turkey work 
chaires," which were received and accepted with thanks. Dated 
October 10, 1676, is a payment to Mr. Snelling the Limner, of ^15 
for " drawing King James's picture," and 28s. is granted to him for 
" the charge of procuring the copy to draw it by." This picture, a 
full-length, still hangs in the Hall ; it is of no merit, still this entry 
is not without interest. 



THE ''DISPENSARY'' DISPUTE 97 

On February 14, 1667, the Company, by the will of Mr. Darnelly, 
deceased, received a tankard value ;^io, brought to the Hall by his 
executor, Mr. Pott. 

The officers for 1677-8 were Mr. Butler, Master, Mr. Rand Upper 
and Mr. Robert Phelps Renter Warden. A Mr. Hall, who lived in 
the country, was first elected Upper Warden, and the Clerk was sent 
to him to his house in a coach to announce the fact. Hall refused 
office, and paid the fine. 

The top of the Hall {i,e. the parapet) was now ordered to be coped 
with " oake or stone " at the discretion of the Master and Wardens. 
Certain apothecaries having this year been charged by the Physicians 
with practising (prescribing), it was brought to the notice of the 
Court. The following entry concerns the matter : — After a lengthy 
debate, which was once adjourned, it was decided that "greatest care 
should be taken to admonish all Apothecaries not to practise, but on 
all occasions to advise their patients to call in a physician." 

The garden at Chelsea now became a source of great trouble and 
endless expense to the Company. Mr. Morgan, the gardener (a name 
hitherto unmentioned), asked for increased " consideration " for 
" keeping the garden and for his plants." After a debate, from which 
it appears that the Company believed itself to be wronged and cheated 
by its employes, a reference is made to a previous order dated June 
13, 1666. No order is, however, recorded in the Minute Books of that 
date which concerns the garden. A certain Piggott, employed at the 
garden, seems to have been a great offender, charging for work not 
done, etc. He was discharged, and ordered at once to deliver up 
the spades, shovels, and other utensils in his custody. 

On December 4, 1677, a serious complaint was made by one of 
the tenants of the Company near the Hall to the effect that the stench 
of the fumes arising from the preparation of "sulphur bells" was so 
bad as " to be ready to suffocate them, and makes them soe sicke they 
are not able to endure itt." Mr. Meres, the Clerk, and several 
neighbours corroborated the statement, and the nuisance was ordered 
to be abated instanter. The post of gardener was evidently a good 
one, the wages being £^^0 per annum and a house, and numerous 
applications were received from candidates who desired to fill the 
vacancy. The Lord Mayor at this time sent a letter of inquiry to the 

8 



98 APOTHECARIES 

Master to know what charitable bequests for prisons and prisoners 
were or had been in the distribution of the Company. There being 
none either then or in the past, a reply to that effect was returned. 

For the year 1678-9 the ofl&cers were Warner, Master, Phelpes 
Upper and Gierke Renter Warden. After the election a serious 
complaint against the beadle was investigated. He was charged with 
delivering tickets at Masters' (apothecaries) houses to the servants 
(journeymen and apprentices) to go " herbarizing," and with 
demanding 8d. apiece from them, saying that "it is their right," 
and that herbarizing was " instituted for that end," no matter what 
occasions their masters may have for their services at home. There 
were other complaints as to his having exacted is. each over and 
above the real fees due on apprentices when bound and when made 
free. It was put to the vote whether he should be discharged, and 
negatived ; but the scamp received a severe rebuke, and was warned 
that on a repetition of the offence he would be discharged. We read 
that his coat and hat at this period cost £^. On October 28, 1678, 
the garden was ordered to be planted with " nectarines of all sortes, 
peaches, Apricockes, Cherrys, and plums of several sorts and the best." 
The barge having been employed to take soldiers down the river from 
the city to the fleet, was ordered to be surveyed to estimate the damage 
thereto. On the same day it was decided to make a " water-gate " over 
against the pond in the garden. From the Lord Mayor a letter was 
read, asking a subscription towards providing coal and corn for the 
poor. Could this have been in any way connected with the charitable 
scheme of a like nature initiated by Thomas Firmin in 1670 ? The 
officers for 1679-80 were Michael, Master, Standen Upper and Heme 
Renter Warden. 

It would seem that despite the numerous applications for the post 
of gardener, it was not easy to find a suitable man. At length, one 
Mr. Watts presented himself, but asked ;^5o a year for three years. 
He promised economy, and to attend to the planting, if the Company 
will bear the contingent charges of two or three men to dig, carry 
dung, water the ground, and weed. He estimates the cost of glasses, 
pots, mats and dung as probably amounting to from £\o to ;^5o 
additionally each year. This offer was discussed, and the question 
was asked, why the garden should be so expensive, seeing that there 



THE ''DISPENSARY'' DISPUTE 99 

were said to be 1,200 plants there ? — a question of which the drift is 
not easy to see. Watts, however, was ordered to make a new catalogue 
of the plants, and to estimate their value. Here it is first called the 
'* Physick Garden." On March 26th a greenhouse is ordered to be 
built, this expenditure being moved by Mr. Phelpes " as very con- 
venient." An entry this year mentions that a present of no less than 
;^30 was made to the City Swordbearer, ** being the fine paid for the 
freedom of one Athmontie," a foreigner. It is not easy to compre- 
hend the reason of this lavish expenditure under the circumstances. 
On May i, 1680, the catalogue of the plants appeared, and out of 
1,200 specimens supposed to be in the garden according to the list 
furnished by Mr. Pratt, no less than 400 were missing. The green- 
house was still unfinished, but the works were ordered to be surveyed by 
a committee. Officers for 1680-81 : Skynner, Master, Gierke Upper 
and Pott Renter Warden. The Clothmakers Company now offered 
to hire the Hall for the first Monday in each month and on 
Michaelmas Day, and the parlour for their four ''Quarter Days," at a 
rental of ;^io. This offer was refused, after some debate. A 
physician (Dr. Garrett) offered ;^io as a fine for all offices, and in 
addition a piece of plate value ;^20 *' besides the fashion and will 
have the Company in his thoughts." This offer was accepted. From 
the Company of Pattenmakers now came an offer to rent the Hall on 
certain days. Its acceptance was moved by the Master, but " nothing 
done." 

On January 4, 1680, Mr. Skynner, the Master, having died, Mr. 
Rand was elected, but paying fine, Mr. Phelpes became Master for 
the remainder of the term. A note tells us that this day a tankard 
valued at ;^20 arrived from Dr. Garrett as promised. The over- 
crowding of the Hall on the " Public " feast day having become a 
nuisance. Assistants' wives were henceforth excluded, but had 
admission to the dinner on the First Election Day, after which they 
were to be entertained on the river in the barge. On August 5, 1681, 
the Company was found to be heavily in debt. A note tells us that 
on the motion of the Master, the ornamental stonework was ordered 
"for conveniency" to be taken away from the Laboratory. Mr. 
Gover is recorded as presenting the King's Picture to the Company, 
a gift gratefully accepted ; but this picture has vanished. The officers 



100 APOTHECARIES 

for 1681-2 were Standen, Master, Underwood Upper and Warren 
Renter Warden. When the Laboratory accounts were audited, it 
was found that the profit for the year amounted to no less than 
;^30 per cent. The Laboratory therefore was a paying and valuable 
asset. Its "stock" had been raised by bonds, partly the private 
property of the Assistants and Livery, and partly of the Company as 
a Corporate body. It was now mooted that the Company's interest 
should be parted with to individual members in order to pay their 
debts with the proceeds. The sermon (we have not heard of an 
election sermon for years) was this year preached by Dr. Nathanael 
Mather, the least celebrated of the three Congregationalist divines 
of that name. His discourse, however, so pleased the Apothecaries, 
that, in tendering their thanks, they urgently requested him to 
print it. 

The barge, which seems to have been very badly built, was now in 
a state of disrepair. The garden, from which the plants were per- 
petually being stolen, was a constant source of expense, and much 
trouble was caused thereby. Still, this did not deter the Company 
from a further attempt to increase the utility of their garden, nor was 
the improvement of the Laboratory neglected. Crippled in funds as 
they were, it was on October 6, 1681, determined to " contrive a 
Library" for the use of the Laboratory and Garden. At a Court held 
on October i8th, the Master moved a most curious proposal. This 
was no other than to let the Hall to a " Dancing Schoole." Being 
debated, several members said, and rightly, that " it was not for the 
reputation of the Company to deny to let it to a Company of the City 
of London and to let it to a dancing school." For the time, then, the 
matter dropped. Later, however, the Master again made a motion on 
the subject, to the effect that it should be let to one Mr. Richardson 
for a dancing school for young ladies. The dancing master had 
interest in the Court, it seems, for he and one of the Assistants, a 
Mr. Bradford, happened to^ be natives of the same place. Mr. 
Bradford averred that Richardson was an honest man. To this 
another Assistant rejoined that honest man or not, it was not only a 
dishonour to the Company but a detriment. The matter being 
put to the vote, it is somewhat surprising to read that the letting 
of the Hall was agreed to. Mr. Richardson was to use it for two 



I02 APOTHECARIES 

or three mornings each week, and for one evening from 6 p.m. to 
9 p.m. He covenanted to make good any damage, and never to 
admit any apprentices to the dancing. For rental he was to pay 
;^20 per annum, an agreement to this effect being duly drawn up. 
On the same day an entry mentions the allowance of ;^2o for the 
clock. Could this be towards the large clock in the courtyard ? 
Mr. Underwood being now reported by his wife as suffering from 
*' weakness in the head," she prays another Warden may be elected 
in his place. Mr. Sambrook, after some opposition, was chosen, but 
refused to serve and fined. Mr. Barrow was then elected. It is 
curious to note that the opposition was not directed against Sambrook, 
but against permitting the retirement of the " weak-headed " Warden. 
A "Repositorie" for the proposed Library was now ordered to be made 
at the end of the gallery. This Repository still exists in the shape of 
some exceedingly deep cupboards on either side of the fireplace. At 
the same time the sides of the gallery were ordered to be lined with 
wainscot, and a panel was executed as a specimen. Mr. Smith, the 
abusive beadle, died this year. A curious note dated August ii, 1682, 
tells us that a compassionate allowance of £^ was, on August nth, 
bestowed on him "for his extraordinary services in the hot weather, 
beyond his strengthe whereby he got a fitt of sickeness to the hazard 
of his life." He was buried at the expense of the Company. 

The officers for 1682-3 were Mr. W. Clarke (Clerke), Master, 
Edward Heme Upper and James Gover Renter Warden. The 
business for October, 1682, consisted in electing one Boys as beadle, 
and ordering him a suit of clothes at a cost of £^ "against Lord 
Mayor's Day." Certain repairs, for the second time this year, to the 
barge were effected at the cost of ^4. On October 24, 1682, the first 
mention of a ballot-box occurs in the Minutes, votes hitherto having 
been by voice or show of hands. 

On the same day, important Laboratory business was decided. 
The Company, as a company, was henceforward to hold no more 
than a quarter share in the undertaking. It was ordered that " no 
chemical preparation may be sold to any person whatever, except 
to Physicians, Chirurgeons, Druggists, and Apothecaries of this 
Corporation, and not to foreigners." Apothecaries who had shops 
outside the seven-mile limit were designated as "foreigners." The 



THE ''DISPENSARY'' DISPUTE 103 

shares in the Laboratory were to be equalised as far as possible to a 
limit of £2^ a man, neither more nor less, and no subscribers to 
shares were to be admitted, even from among the Livery, unless 
" voted in " by a majority of the subscribers. These rules were 
objected to most strongly at the meeting held on November 9, 
1682. It was urged that they were to the "total detriment of 
the original intention of the Laboratory," which was designed for 
the honour of the Company, the overplus after the Company's debts 
were paid being intended to be devoted to the relief of the poor. 
In December, 1682, Mr. Watts complained that the garden pay- 
ments were in arrear, and begged for more regularity therein. He 
was met by a question as to why so many men were employed in the 
dead season. His reply not being deemed satisfactory, he was 
informed that these extra men being employed for his profit, the 
Company ought not to be called upon to pay the charge. It appears 
that provided the gardener kept a certain botanical physical stock 
in the garden, he could dispose of all beyond to his own advan- 
tage. On February 6, 1683, a present to the Repository was received 
of " Dr. Greene's Museum " per Mr. James Houghton. Mrs. Smith, 
the widow of the beadle, received 20s. as a gratuity "provided she 
never more troubled the Company." Two doors in the Chelsea 
garden were stopped up, for which the carpenter charged the 
exorbitant sum of ;f 20. A boy who desired to be bound appren- 
tice was rejected "for insufficiency in the latin tongue." This is 
worth notice as the first mention of Latin being a subject of 
examination. 

On June 19, 1683, the great expense of the garden was so manifest 
that it was proposed to abandon it altogether. It had cost ;^ii9 
for contingent expenses even after an original demand of Watts 
for ;^i40 had been taxed. In the debate which ensued, Mr. Chase 
"affronted" the Master and was desired to withdraw, "which he 
refused to doe." On Election Day, August 23rd, Mr. Sambrooke was 
chosen Master, Mr. Benjamin Dunne Upper and Mr. John Arrow- 
smith Renter Warden. Mr. Watts appeared at the Court to get a 
settlement of his pretended claims. He was offered in future a 
salary of ;^8o, with ;^20 for an extra allowance for that year. This 
he at first refused, but ultimately accepted ;^ioo per annum inclusive 



104 APOTHECARIES 

on a seven years agreement ; a clause being introduced to the effect 
that the Company was to buy an iron roller, while he provided shells 
for the garden walks I North, the cook of the Company, who had 
been appointed on June 20, 1676, now appeared before the Court 
charged by the Master with "reflective language." His dismissal 
was asked for, but a compromise was arrived at, and in this way — the 
appointment was henceforward to be annual. Such was the financial 
condition of the Company, that when the accounts for this year 
were audited it was found that the expenditure, ^£721 19s. 7d., had 
exceeded the income by ^58 19s. 2d. On December 11, 1683, the 
Hall was proposed to be insured against fire for thirty-one years for 
^2,000. The premium was computed to be ;^45 i6s., and this course 
was agreed to. 

Early in February, 1683, the garden " stoves " were furnished 
and paid for, the plasterer, Mr. Sparkes, receiving ^-j los. and 
the glazier ^"j ; the plumber, one Windes, receiving two sums of 
;^4 and ^3 los. for his share of the work. Finally the catalogue 
of the garden plants is presented and ordered to be printed. The 
compiler, one Mr. Stophurst, offered to do this at his own cost, 
though as he had been engaged to make the catalogue, it is 
difficult to understand why. 



LIBRARY. 




CHAPTER XI 

THE SURRENDER OF THE CHARTER 

N April lo, 1684, the Charter of the Company was 
again assailed by a Quo-warranto. It was decided 
that a petition should at once be addressed to his 
Majesty. Meanwhile, a sub-posnd was served on 
the Society to appear in the King's Bench. The 
petition was presented, and in reply the King 
demanded the surrender of the Charter, seeing that it contained a 
clause which gave the Company power to elect Master, Wardens, 
Assistants, and Clerk. The Attorney General then ordered the Clerk 
to come to his office and receive the requisite surrender form. This 
was obtained, and certain copies thereof were made " engrossed on 
parchment." 

At the Special Court called in consequence, this document was 
thrice read and debated on. Eventually it was ordered that the 
seal of the Company be set to a deed of surrender. A petition 
for a re-grant of the Charter was then attached, and these two docu- 
ments were forwarded to the Attorney General. The Clerk, who 
acted as messenger, was by him informed that a special petition must 
be forwarded for exemption from offices, juries, etc. This was done, 
and in reply came the brief sentence " that it could not be granted." 
A new Charter was, however, to be given to the Company. The 
Election for the year 1684-5 was held under difficulties. Practically 
no Charter existed under which officers could be chosen, though a 
new one was being prepared. It was doubtful whether any election 
would be valid, nay more, whether penalties might not be incurred 

by those who participated therein. Eventually Mr. Barrow was 

105 



I 



io6 APOTHECARIES 

chosen Master, and Mr. Garrett Golding Upper Warden. Dr. Frances 
Bernard, on being elected Renter Warden, wisely paid fine, in that 
by his office he would have had responsibility for the funds of the 
Company. Mr. Rolfe, who was then put up for the post, had at first 
no fears and accepted office. Subsequently he also paid a fine, and 
in the end Mr. William Bradford became Renter Warden. The day 
when these three entered office and took the oaths is in the Minute 
Book styled " Confirmation Day," the first time the term occurs in any 
document. 

On October i6, 1684, a list of forty-one names was submitted to 
the Attorney General, that he might choose therefrom the Assistants, 
under the new Charter, and for insertion therein. He is, however, 
to be responsible for the fines of any who refused office ! The fines 
were to be used for the repayment of ;^ioo which had been borrowed 
for the expenses of the new Charter. Mr. Richardson, the "honest 
man," finding the Company in trouble, at once declares his rent 
of ;^20 too high and demands an abatement of £4., the which he 
obtains. On February 16, 1684, the new Charter was read, and 
several of the members of the Court of Assistants named therein 
took the oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance, and also " the oath 
made in the 13th year of the late King Charles II.," and they also 
subscribed to the declaration made in the same year for the well- 
governing of Corporations, " all being performed according to the 
direction of His Majesty's new Charter." Mr. Edward Hearne 
replaced the former Master, Mr. Pott the old Upper Warden, while 
Mr. William Bradford retained his place as Renter Warden. Mr. 
Meres, the Clerk, was discharged, and a Government nominee, one 
Fleetwood, was appointed in his place. Meres was ordered to leave 
his rooms by Midsummer at latest, and a Schedule of the Com- 
pany's goods therein, or in his charge elsewhere, was ordered to be 
made. 

The old Livery, it may be stated, had been entirely done away 
with by the surrender. On May 6, 1685, a precept was received from 
the Lord Mayor stating that the King desired the Company to 
have a Livery, it being one of the Companies which he had decided 
should have one ; and hence it was requested that a list of possible 
candidates should be sent to the Guildhall. To this (referring 



THE SURRENDER OF THE CHARTER 107 

to the names) the note is appended : "to be approved loyally." 
The Queen being reported desirous of visiting the Chelsea Garden, 
*^ convenient " seats are ordered to be placed there for her ac- 
commodation. At the first Court held by the Assistants, one of 
the new men, a certain Sir John Clarke, claimed precedence for his 
rank of knight, and was asked to sit next the Master. Repairs to 
the battlement of the Hall were now, it seems, already required, and 
this was ordered to be newly coped, with a rail and bannister set 
up next the Court-yard — a decoration which has now been removed. 
The first list of Assistants contains thirty-nine names, forty-one 
others furnishing the new Livery. That the Company had merely now 
become a Court engine for electoral purposes, is clear, from an entry 
of names on the date of the City Election, May 14, 1685, *' all the 
above persons are very loyell and polled right." Still the Assistants 
had yet some little spirit left, despite the strong leaven of Court 
nominees which had been infused into their ranks. The old 
Apothecaries among them rebelled against the assumption of prece- 
dence by Sir John Clarke, and challenged the Master's invitation 
to him. The Master professed that he had yielded to Sir John 
Clarke's demand " bemg taken by surprise." It was therefore settled 
that the interloper should " give place." Mr. Meres now attempted to 
cling to his dwelling-place in the Hall, but much as the old Assistants 
would have liked to retain him, they were compelled to force him to 
leave, extracting a bond from the wretched man of ;^50, to be 
forfeited if he were on the premises after July 13th. The barge- 
master was the next delinquent. He came to the Court with a story 
that his silver badge valued at ;^20, and the property of the Company, 
was lost I So matters went on till the Election held on August 
20, 1685. Then Mr. Benjamin Dunne became Master, Mr. Warner 
Upper and Mr. Hall Renter Warden. The bargemaster appeared at 
the Court about his lost badge, and was promptly bound over 
in ;^20 to produce it on demand. Mr. Pott, who had been acting 
for some time as Treasurer of the Laboratory Stock, was this year 
presented with a piece of plate value ;^io "for his greate paines." 
He became Master at the Election held in August 1686, the Wardens 
being Mr. Gover and Mr. Danson. Continuing, notwithstanding 
his Mastership, to hold the office of Laboratory Treasurer, he in 



io8 APOTHECARIES 

May, 1687, received another similar gift of plate. At the Election, 
August 18, 1687, James St. Amand was chosen Master, John Arrow- 
smith Upper and William Phillipps Renter Warden. The last- 
named was a son of the first Master of the Company. On October 
7, 1687, the King removed several Masters, Wardens and Assis- 
tants of several Companies; the Apothecaries suffered among the 
rest. A list of twenty-five names is given of those who were thus 
removed, among them being Mr. Pott, Mr. Arrowsmith, Sir John 
Clarke, and nearly every past Master then alive. A document 
received from the Lord Mayor announced the news, and was fol- 
lowed by an order to hold a new election to fill up vacancies in 
the office holders, the Court of Assistants, and the Livery generally. 
On October 22, 1687, the cowed Company determined to forward 
an address of thanks to the King for his Declaration of Indulgence, 
the which was presented on the 26th and graciously received by his 
Majesty, who in his reply observed " that when we should think fit 
to call a Parliament they ought to choose him such members as would 
concur with him therein." But the bolt of James H. was nearly 
spent. In vain he attempted to undo the work he had done, and by 
a tardy reconstruction of the old Livery to regain popularity. With 
his restorations to other companies we have nothing to do. To the 
Apothecaries he gave back eight Assistants and nine of the old Livery 
on March 3rd. The document of restoration came through the Lord 
Mayor, and in it the taking of oaths is dispensed with, and the fact 
ordered to be entered in the Company's book. On June 27th a new 
beadle was elected, the post having been vacant for a considerable 
length of time ; the new official was one Humphrey Stourton. The 
Master and Wardens for 1688-9 were James Chase, Henry Sykes, 
and Thomas Fige. On November 28, 1688, a Grand Court of the old 
and new Assistants met in the Hall, and the sealed surrender of the 
Charter lately delivered up being read, the same was ordered to be 
cancelled. This was thereupon done, and the new Assistants dissolved 
the Court. There were ten only of the old Assistants alive, but these, 
acting on the old Charter of James I. which was restored, proceeded 
to fill up vacancies. A Master for the rest of the year was chosen in 
the person of Mr. Chase, the Wardens being Mr. Sykes and Mr. Fige. 
John Meres, the old Clerk of the Company, was reinstated, the Court 



THE SURRENDER OF THE CHARTER 109 

nominee Fleetwood being summarily dismissed. This in brief is the 
story of the surrender of the original Charter of the Apothecaries, of 
the granting of a new one, and of the subsequent restoration of the 
original document. By this restoration it comes that the Company at 
the present day holds under its original Charter of 1617. Twelve 
days after the restoration of the Charter, James II. had abdicated. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE SOCIETY AND THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 

E now find a renewal of the troubles with the 
College of Physicians. Complaints reached the 
Company on January 29, 1688, that the Physicians 
had taken to searching the files of bills and ac- 
count-books of certain members of the Apothe- 
caries, " to the prejudice of the Corporation and 
also of many patients." This search was a somewhat arbitrary 
proceeding, in good sooth, and was instituted to endeavour to 
obtain documentary evidence of illegal "practice." The Company, 
who did not consider that such a search ought to be permitted, 
determined to prevent it for the future. This was the decision 
arrived at by a Common Hall "of great appearance," i.e., largely 
attended. Mr. Richardson, the dancing-master, took this ill-timed 
occasion to ask for an abatement of rent. He declared that he 
had lost pupils through the guard kept at the Hall during the 
political crisis of late. His application was at once refused. 

On hearing of the opposition to their search by the Company 
the Physicians took the matter to the House of Lords, and we read 
that Mr. Meres was ordered by the Apothecaries to attend there and 
to watch the proceedings on the Company's behalf. According to 
the Company some bye-laws of the Physicians made under the late 
Charter granted to them were a genuine grievance, and this they 
desired redressed. 

The officers for 1689-go were Thomas Warren, Master, William 
Bradford Upper and Mark Stratton Renter Warden. For the last- 



THE SOCIETY AND COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS iii 

named office Spenser Piggott was originally elected, but refusing to 
serve, paid his fine. 

Here in the Minute Book follow some interesting entries with 
regard to the plate of the Company. At the end of July the Renter 
Warden had been ordered to sell as much of the old plate as he 
shall think fit to buy a silver " Monteth." A Monteith is a bowl 
made in the ordinary shape, but which has a detachable ring fitting 
round its edge to increase its depth. The edge of this ring is 
usually scalloped or ornamented. As plate, Monteith bowls came 
into fashion about 1674. 

On September 3, 1689, we read that "from old use plate and 
spoones" the Renter Warden brought into the cupboard of plate 
'* a silver Monteth and two dozen of forks." The Monteith, which 
is still in the possession of the Company, weighed 64 oz. 12 dwt., 
and cost 6s. per ounce. To this was added i8s. for " fashion and 
graving," the total being ^^19 iis. 6d. ; but it has not the usual 
detachable ring, and never had one. Two dozen forks weighed 
40 oz. 18 dwt., and cost 5s. 2d. per ounce, their fashion and graving 
amounting to ;^i i6s. — value, thereof, £12 7s. 3d. The new plate 
therefore cost ;^3i i8s. 9d. As a set-off he sold thirty-eight spoons, 
two "canns," and one salt, weighing 120 oz. 5 dwt., at 5s. 2d. per 
ounce, and producing £yi is. 3d., the balance being 17s. 6d. 
additional to be paid. 

On September 12, 1689, Mr. Chase, the late Master, presented 
the Company with two pieces of silver plate as his free gift, viz., a 
" Monteth " and a silver salver. 

On October 15, 1689, there is a note of the present of a few 
books to the Repository, followed by an announcement that Mr. 
Watts, of the Garden, is missing, and has been for near three 
months ! Clearly the Committee had not been attending to their 
duties at the Physic Garden of late. 

A serious attempt seems to have been made in March, 1690, 
to settle the differences between the Physicians and the Apothecaries, 
and also between the latter and the Surgeons, who had been dragged 
into the quarrel. A series of proposals were drawn up by a Mr. 
Langham, and were based on mutual concessions. The Physicians 
were to treat the Apothecaries fairly (that is, not to have shops of 



112 APOTHECARIES 

their own), and the Apothecaries were to recommend the faculty and 
to abstain from practice themselves. After a debate, the matter fell 
through. It was, in fact, precisely the arrangement proposed years 
before. The Apothecaries then insisted on the abrogation of certain 
harmful clauses from the new Charter of the Physicians, and, accord- 
ing to the Minute Book, obtained their way, making, in return, most 
stringent laws against Apothecaries practising, the penalties heretofore 
decreed for that offence being doubled ; and so again for a time the 
dispute slumbered. 

The officers (or 1690-91 were Mr. J. Gover, Master, Mr. Thomas 
Soaper Upper and Mr. Thomas Elton Renter Warden. 



■ COURT JKoon. 

There is a curious entry of the son of an Assistant, by name 
Mores, being appointed to act as his father's deputy, though not 
on the Court or Livery. The father was sick of asthma, and was 
obliged to live in the country during the winter. 

In June, 1691, Mr. Meres, the Clerk, died, and his son (evidently 
brought up to be a clerk, if his handwriting is any criterion) was 
elected in his place. The officers for 1691-2 were Mr. Bradford, Mr. 
Danson, and Mr. Travels; those for 1692-3 were Thomas Hall, 
Thomas Fige, and Thomas Langham. No event of interest occurs ; 
the few entries mainly concern garden expenses, 

On August 24, 1693, we read with pleasure that the Company is 
" nearly out of dette." Mr. Sykes was Master, Mr. Phillipps Upper 



THE SOCIETY AND COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 113 

and Mr. Gelsthrop Renter Warden. Mr. Rawlins was elected to the 
latter office, but fined. It would appear that the possible solvency 
of the Company led to great jollification at the Election Feast. At 
least, on the Election Day August 23, 1694, when Mr. Danson, 
Piggott, and Sir John Clarke were chosen, we read the following : — 
"Owing to the disorder in the Hall at the last Master's feast no 
more- than one woman per Assistant be admitted unless invited by 
the Master and Wardens, and no livery man be admitted without 
a ticket." Mr. Danson, however, objected to serve as Master, and 
so Sir John Clarke was put up and chosen, Mr. Gardner becoming 
Renter Warden in his stead. Towards the end of this year a 
Bill in Parliament was promoted by subscription to exempt Apothe- 
caries from parish offices, etc. It seems that there was a similar 
one for Physicians and Surgeons. A clause enabling the Apothe- 
caries to search more widely for bad and defective medicines 
was designed to be tacked on to this measure. It was, however, 
decided that such a clause "would be asking too much." The 
Act passed in a few months' time. On July 18, 1695, some expense 
was gone to both in repairing and beautifying the interior of 
the fabric of the Hall. The staircase seems, though not thirty 
years old, to have needed extensive repairs, while some of the other 
rooms were panelled. Eleven days later a committee of the Com- 
pany was appointed to meet the Physicians at the Guildhall to 
concert measures for the "relief of the poor" — that is to say, to 
discuss the proposed Dispensary. 

The College had projected in 1675, as has been related, the 
establishment of a system for prescribing gratis for those duly certi- 
fied as unable to pay fees, and had called on the Apothecaries to 
dispense at some unstated rate, but presumably at either cost price 
or below it. The Apothecaries agreed to dispense at as low a rate 
as possible, and at the meeting now held expressed a willingness 
to "accept such payment as the Physicians should direct." They, 
however, complained that " one old Mr. Day had been surreptitiously 
dealt with," and persuaded by their ancient opponent. Dr. Goodall, 
to sign a paper in favour of the scheme — a paper which they averred 
Day had not been permitted to read until his signature had been 
attached. 

9 



1 14 APOTHECARIES 

The three points they laid before the Physicians were these : 
Firstly, Who was to recommend fitting objects for the charity ? 
Secondly, Who should be appointed to make up the Physicians* 
prescriptions in the various wards of the City ? Thirdly, How the 
prices of the medicines should be fixed ? 

To these queries the answers were as follows : The ministers, 
churchwardens, and overseers of the poor are the best, as knowing 
the poor and their necessity. In the second case it was suggested 
to leave to each parish to name whatever Apothecary or Apothecaries 
it pleased, who were to be freemen of the Company. If no freeman 
dwelt in the parish, then they were to go to the nearest outside its 
limits. 

The third reply was not satisfactory. It suggested that ''Every 
man in his own way is best able to make out his own bill;" but 
assuming that members undertook to be moderate, any disputes that 
might arise should be arbitrated by the Master and Wardens. This 
threw the chance of incurring odium on the Society. The Apothe- 
caries met this by offering to sell and dispense medicines to the needy 
when prescribed "at their intrinsic value." This was as much as 
could be expected, but an additional offer they made, under the 
circumstances, was unwise. This was that "if summoned by the 
Churchwardens or Overseers in the absence of the Physicians to 
give assistance," they would do so gratis "as they are capable." 
A kindly intention, no doubt, but one which the College looked 
on as an attempt to get in the thin end of the wedge for " practising." 

Matters now rested for a few months. At the Election, August, 
1695, Mr. Danson, Mr. Stratton, and Mr. Baker were elected Master 
and Wardens. No further event of importance is recorded for the 
remainder of 1695, except a trifling dispute with the Water Bailiff at 
Chelsea. 

On May 22, 1696, the Master entered into preliminary negotiations 
with Lord Cheyney touching the purchase of the garden at Chelsea. 
Lord Cheyney, however, had only a life interest in the ground, and 
was unlikely to outlive the thirty years' lease which the Company 
held. It was after discussion agreed to treat with him. In the Minute 
Books Lord Cheyney is once or twice styled " Mr. " simply. 

The Master and Wardens for 1696-7 were Fige, Elton, and 



THE SOCIETY AND COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 115 

Bearcroft. A long paper, dated December 6th, needs to be given in 
full. It is as follows : — " In future, no fellow or member of the 
College of Physicians shall write a direction for the use of the 
medicines by him prescribed, in the Latin ' bills ' that are to be 
sent to the Apothecary, except such 'bills' as shall be prescribed 
for the Royal Family and except such 'bills' as shall be prescribed 
for the hospitals. But shall order only the medicines so pre- 
scribed to be marked with such titles as he shall think convenient 
to distinguish them, and shall leave direction for the use of them 
in English with the patient, or take care to send them sealed up 
to his dwelling or place of abode or residence. Nor shall any of 
them by any way hinder or forbid any Apothecary to show or 
deliver his ' physical prescriptions ' or ' bills ' to the Censors when 
required, and that every fellow or other member offending herein 
shall for every offence forfeit or pay 20s. to the Treasurer of the 
said College. And every fellow or other member offending herein 
three times over and above, the said fellow shall incur and suffer 
such incapacity and disabilities as are by the laws and statutes 
of the said College appointed and ordained for such of the fellows, 
candidates, etc., of the said College to incur and suffer, as shall 
refuse to execute the said laws and statutes appointed by them 
to be executed in their admission, in such manner and form as is 
therein for the purpose particularly expressed. And further that 
no fellow or other member of the College shall hold any corre- 
spondence familiarly with such person or persons as shall be declared 
by the Presidents or Censors in the public meeting to have wilfully 
endeavoured to break or ' inviolate ' the honour, privilege or rules of 
the College or Commonalty given or established by the laws of the 
Kingdom or by the private Statutes or by the laws of the College. 
Nor shall any fellow or member of the College prescribe or let his 
' physical bill ' be sent to any Apothecary whom the President after 
having, together with the Censors, examined the matter shall in the 
public meetings declare to have privately undervalued any of the 
same fellows or members of the College before any person so as by 
that means to hinder any of them from being called to any patient, 
or by sly insinuation to have caused any of them to have been 
dismissed in order to call other of their own recommendation." 



Ii6 APOTHECARIES 

The plain English of which declaration on the part of the Physicians 
was this : You Apothecaries must, it seems, make up our prescriptions, 
but we will take good care you don't know how they are to be 
taken by our patients. • If any Physician contravene this order, woe 
betide him. And as for the Apothecaries, we mean to employ those 
we choose, and have devised a method of boycotting those whom 
we dislike. The fact was that on the Dispensary question the 
College was divided, and so was the Company. A minority of 
the Physicians were allied with some of the Apothecaries in an 
endeavour to throw cold water on the scheme. That all the Apothe- 
caries viewed it with disfavour is distinctly negatived, but so harried 
had the Company been in the eighty years of its existence that it 
was hedgehog-like, all prickles on the slightest notice. That the 
establishment of these Dispensaries was popular with the Company 
cannot be believed. The arrangement as an arrangement was too 
one-sided. True, the Physicians gave their time and knowledge 
gratis, but they were a wealthier body. The apothecary who had 
in old times been so sternly told to " mind his shoppe," had (being 
forbidden to do aught else) nothing but his trade profits to fall 
back upon. The issue of this regulation of course greatly embittered 
the feeling, already bad enough, which subsisted between College 
and Company. This year the Beadle died, and a new one, Mr. 
John Brewster, was elected. The officers for 1697-8 were Mr. William 
Phillipps, Mr. Thomas Elton and Major Angier. The rent of the 
Chelsea Garden seems to have been increased, though how or why 
is not stated, to £^5. Abuses at the Confirmation Dinner having 
occurred, members were ordered in future not "during dinner to 
give away meat off the table to any person, under penalty of 2s. 6d." 
The beadle's wife and others who had a right to be there are in 
future forbidden to bring a " pack of children and servants to 
wait on them." There were jerry-builders in those days, it seems. 
Already two rooms required new floors, and the sash windows of 
the parlour were worn out ! On November 15, 1698, when the 
King made a public passage through to the City, the Livery met 
in gowns and hoods and went to their station in St. Paul's Church- 
yard, being placed next before the Distillers, which was not their 
place, being " by order of the Common Council to be placed before 



THE SOCIETY AND COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 117 

the Painter Stainers." The Company therefore protested, in order 
that this misplacement might not be prejudicial to their right. On 
this day it was reported that several members of the College had 
set up Apothecaries' shops in the College itself and also in Suffolk 
Street by Charing Cross, employing "foreigners" therein. The 
matter was debated, and it was resolved to wait before taking any 
proceeding, but if any further complaints reach the beadle he was 
to desire the persons injured to reduce their complaints to writing, 
and to furnish written proof thereof in order that the Company 
may have just ground on which to proceed. The officers for 1698-9 
were Mr. Spencer Piggott, Master, Mr. Thomas Dalton Upper 
and Sir John Clarke Renter Warden. The last-named paid a ;^20 
fine for refusal to serve, and Mr. George Stockdale was elected in 
his place. Certain economies were then ordered, and a number 
of useless feasts were dropped. Mr. Piggott died almost immediately, 
and was replaced by Mr. Thomas Elton. For 1699-70 Mr. Elton 
continued in office as Master, Mr. Gelsthorp as Upper Warden, 
and Mr. Thomas Hotchkiss Renter Warden. Hotchkiss soon died, 
and was succeeded by Mr. Stockdale. But the Dispensary dispute, 
prolonged and undignified as it had been, was now at an end. It 
was killed by the efforts of Dr., afterwards Sir Samuel, Garth. In 
his poem of the "Dispensary" published in 1699 he ridicules both 
the Apothecaries and those of the College who sided with them. 
Written in the style of mock heroics, it makes fun of the whole 
fight. Harvey, or rather his shade, is finally summoned from the 
Elysian Fields to quell the disturbance and to effect a reform. 
He is specially hard on Dr. Francis Bernard, who had once been 
an Apothecary, and whom he designates as Horoscope. Others 
of the anti-college faction pass under such names as Querpo, Umbra, 
Carus, Mirmillo and The Bard. Dr. Goodall, a strong partisan of 
the College party, figures as Stentor. Many pens and much ink 
and paper had been expended on the quarrel ; one Dr. Badger, 
an " Apothecaryite," having been actively employed in this direction. 
He, however, wrote on his own initiative, and when later he 
endeavoured to saddle the Company with the cost, was quickly and 
rightly suppressed. Fitfully now and then the dispute flickered, at 
one time the Physicians arresting an Apothecary for alleged practice. 



1 18 APOTHECARIES 

at another the Apothecaries endeavouring to obtain sufficient evidence 
to retaliate. The most troublesome was that of Mr. Rose, who was 
an Apothecary. He passed many anxious months, and finally, after 
trial before the Lord Chief Justice, was condemned on November lo, 
1703. The officers for 1700-1 were Mr. Thomas Dalton, Master, 
Mr. Gardiner Upper and Mr. R. Melmoth Renter Warden. This 
last gentleman presented the fine panel portrait of James I. which 
is still preserved in the Court Room. For 1701-2 Mr. Rawlins 
was elected Master, but fined, when Mr. Peter Gelsthorpe was chosen. 
Major Angier was Upper Warden. Mr. Warner was Renter Warden, 
but fined, and Mr. Arthur Reeves took his place. This year the 
Dispensary at Bishopsgate was started, the Apothecaries undertaking 
to dispense gratis to the poor there for three years. This was 
expensive, as may be supposed, so the Livery, by subscription, 
raised funds to purchase the requisite drugs. Their benefaction 
was ordered to be inscribed " in letters of gold " on the tables of 
the Benefactors to the Corporation for the Poor by the Governors 
thereof. Journeymen who had not taken up their freedom, though 
qualified, were this year forbidden to be employed by any of the 
Livery. 

On September 23, 1702, Mrs. Brewster, the wife of the beadle, 
was given the charge of the silver and pewter ; she had also to clean 
the rooms and to attend the dinners as "butler"! The officers 
for 1702-3 were Messrs. Gardiner, Hotchkiss, and William Rouse. 
Mr. Hotchkiss died shortly afterwards, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Rouse, Mr. Warner being elected to the place thus vacated. On 
December 3rd a new seal was ordered to be cut for the use of 
the Corporation, and an iron chest was bought for the keeping 
of the plate. 



CHAPTER XIII 



ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NAVY STOCK 




E now arrive at a new phase of the Society's work. 
On January 5, 1702, it was reported to the Court 
that the Physicians of the Bishopsgate Dispensary, 
through Sir Thomas Millington, had procured from 
the Queen a letter directing them to provide the 
medicines for the Army and Fleet then going to the 
East Indies. To prevent this the Master had waited on Lord 
Nottingham and others, and had stated the case of the Apothecaries. 
It was a manifest and most outrageous breach of the Charter, 
Matters had, however, then gone too far for remedy. In the future 
it was hoped that justice would be done. Meanwhile Mr. Sergeant 
Bernard and Mr. St. Amand had promised to wait upon the Queen 
herself and acquaint her with the facts. Death had at this time 
been very busy with the Court of Assistants. Mr. Warner died 
before he was sworn, and was succeeded by Mr. Gelsthorpe. He 
refused, and eventually Mr. Reeves was chosen. The Company 
had become very diminished in numbers, and great efforts were 
at once made to remedy this. Sergeant Bernard and Mr. St. 
Amand were fortunate in their audience. They obtained for the 
Society the privilege of serving the Fleet with medicines. All 
surgeons in her Majesty's service were to be obliged to purchase 
their drugs and medicines from the Hall, and the mixing of all 
stock drugs for the Navy was to be actually viewed by the Master 
and Wardens. This led to the establishment of what was called 
the " Navy Stock." Practically a company and distinct from the 
Laboratory Stock, the funds were raised in a similar way, that is 



119 



120 APOTHECARIES 

by money borrowed on bond and by shares taken to a fixed 
amount by the Livery. The first order for a supply for the Fleet 
is dated July 13, 1703. It required the complete filling of all the 
surgeons' medicine chests. The case of Mr. Rose, previously alluded 
to, was decided on a point of law. The decision in its consequence 
affected the whole Company. The Lord Chief Justice in court 
termed the prosecution extravagant, though obliged to convict. In 
consequence the Society of Apothecaries considered that they 
ought to appeal. They determined on two courses of action, 
firstly to apply for a writ of error in the Exchequer Chamber, and 
secondly to try and obtain redress through Parliament. The 
Common Sergeant advised them to exhibit a petition to the 
Commons for liberty to bring in a Bill to explain the " Physicians 
Act." The Attorney General thought that a writ of error would 
be best in the House of Lords, and gave it as his opinion that a 
reversal of judgment would result. This advice it was determined 
to follow. On June 9, 1704, as the term of three years was nearly 
over, the Company renewed their promise to provide medicines 
gratis at the Dispensary for at least another year. The rule which 
forbade the employment of " unfreemen '* was now rescinded, it 
being found impracticable and detrimental. The officers for 1704-5 
were Mr. Arthur Reeves, Richard Malther, and Mr. Thomas 
Bromfield. The last-named was first chosen as Upper Warden, 
but declining and paying fine, Mr. Malther was elected. The Court 
then at once elected Bromfield Renter Warden. A Mr. Daniel 
Malthus, the Queen's Apothecary, had, prior to the proceedings, 
been called on to the Court of Assistants in virtue of his 
position. He was then immediately elected Master, but pleading 
pressure of business was, after paying a fine of ;^5o, "excused 
at present." Could this man have been the father of the Daniel 
Malthus born in 1730, whose son, Robert Malthus, born 1766, 
subsequently became notorious as a writer and political economist ? 
The " Navy Stock," as using the Hall and premises of the Company, 
was, though a part really of the Company, this year charged a 
rental of ;^40. 

On September 3, 1704, when the Queen went to St. Paul's to give 
thanks for the Victory at Blenheim, the Company attended as on 



ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NAVY STOCK 121 

former occasions. October 30th, Mr. Underwood, whose father and 
grandfather had been Apothecaries, was, after debate, appointed to be 
recommended as an Apothecary for the Hospital at Bishopsgate. The 
officers for 1705-6 were Mr. Rouse, Mr. Drewry, and Mr. Dandridge. 
Mr. Reeves, the son of a late Master who had preached on the 
Election Day both in 1704 and 1705, was requested, when thanked, to 
print his discourse, receiving two payments of £^ 4s. towards the 
cost. At stocktaking and after audit in January, 1705, the store of 



drugs was found to be very low, the uncollected debts owing for 
medicines supplied being very heavy and difficult to get in. A 
dividend had, however, been announced and thus had to pass, still 
it was agreed that it was too high and that the funds of the Laboratory 
would be seriously crippled for some time in consequence. By 
February 7, 1705, the proposed Bill in Parliament was progressing. 
An agreement had been come to with the Master of the Surgeons 
Company, who were desirous of inserting certain clauses which were 
unfavourable to the Apothecaries, and a proviso was drawn to prevent 



r 



122 APOTHECARIES 

the Company from being harmed. The cost of the drugs and 
medicines supplied free to the poor by July 4, 1706, amounted to 
;f3S7 i6s. The Apothecaries were gratefully thanked by the 
Committee, and an account of the benefaction was again ordered 
to be inscribed jn gold letters at the Office. The officers for 1706-7 
were Mr. Bromfield, Mr. Malther, and Mr. Fox. 

The only events during this period which are worth note are the 
thanksgivings for Hochstadt and Ramillies. '' Lord " Cheyney 
demanded eighty years purchase for the garden, a price deemed 
exorbitant and forthwith declined. For 1707-8 Mr. Malther was 
Master, Mr. Dandridge Upper and Mr. Biscoe Renter Warden. 
Nothing of importance took place save that a "stone for the scale" 
was bought for ;^s 5s. The garden was found to be in a very bad 
state, and " as an expedient " was leased to several members of the 
Company. A Mr. William Ellis was appointed agent, by agreement 
with the Commissioners of the Navy, to go to Lisbon and reside there 
to superintend the affairs of drugs and medicines. Master for 1708-9 
Mr. Frank Dandridge, Upper Warden Mr. Biscoe ; three paid fine on 
election as Renter Warden, after which Mr. Thomas Wyth was 
chosen, and served. 

On October 3, 1708, Mr. Richard Lawrence having abused 
the Master in his place and duty of attending the Physicians 
Dr. How and Dr. Chamberlain on the search, by calling him "villain 
and other opprobrious names without any provocation, amongst 
other things saying that the Company were all rogues and on the 
Navy Side made their Gascoyne Powder with flos. sulp. and bought 
Jesuits bark at 3/- per lb. which they sold to surgeons at 20/-," was 
summoned and did not appear. He was in consequence not to be 
permitted to have any apprentices until he submitted. 

On March 3rd, the beadle being dead a new one was chosen in 
the person of Mr. Benjamin Giles, a member of the Court of 
Assistants. Before being sworn, he made it his request to be 
discharged from the Court, and this was granted ; he then took the 
oath in due form. Perhaps there was some truth in the allegations 
of Mr. Richard Lawrence, at any rate at this time complaints as to 
the inferiority of the drugs compounded at the Laboratory are not 
infrequent. They are stated to be insufficient both in quality and 
quantity, and that the stock itself was by no means complete. 



ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NAVY STOCK 123 

On June 30, 1709, Mr. Swordbearer Harle was chosen on the 
Court of Assistants, but begged to be excused. He promised a 
handsome present of plate in lieu of fine. This he gave a few months 
later, and it consisted of a large and very heavy silver coffee pot. The 
officers for 1709-10 were Messrs. Dandridge, Jonathan Lee, and 
John Jay. In February of this year a book was ordered to be kept in 
which to enter ''dispensations/' as hitherto no regular account had 
been preserved of the dispensations viewed by the Master, and 
mistakes had occurred through the omission. The dates of viewing 
are ordered to be strictly noted. The election for 1710-11 resulted 
in Mr. Walter Drewry, Master, Mr. Lee Upper and Mr. Edmund Hunt 
Renter Warden. With a view to improve the management of the 
Laboratory a series of seven articles were drawn up at once, various 
fresh officers and a new committee being elected. 

While, however, there was no dividend paid on the Navy Stock 
this year, the Laboratory Stock was found to have ;^i,28o in hand. 
Nothing of importance happened during 1711-12. Mr. Biscoe was 
Master, Mr. Samuel Birch Upper and Mr. Thomas Shaller Renter 
Warden. For the last office Mr. Broughton, Mr. Smith, and Colonel 
Gower were in turn first elected, but all paid fines and were excused. 

The seal was for the first time ordered to be kept as it is now, in a 
box with three keys. 

On Election Day, 171 2, Mr. Lee was chosen Master, with 
Mr. John Blackstone and Mr. Thomas Robinson for Wardens. The 
Committee which had been investigating the affairs of the Navy 
Stock made its report, and found its total value, when all liabilities 
were paid off, to be ;f7,2i3 6s. As the Navy Stock had invested some 
funds in South Sea Stock, it was proposed to sell half of this and with 
the proceeds to redeem bonds. It was agreed that when the South 
Sea Stock rose to 80, all should be at once sold. 

On December 4, 1712, two spoons were reported as missing since 
the Lord Mayor's Day. This was accounted for, by the Stewards 
having introduced people of their own into the Hall and having 
refused admission to the servants of the Assistants. The Stewards 
were ordered to pay for the spoons, and the admission of strangers was 
henceforward to be stopped — " not a porter at the door even," unless 
authorised by the Master and Wardens. 



124 APOTHECARIES 

South Sea Stock of the value of ;^2,200 was successfully sold 
at 83 and upwards, and it was decided at once, "with speed," to 
sell the remainder. Wise indeed were the Apothecaries. One 
is glad to read by a later entry that the rest fetched an equally 
good price. The place of beadle being vacant, a locum tenens, 
one Joseph Hill, was elected for a few months. About the end of 
April there was some little scare as to the validity of certain clauses 
in the Charter which gave power to act against "foreigners." Some 
debates ensued as to whether motion should be made to obtain 
confirmation. It was, however, decided that such a course was 
needless, the Charter being already comprehensive enough. The 
officers for 1713-14 were Mr. Thomas Compere, Mr. John Jay, and 
Mr. William Finch. Mr. Finch, however, paid fine, and for two 
months Mr. Robinson, the late Renter Warden, acted, when on 
a fresh election Mr. James Siddall was chosen and held. After the 
election a proposal was made to increase " quarterage," binding 
fees, fines, herbarizing fees, and Laboratory Stock, the proceeds 
to be devoted to the garden, now sadly in need of funds. Some 
slight additions were made by which the fees now totalled £^0 if 
all exacted. It is curious to note that for the Election Sermon, 
Dr. Bradford, the preacher, is ordered to be gratified by "two 
Jacobuses." 

In October, 17 13, the agitation for a confirmation of the Charter 
was renewed. Some members of the Company held that the 
Charter "had not the force of law." Why, none can quite under- 
stand. Anyhow, the minority obtained their wish, and expensive 
proceedings were instituted in Parliament. 

On March 18, 1713, South Sea Stock to the amount of ;^537 7s. 
was sold to advantage. The officers for 17 14-15 were Mr. Samuel 
Birch, Mr. John Broughton, and Mr. Robert Catteral. On the 
occasion of the public entry of the King into the City, the 
Company were stationed, according to the Act of Common Council, 
just before the Painter Stainers. Their stand, which was 125 feet 
by 250, extended from the end of Old Change in Cheapside upwards 
towards the Nag's Head. In October, 1714, negotiations were entered 
into with the Goldsmiths Company for the purchase of a barge. 
Mr. Catteral having died, Mr. Nicholls was elected in his room. On 



ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NAVY STOCK 125 

January 19th a Public Thanksgiving at St. Paul's by the King was 
announced, and the Company were to attend. The new arrangements 
for the Navy Stock had borne good fruit. This year a dividend 
of 20 per cent, was paid. The officers for 1715-16 were Mr. Jay, 
Mr. Henry Smith, and Mr. James Pitson. For Renter Warden, 
Mr. Christopher Tod was first elected, but he paid fine and was 
discharged. 

The barge being unfit for use, the Company attended the Lord 
Mayor's Show on land only. There was thus no use for a barge- 
master, and his salary was consequently suspended until further 
order. For the years 1716-17. Mr, Simon Andrews was chosen 
Master, Colonel Rob«rt Cover Upper and Mr. John Broughton 
Renter Warden. The Navy Stock was now in so prosperous a 
state that its capital was found to be too large, and consequently 
more redemption of bonds and shares was ordered. In 1717-18 Mr. 
Broughton paid fine as Master, and Mr. Smith accepted office. The 
Wardens were Mr. Shaller and Mr. Oliver Gaynes. October 28, 1717, 
the barge without its oars and anchor was to be sold for ^^5 ; " for 
more if possible." At the Court held May 13th, the great disorders 
at the feasts were discussed. So large was the number of unauthorised 
intruders, that those who had a right to be present were crowded out. 
When the Laboratory Stock was audited, a balance in favour was 
found amounting to £^^ 18s. id. On June 26, 1718, the Master 
announced that he had attended Sir Hans Sloane, who testified 
himself very willing to settle the garden on the Company according 
to his former intention, and he referred them to his counsel, Mr. 
Webb, and requested that a meeting should take place between 
Mr. Meres, the Clerk, and Mr. Webb at the Grecian Coffee House. 
The officers for 1718-19 were Mr. Thomas Shaller, Mr. Thomas 
Robinson, and Mr, Henry Sheibell. Colonel Robert Gover was first 
chosen Master, but fined ; Mr. Shaller accepted and held. A gown 
was this day (August 27th) ordered for the beadle ; the colour, shape, 
and price thereof being left to the option of the Master and Wardens. 
The year 1719-20 was uneventful. The officers were Colonel Gover, 
Mr, Siddall, and Mr. Thorpe. A similar lack of incident characterises 
1720-21. Mr. Siddall was Master, Mr, Joseph Nicholson Upper 
and Mr. John Smith Renter Warden. In the following year Mr. 



126 APOTHECARIES 

Nicholson became Master, Mr. Charles Fowler Upper and Mr. 
Charles Angeband Renter Warden. This year an attempt was made 
to get an act of exemption from all offices, and subscriptions 
were invited for this • purpose. For the first time medicines were 
ordered to be sealed with the Company's seal. Five hundred 
pounds of Venice Treacle publicly made and potted were then duly 
sealed. 

On November 2, 172 1, the Draft of an Act relating to Pharmacy 
was read and approved. The Physicians were to be approached 
on the subject with a view to forming a joint committee to discuss 
the proposals in the Act. The deeds of conveyance of the garden 
from Sir Hans Sloane were reported as ready for sealing on 
February 8th. 

A committee to actively attend to the garden was forthwith 
appointed, and a new gardener, by name Miller, was chosen. The 
old gardener, Mr. Charles Gardiner, was paid ;^I2 los., a quarter's 
salary, in lieu of notice. The officers for 1722-3 were Mr. 
Nicholson, Mr. James Pitson, and Mr. William Jones. On March 
14, 1722, the Ironmongers and others having offered to rent the barge- 
house, it was determined to let it for five years to the highest bidder. 
According to the donation of Sir Hans Sloane, fifty botanical 
specimens were to be presented at some public meeting of the Royal 
Society each year. These were on this day reported ready, and a letter 
referring to them was prepared for forwarding therewith. These 
specimens (the first exhibit) were duly presented before the Royal 
Society. 

Mr. Allen, one of the Court, now moved that a repository for 
drugs and materia medica should be established, it being to the 
honour of the Company. It was decided that the Repository should 
be in the gallery, and ;^5o was granted from the funds of the 
Laboratory to equip it. 

An entry regarding the garden expenses is curious : " Five loads 
of fresh bark, one dozen large pots, four hundred penny and four 
hundred halfpenny pots, a water pot, and a ground line" are 
ordered to be procured. 

Mr. Nicholson, the Master, having died, Mr. Charles Fowler was 
elected, but paid fine, when Mr. Henry Smith became Master for the 



ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NAVY STOCK 127 

end of the term. Mr. Jones, the Renter Warden, died, and was 
succeeded by Mr. Robert Huntingdon. 

Several entries now occur regarding garden expenses, such as 
repairs to the wall, gate, and wharf. These required money, and 
hence the Quarterage fees were increased from is. to 2s. 6d. to supply 
the needful funds. 



CHAPTER XIV 
THE PHYSICIANS BILL AND OTHER MATTERS 



^iiE, officers for 1723-4 were Mr. Pilson, Master, 

n Mr. Gaynes, Upper and Mr. Biscoe Renter Warden. 

U On February 12, 1723-4, a copy of the Act designed 

n by the College of Physicians was obtained and read 

M to the Court by the Master. Certain portions thereof 

which enlarged the powers of search by the 

Physicians concerned the Society of Apothecaries, and a Committee 

was therefore appointed to consider the question, and if possible 

prevent any clause becoming law which would be detrimental to the 

Company. A petition was consequently carried to the College by the 

Master and Wardens, in which the amendments desired by the 

Apothecaries were set forth. The College, however, refused to admit 

the objections raised to the Act. It was consequently determined 

to petition the House of Commons. The Bill, however, passed the 

second reading. The opposition of the Company was nevertheless 

continued, and a petition was forwarded to the House of Lords. In 

the Lords the Bill and the petition were read and debated on, after which 

the matter was adjourned. It became known, however, that the Bill 

would pass with the addition of a clause to this effect, that in case the 

Censors or Wardens did not agree on the result of a search, then 

the medicine in dispute should be sealed and taken to the College. The 

College was to be then the judge, and to have a power of imposing 

a penalty of ;^5 if their decision was adverse to the medicine seized. 

At which, as was natural, the Company felt much aggrieved. 

At the election held August 20, 1724, Mr. Joynes was chosen 
Master, Mr. Andrews Upper and Mr. Cruttenden Renter Warden. 



THE PHYSICIANS BILL AND OTHER MATTERS 129 

Lambkin, the bargemaster, being dead, was succeeded by his 
brother. 

On October 15, 1724, the Company entered into treaty with 
the Stationers Company for their bargehouse at Chelsea. This same 
month a brief of an Act was prepared for presentation to Parliament, 
giving power for a "generall view of Medicines over all England." 
This year the Laboratory was in a flourishing state, having a balance 
in its favour of ;f 1,894 4s. sfd., when all liabilities were cleared off. 
Applications for admission to the Company's pension list at this time 
now often appear. These pensions were devoted to the assistance 
of widows and sometimes daughters of deceased Apothecaries. On 
February 25, 1724-5, a long and exhaustive report was read from 
the Garden Committee, in which its present condition was described 
and certain proposals were made for its still greater improvement. 
An engraved map of the ground had been made, Mr. Isaac Rand's new 
catalogue was ready, and he was proposed to be at once called to the 
Court of Assistants as Director of the Garden with a salary of ^^50 per 
annum. These propositions were forthwith carried into effect. On 
June 17, 1725, the allowance to the Master on Election Day was 
increased from £j^^ to ;^5o. The officers elected for 1725-6 were 
Mr. Andrews, Master, Mr. John Smith Upper and Mr. William 
Lilley Renter Warden — a Mr. William Hammond, first chosen for 
this office, paying fine and being excused. 

June 16, 1726, Mr. John Meres, the Clerk, having died, a Mr. 
Cornelius Dutch was elected to the post. 

The accounts of the Company being audited, it was found that 
^283 was the amount of the excess of income over expenditure, of 
which ;^45 was due to the Garden account. The Audit Committee 
give some curious particulars of overcharges by the beadle's wife for 
ribbon and favours on the Lord Mayor's Day. The coach hire they 
report to be excessive on Herbarizing days, and advise its reduction. 
Passing to domestic matters, they suggest that the "Andirons in 
the parlour be disposed of and a pair of Doggs be bought and used." 
Lastly it was announced that the Physicians Bill was "expiring," 
and that the College intended to renew the same next sessions, 
hence the Company were urged to watch the proceedings of the 
College with great care. 

10 



130 APOTHECARIES j 

The officers for 1726-7 were Colonel Robert Gower, Master, ' 

Mr. Charles Angeband Upper and Mr. Ralph Forster. Renter 
Warden. To this office Mr. Withers had been elected, but paid 
his fine and .was excused. This year the Apothecaries of Bristol 
and York applied to the Company for copies of the Charter, and 
the request was in each case granted. The old clock belonging 
to the Company was this year disposed of, and a new one bought. 
On April 6, 1727, a new barge was ordered to be built at a cost 
of ;^23o. A petition was now forwarded to the House of Lords 
to oppose the renewal of the Physicians Bill for extended powers 
of search. The opposition by the Company on June 16, 1727, had 
already cost ;^i04 4s. A curious case concerning the taking up 
of the freedom of the Company occurred this year. One Mrs. Read, 
the daughter of a late Apothecary, applied to the Company for 
her freedom by patrimony. She was refused as unable to pass the 
requisite examination. The Company, however, agreed to pay all 
expenses connected with her obtaining the freedom of the Company 
of Glass-sellers. 

The officers for the next year were Mr. John Smith, Master, 
Mr. Robert Huntington Upper and Mr. Patrick Crow Renter Warden. 
For the last office, Mr. James Sherrard paid fine and was excused. 
Mr. Huntington, however, within a month became so seriously ill that 
he had to be discharged and a new election ordered, when his place 
was filled by Mr. John Biscoe. Mr. Forster, to whose exertions the 
raising of the money for the purpose of building the new barge was 
due, was on September 21st presented with a piece of plate value ;^io. 
The barge, however, cost considerably more than was estimated ; 
in fact, instead of ^^230, the sum of ;^36i 4s. was paid before the 
whole work was complete. 

So frequent now were the applications for pensions, that it became 
needful to limit the number of pensioners to six. In March, 1727-8, 
a serious fire happened close to the Hall, by which the Company's 
property was considerably endangered. It appears to have occurred 
in places where timbers had been built into the walls without leave, 
and the fabric narrowly escaped destruction. A claim for recompense 
was made by the parish fire engine, a:nd a guinea was sent through 
the Churchwardens of the parish. About this time some alterations 



THE PHYSICIANS BILL AND OTHER MATTERS 131 

were made in the methods of holding the Laboratory Stock, more 
liberty in transfer being permitted henceforward. Dated March 22, 
is an order to the carpenter to take down "the Wainscott in the Hall 
under the Musick Gallery." It seems that there were apprehensions 
as to the safety of the Great Hall from fire. So an order was given 
to take down the wainscot in front of the Laboratory flue, and to 
examine the brick arch behind it. This was done, and the arch was 
ordered to be filled up. The Laboratory furnaces were then allowed 
to work for the manufacture of hartshorn, but the vitriol furnace 
was not permitted to be used. It was now proposed to build a wharf 
at the Chelsea Garden. To effect this a committee was named, 
to which powers were given to raise ;^iooo at 4 per cent. On the 
Election Day, August 22, 1728, Mr. Charles Angeband was chosen 
Master, Mr. Huntington Upper and Mr. James Albin Renter 
Warden. Mr. Meres, the old Clerk, having bequeathed ;^200 to the 
Company, this sum was duly invested. The officers for the following 
year were Mr. John Biscoe, Mr. Josiah Cruttenden, and Mr. Zechariah 
Allen. For the office of Renter Warden Mr. Charles Bale paid fine 
and was excused. In September, 1729, casements were first ordered 
for the windows of the Great Hall. 

It will be remembered that Mr. Delaune's house adjoined the 
Hall. These premises, then in the possession of one of his descend- 
ants, a certain Colonel Delaune, were held by the Company on lease. 
This lease was now about to expire, and some little dispute arose in 
consequence. The matter is of no importance, save that it locates 
Delaune's property as *' part of the garden next the Hall and the 
Elaboratory yard." On July 27, 1730, the Great Hall being much out 
of repair, several works of renovation were ordered. A hatch was 
made at the lower end of the hall to admit dishes, and casements 
were fitted to the upper part of the lower row of windows in front 
and to one in the back. The officers for the next year were 
Mr. Cruttenden, Mr. William Withers, and Mr. Benjamin Teale. 
For the office of Renter Warden, Mr. Zechariah Allen fined and was 
excused. The first business of the new Master and Wardens was 
to buy two dozen leather chairs for the use of the Hall. Mr. Teale 
was, however, found to be too ill and infirm to serve as Renter 
Warden, and consequently paid £2^ to be excused all offices. At 



132 APOTHECARIES 

a new election Mr. West was chosen, but fined ; and at length 
Mr. Hume, being elected, accepted office. On February lo, 1730, 
it was found that the Physicians were renewing their application for 
an alteration of the Act regarding the viewing of medicines, and this 
the Company had, as of yore, to oppose. Accordingly, a Committee 
was formed for that purpose. What they felt was that for the 
Physicians to be the sole court of appeal would be hardly fair, and 
as an alternative suggested that Apothecaries should be joined with 
the Censors. To obtain this concession, which seems on the face 
of it reasonable, a petition was prepared and duly presented. All 
efforts were unavailing, and the Bill passed the House of Commons. 
The Company then petitioned the Lords. In the event success 
attended their efforts, and a clause was agreed upon by which the 
Court to judge questions of confiscated and seized medicines was 
composed partly of Physicians and partly of Apothecaries. The cost 
of all these proceedings amounted to upwards of ;^ii6. At this time 
from an order limiting the number of tickets issued by the Master to 
ten, by the Wardens to five each, and by the Assistants to two each, 
it would appear that on the Confirmation Day an annual ball was held 
in the Great Hall. The officers for the next year were Mr. Withers, 
Mr. Ralph Forster, and Mr. Robert Harris. On September 15, 
1731, it was ordered that the Company's wharf at Blackfriars Stairs 
should be let by tender, advertisements of the fact being inserted 
in the Daily Journal and the Daily Post Boy. Early in May, 1732, 
the subscriptions for a new greenhouse amounted to ;^7So, and it 
was then determined to borrow an additional ;^5oo and commence 
the work. For 1732-3 Mr. Ralph Forster was elected Master, 
Mr. James Albin Upper and Mr. Robert Hume Renter Warden. 
For 1733-4, Mr John Warren Master, Mr. Zechariah Allen Upper 
and Colonel William Beale Renter Warden. On October 18, 
i733> Mr. Jackson presented the Company with a "brass branch" 
(chandelier). This year a watchman was first employed to keep 
the Hall gate, his salary being shared by the Laboratory Stock and 
the Navy Stock. 

Two handsome stoves were, on March 14, 1733, ordered to be 
bought, and fixed in the Court Room and Parlour. An entry dated 
June 20, 1734, tells us that a "portable feeding engine, with proper 



THE PHYSICIANS BILL AND OTHER MATTERS 133 

pipes," was ordered to be bought for the use of the Company in case 
of fire. The old fire-buckets were to be mended and new ones 
bought, so that there might be two dozen in all. The General 
Herbarizing this year was held at the Bowling Green House, on 
Putney Common. On August 22nd Mr. James Albin was elected 
Master, Mr. Robert Hume Upper and Mr. Joseph Miller Renter 
Warden. The treadle having died, a successor was chosen in the 
person of one Mr. John Staples. The elections for 1735-6 resulted 
in Mr. Zechariah Allen Master, Mr. Robert Harris Upper and 
Mr. Benjamin Morris Renter Warden. For the office of Upper 
Warden Mr. Isaac Garnier fined, and for that of Renter Warden 
Mr. John Salter and Mr. Robert Nicholls. The new Master, how- 
ever, died in the course of a month, and after a new election 
Mr. Robert Hume was chosen. Mr. Allen by his will left the Com- 
pany ;^5o, of which one-half was devoted to the Garden and the 
other to the purchase of a piece of plate, a heavy, square, silver salver 
still in the possession of the Society of Apothecaries. On June 24, 
1736, Mr. Warden Morris was ordered to pay Mr. " Ricebank," the 
sculptor, ;^ioo towards the statue of Sir Hans Sloane, which they 
intended to erect in the Physic Garden. On Election Day, August 
19, 1736, Mr. Benjamin Rawling (elsewhere Rawlins), recently chosen 
one of the Sheriffs of London, was elected Master ; Mr. Joseph Miller 
became Upper Warden. For the office of Renter Warden, Mr. 
Joseph Marston, Mr. Richard Cheek, and Mr. James Wall all fined. 
Ultimately, Mr. Joseph Richards became Renter Warden for the year. 
Early in January, 1736, the Master was knighted. The officers for 
1737-8 were Mr. Robert Harris, Mr. John Salter, and Mr. John Lyde. 
In October, 1737, Rysbach the sculptor was paid the remainder 
of the money due to him, viz. ;^i8o, the statue having been finished 
and fixed to the satisfaction of the Master, Wardens, and Court. 
This year the Weavers Company gave up their tenancy of the barge- 
house which they had rented, and were succeeded by the Coopers 
Company as soon as some needful repairs had been accomplished. 

The Master for the year 1738-9 was Mr. Joseph Miller, the Upper 
Warden Mr. Robert Nicholls. For the office of Renter Warden, 

• 

Mr. Job Mathew, Mr. John Harris, and Mr. Thomas Sheppard fined 
in succession ; after a fourth election, Mr. Robert Gamon was chosen 



134 APOTHECARIES 

and accepted office. The arrangement with the Coopers Company 
regarding the bargehouse was not apparently of long duration, as, 
in 1739, the Vintners Company took it over for 21 years at a rental 
of ;^io los. per annum. The officers for 1739-40 were Mr. John 
Salter, Mr. Benjamin Morris, and Mr. John De Raffen. On October 
18, 1739, Sir Benjamin Rawlins, who had some time previously 
given to the Company the handsome brass twenty-four candle branch 
which still hangs in the centre of the Hall, paid into the hands of the 
Renter Warden the sum of £cfi. This was to be put out at interest, 
the said interest to be applied for ever for providing wax candles for 
the said branch. With this sum of money an India Bond was pur- 
chased. Thanks were of course duly rendered to the donor. At 
this period there was some trouble with the City authorities. It 
seems that a lack of freemen in the Company existed, and some 
Apothecaries were compelled in consequence to employ "foreigners" 
as journeymen. These the City Chamberlain promptly prosecuted, 
thereby almost causing some of the Apothecaries to close their shops. 
It will be remembered that by a byelaw a second apprentice was 
forbidden unless the master paid a fine of ;^I5. This it was that 
caused the dearth. Upon representations from those of the Livery 
who suffered in consequence, the byelaw was suspended. The 
officers for the year 1740-41 were Mr. Robert NichoUs, Mr. Richard 
Cheek, and Mr. William Lake. In January Mr. Cheek died, and 
was succeeded by Mr. Joseph Richards. On August 20, 1741, it 
was ordered that in future all Physicians, Surgeons, Apothecaries, 
and Chemists applying to the Hall for "Galenical" medicines be 
supplied therewith by and out of the Navy Stock at the most reason- 
able price possible. The officers for the ensuing year were Mr. 
Benjamin Morris, Mr. John Lyde, and Mr. John Pocklington. There 
were no events during the year which call for mention. For 1742-3 
Mr Joseph Richards was elected Master, Mr. Job Mathew Upper 
and Mr. Nathaniel Rokeby Renter Warden. Within a month, how- 
ever, Mr. Mathew died, and was succeeded by Mr. John Harris. 
An entry tells us the name of the maker of the brass sconces still 
existing in the Court Room. He was a certain Thomas Norris, 
and to him an annual payment of los. 6d. was ordered to be made 
for cleaning the same and keeping them in repair. Mr. John Harris, 



THE PHYSICIANS BILL AND OTHER MATTERS 135 

the Warden, also died, and in consequence, on April 7, 1743, 
Mr. Robert Gamon was elected to RIl the vacancy for the remainder 
of the term. The ofificers for 1743-4 were Mr, John Lyde, Mr. John 
De Raffen, and Mr. Nathaniel Green. On June 14, 1744, a Committee 
was appointed to examine into what alterations would be needful to 
convert the Gallery into a Library. Hitherto the books had merely 
been stored there. At the same Court Mr. Reuben Melmoth presented 



the Company with a long oil-painting representing the entry of 
King William into Exeter, and having been thanked for his gift, the 
picture was ordered to be hung in the Parlour, where it may still 
be seen. 

At the election, August 23, 1744, Mr. Robert Gamon was chosen 
Master, Mr. William Lake Upper and Mr. Christopher Marshall Renter 
Warden. For the last office Mr. Reuben Melmoth was elected, but 



136 APOTHECARIES 

paid fine. Mr. Marshall died in March, 1744-5, and was succeeded 
by Mr. William Elderton. On May 22, 1745, the order permitting 
Physicians and others to be supplied with drugs out of the Navy 
Stock was rescinded, and in future that stock was only to supply 
goods for the use of the Navy or other public service. The officers 
selected for the following year were Mr. John De Raffen, Mr. John 
PockJington, and Mr. John Addis. For the office of Renter Warden 
Mr. Robert Maddox fined. 

On January 9, 1745-6, a subscription was made in aid of a fund 
raised by the Lord Mayor for the benefit of the soldiers employed 
against the Jacobite rebels. To this fund the Company contributed 
;^20o. In the same month a Mr. Shirley, a member of the Company 
who was about to settle in Virginia, waited on the Court and asked 
for a diploma that he was an examined and free Apothecary. His 
request was granted, and the diploma was made out and sealed with 
the Company's seal. The officers for 1746-7 were Mr. William Lake, 
Mr. Nathaniel Green, and Mr. Thomas Northey. In October, 1745, 
a Committee had been appointed to carefully consider how the 
expenses of the Company might be cut down, it being found that 
the cost was increasing while the receipts were diminishing. Having 
most carefully gone through the accounts, the Minute Books, and 
the Ordinances, the Committee presented its report on August 19, 
1746. The document, a long one, is clear and most explicit. As 
a business paper it is far ahead of any other document hitherto to 
be found in the Books. Every possible retrenchment is duly con- 
sidered, the history and the fluctuations of all amounts payable or 
allowed by the Company are narrated in full, and various most 
proper suggestions of an economic value are made therein. These, 
one after the other, were adopted by the Company. A curious 
expression is met with in the Minutes dated October 16, 1746. A 
Mr. Charles Bernard attended the Court and desired to be admitted 
to fine for all offices " to the parlour door." This was allowed, and 
he compounded for ^^22 los. 

Still, the decline of the Company in its numbers caused anxiety, 
and on December 8th we find a strong remonstrance from the Livery 
and Yeomanry sent to the Court, representing that to such a degree 
were the rights of the Company being encroached upon, that if 



THE PHYSICIANS BILL AND OTHER MATTERS 137 

something was not done to strengthen the Charter and thus to 
make it worth while for "worthy gentlemen" to join as members, 
in a few years the Company would become extinct. Accordingly 
at a full Court the Charter was read, and it was decided to promote 
a Bill to compel all Apothecaries and other persons who made and 
kept medicines for sale within the limits of the Company to present 
themselves for examination and to join the Company. Liberty was 
to be given to those who felt themselves aggrieved to appeal to a 
Committee composed of the Master, or one Warden and five of the 
Assistants. Any encroachment on the rights of the College of Phy- 
sicians or the " Surgeons Company " was at the same time to be most 
carefully avoided. Shortly after, it was decided to petition the Lord 
Mayor and Court of Aldermen to suspend the City byelaw by which 
" foreign " journeymen were prosecuted. The officers elected for 
1747-8 were Mr. John Pocklington, Master, Mr. Reuben Melmoth 
Upper and Mr. John Clare Renter Warden. The College of Phy- 
sicians now stated their dissatisfaction with the Bill which the 
Company proposed to introduce into Parliament, and after a debate 
the Court determined at first to abandon the proposed measure. 
This determination was subsequently changed, and it was settled 
to. proceed with the Bill. Funds for the purpose were therefore 
collected. 

On December 7, 1747, Mr. Melmoth requested that the portrait 
of his grandfather, Mr. Johnson, and also the panel portrait of 
James L which he had presented, should be removed from the 
Court Room and hung in the Library, promising to clean them 
and repair their frames if this was done. The matter of the Bill 
in Parliament does not appear to have prospered, and the next 
move of the Company was to present a petition to the House of 
Lords praying for the revival of an Act passed in the loth year 
of George L "for the better examination" of drugs, medicines, etc. 
The officers for 1748-9 were Mr. Nathaniel Green, Mr. William 
Elderton, and Mr. Stephen Jenkin. An important proposition was 
made on the Election Day by the Livery. This was that as a 
general peace was expected, and that consequently the demand for 
drugs and medicines would be very much less, the Company should, 
as a Company, open their drug trade at the Hall. The Livery averred 



138 APOTHECARIES 

that this would be greatly to the advantage of the Company, but 
suggested that the opinion of the Attorney General should be taken 
as to the legality of the proceeding. A Committee being appointed 
to consider the question, shortly after reported favourably on the 
matter with one exception only. This exception was that if the 
Apothecaries of London were mainly supplied from the Hall, the 
apprentices would learn very little of their business. The report 
was duly considered and debated on at a Court held February 23, 
1748-9, when it was decided that it was inexpedient, because in- 
jurious, to entertain the scheme. On June 15, 1749, an anonymous 
donor, through Mr. John Allen, presented the Company with ;^200, 
which he desired to be put out at interest and the income devoted to 
charitable purposes. An old Assistant, Mr. William Matthewes, lately 
deceased, by his will, in the same month bequeathed ;^ioo to the 
Company. 

A Committee was now appointed to concert measures how the 
private herbarizing meetings might be made more useful. As an 
appendix to their report they suggested the revival of a propo- 
sition made years before by Mr. Zechariah Allen, viz., that botanical 
lectures should be instituted at the Hall. For 1749-50 the officers 
were Mr. Reuben Melmoth, Master, Mr. John Addis Upper and Mr. 
John Markham Renter Warden. Mr. Staples, the beadle, having 
died, his successor was chosen in the person of Mr. Benjamin 
Mace. Mrs. Staples, the widow of the late beadle, was continued 
in her place of butler, a place she had held for many years. At the 
Court held September 20th, Mr. Lancelot Burton Jackson, a member 
of the Company, attended and presented the Company with a por- 
trait of Dr. Mead, which he begged might be hung in the Court 
Room. His gift was accepted with thanks. On October 2, 1750, 
Mr. William Elderton was elected Master, the Wardens being Mr. 
Thomas Northey and Mr. Samuel Berkley. 



CHAPTER XV 

1750 TO 1758 

a meeting held on March 14, 1750-51, it was 
reported by the Clerk that the "arms of the Com- 
pany over the gateway in Water Lane had fallen 
down and was broken to pieces," The officials for 
the next year were Mr. John Addis, Mr. John Chase, 
and Mr. Thomas Moore. 
One or two interesting entries this year are worth mention, A 
Latin inscription was prepared for the statue of Sir Hans Sloane 
in the Physic Garden, and it is curious to note that a sailcloth was 
ordered to be provided for the purpose of protecting the said statue 
from the effects of bad weather. 

A second picture of Gideon Delaune seems to have been 
bequeathed to the Society by Mr. John Barnard, then lately dead, 
and this is ordered to be hung in the Hall, with the donor's name 
written thereon. It appears that this was a condition in the bequest. 
This portrait does not now appear to be preserved. Two coloured 
prints of the garden, then recently executed, were ordered to be 
framed. 

Mrs. Staples, the late butler of the Society, having married one 
Mr. Beck, was discharged from her office and pension, receiving 
her salary up to the next quarter-day. She was requested to deliver 
over to the Wardens all property in her possession belonging to the 
Society. Mrs. Elizabeth Mace, the wife of the beadle, was thereupon 
chosen butler in her place, 

The officials for 1752-3 were Mr. Thomas Norlhey, Mr. Stephen 
Jenkin, and Mr, James Burges. No entries of importance occur 



I40 APOTHECARIES 

during the remainder of 1752. Several persons were duly punished 
for making and selling bad drugs. Mr. Mace, the beadle, died, 
and was succeeded in his post by Mr. John Pocock. 

Early in January, 1753, a sum of ;^i6o was voted to defray the 
expenses of lectures on Materia Medica, the said lectures to be 
delivered in the Hall of the Company. A proposal was now made 
to establish lectures on Chemistry, and this was referred to the 
Laboratory Committee. The Committee, however, reported unfavour- 
ably on the proposal, urging that the lectures " would interfere with 
the business of the Laboratory," and the project was dropped. On 
August 23rd a certain Dr. James Grewe applied for leave to use the 
Hall to give three preliminary specimen lectures on Chemistry — a 
portion of a course he intended to give during the winter — but his 
request was refused. At the election this year Mr. John Chase, Mr. 
John Markham, and Mr. William Massa were chosen to hold office, 
and accepted. Mr. Northey, the Master for 1751-2, however, died 
before Mr. John Chase took the oath, and consequently, after an 
election, Mr. Robert Gamon was elected to hold office for a few 
days. All arrangements for the lectures on Materia Medica being 
now made, the course began. The new butler, Mrs. Mace, did not 
long continue in office. Convicted of pawning the linen and pewter 
of the Society, she was discharged, Mrs. Pocock, the wife of the 
present beadle, being elected in her place March 14, 1754. The 
officials for 1754-5 were Mr. John Markham, Mr. Samuel Berkley, 
and Mr. William Lone. This year the barge, which for some time 
had been useless, was repaired at a cost of ;^9, and a yearly con- 
tract was made with the builder to keep the vessel in order for ^'j. 
On March 13, 1755, the Corporation seal was found to be defective, 
and a new one was held to be needful. It was debated whether 
this should be of steel or silver, and ,the decision on this point 
referred to the Master and Wardens, who were also instructed to 
inquire as to the expense. The Hall and apartments were also in 
need of repairs, and these were ordered. One item mentioned is 
that the stone balusters on the steps leading up to the Hall were 
to be replaced by iron rails ; another that the walls were to be 
"stockoed." At a later Court, however, the removal of the stone 
balusters was vetoed. An attempt was this year made to oust the 



I750 TO 1758 141 

Navy Stock from their monopoly in supplying the ships and hos- 
pital ships with drugs. A certain Apothecary of Plymouth, one 
Cookworthy, obtained by some means the order to supply the Rupert 
hospital ship there. The Society at once took action, and having 
drawn up a representation of their case, duly conveyed it to the 
Lords of the Admiralty. At the election of officials for 1755-6, Mr. 
Samuel Berkley, Mr. William Massa, and Mr. Daniel Peters were 
chosen and accepted office. On October 23rd the new seal, which 
had been engraved by a Mr. Garden, was handed over to the Society 
and the old one duly broken. Mr. Cornelius Dutch, the Clerk, was 
now honoured by having his portrait taken for the Society. The 
artist was a Mr. Hudson. This picture is still in the possession of 
the Society, and has all the appearance of being a faithful likeness 
of the worthy old official. Apparently the Clerk's infirmities were 
such as to preclude him from active work for the future, for 
henceforward his handwriting disappears from the Minute Books. 

Three entries in the Minutes, under date June 10, 1756, are worth 
notice. The fire engine was ordered to be repaired by Messrs. 
Newsham and Ragg, an early firm of fire-engine makers. A dozen 
chairs for the Assistants' table in the Hall were also voted to be pur- 
chased, and the heavy duty on the Company's plate, imposed by a 
new Act of Parliament, was arranged to be paid. The officers for 
1756-7 were Mr. Massa, Mr. Lone, and Mr. Andrew Lillie. On 
September 23, 1756, Mr. Cornelius Dutch, the Clerk, having died, a 
new Clerk was elected in the person of Mr. Reginald Dennison. The 
new Clerk was required to give security to the amount of no less than 
;^2,ooo. Mr. Massa, the Master, having also died, Mr, Nathaniel 
Greene was chosen for the remainder of the year in his room, but, 
as he had already held the office, the costs were paid by the Company. 
Before January, 1757, was over another death occurred, viz., that of 
Mr. William Lone, the Upper Warden, in succession to whom Mr. 
Daniel Peters was chosen. On the 26th of May Mr. Greene, the 
Master, died. Sir Benjamin Rawling, a past Master, having been 
elected for the remainder of the term, accepted office, his charges 
likewise being paid by the Company. This year some of the houses 
of the Company adjoining the Hall were burnt down. A dispute 
occurred over the insurance — the person, a Mrs. G. Bridgeman, who 



142 APOTHECARIES 

had insured them, refusing to make good the damage. A committee 
was formed to undertake the conduct of the matter, and a case was 
drawn up for Counsel's opinion to be obtained. An entry on June i6, 
1757, tells us that the carpenter's bill for repairing the Hall, a work 
some time since entered upon, amounted to £262. The officers for 
1757-8 were Mr. Daniel Peters, Mr. Andrew Lillie, and Mr. William 
Tyson. Mrs. Bridgeman now offered ;^8oo in compensation for the 
hre, but this offer was at once rejected. On September 27th Mr. 
Pocock, the Beadle, asked leave to resign, as he had been appointed 
dispenser to the Royal Hospital at Greenwich. His wife at the same 
time resigned the post of butler to the Company. Mr. Pocock and 
his wife were succeeded in their respective offices by Mr. and Mrs. 
Sotherton Backler. On October 13, 1757, a dozen plates bearing the 
Company's arms were ordered to be cast, to be affixed to the houses 
belonging to the Society. None of these plates are now believed to 
be in existence. Some outlying tenements recently sold by the 
Company, and situated in Fleur-de-lis Court, Carter Lane, were under 
demolition as this was being written. Examination, however, failed to 
disclose either plates or interesting features there. With regard to the 
affixing of the lead plates, the Minute excuses it in the following 
words: "as other corporations, and even the City of London has 
done." 

An action at law having been entered into against Mrs. Bridgeman, 
damages to the amount of ^^1,050 were obtained. This sum the 
defendant paid, and an additional £^^ towards costs. The money 
was duly invested in Three per Cent. Bank Annuities. Early in 1758 
no less than three Assistants were disfranchised for non-attendance at 
Courts. The negligence of these officials had been the cause of much 
delay in business, and repeated warnings having failed to have any 
effect, the strong measure of disfranchisement was necessarily resorted 
to. A curious entry tells us that the Company's safe was at this date 
ordered to be erected on the right-hand side of the chimney in the 
great kitchen. A strange place to keep plate, books, and other 
valuables, truly. The cost of this safe was not to exceed ^^30. The 
officials for 1758-9 were Mr. Andrew Lillie, Mr. William Tyson, and 
Mr. William Gataker. In August, 1758, at the request of the Com- 
missioners for the sick and wounded seamen, the Company under- 



-^ 



1750 TO 1758 143 

took to examine all dispensers for the Navy as to their knowledge of 
pharmacy and qualifications as dispensers. An anonymous donor 
this year gave £^00 to be put out to interest, the income to be 
applied to increasing the pensions given by the Company. Ten 
shillings per annum was thus added to each pension, and we read 
that the total amount of each annual pension was thus brought to £^. 
The first Committee of Examiners met on September 5, 1758, when a 
Mr. Shannon presented himself, was examined, and declared qualified. 
An entry tells us that the sum of £\o was at this time allowed by the 
Company towards the ''Confirmation" Dinner, and a return to the 
old custom of inviting ladies to be present was made, each Assistant 
being provided with one ticket. On December 7, 1758, the Court of 
Assistants requested a prominent member of the Company, Mr. John 
Allen, to give sittings for his portrait to Mr. Hudson. This picture is 
still in the possession of the Company. The admission of qualified 
men in large numbers into Government service as dispensers appears 
to have caused a dearth of journeymen in the apothecaries' shops. 
The Apothecaries therefore petitioned the City for some relaxation 
in the rules which forbad the employment of '^foreign " journeymen. 
At the end of December Mr. Andrew Lillie, the Master, died. In 
consequence a new election was held. Mr. Tyson became Master 
and Mr. Gataker Upper Warden, while a new Renter Warden was 
found in the person of Mr. Benjamin Charlewood. Some difficulty 
now ai'ose in this respect. Many of the Livery resided in the country, 
and on that account refused to pay the Quarterage money. After 
much deliberation it was determined (Counsel's advice having also 
been taken) to enter actions at law against the defaulters. This, it 
may be observed, was in accordance with the Charter and byelaws, 
which certainly gave the right to the Society. The amount of 
quarterage annually demanded was only 6s. from each man. 

When the petition to the Lord Mayor and Common Council was 
presented a debate was held thereon, and an amendment was moved. 
Eventually the petition was granted, and new rules were adopted to 
remove the restrictions hitherto obtaining. At the election held on 
August 23rd the officers chosen were Mr. William Gataker, Mr. 
Charlewood, and Mr. Daniel Hanchett. Mr. Allen, whose picture 
the Company desired to possess, seems to have been too modest to 



144 APOTHECARIES 

sit at once. At any rate, he bestowed on the Company two dozen 
silver spoons with a request to be excused from sitting for his 
portrait. The spoons were accepted, and ordered to be inscribed 
with Mr. Allen's initials, "I. A.," on the back of the handle of each 
spoon. On October i8, 1759, a quantity of the old plate, styled by 
the Master '^ useless and unfashionable," was ordered to be sold. 
With the money which it produced, four dozen knives with silver 
handles and four dozen similar forks were purchased ; also twelve 
salts with "shovels" and four small silver cups for the barge were 
purchased. These knives are still in use ; the steel two-pronged 
forks have, however, become worn out, and smaller knives have 
been .fitted into the original handles. The "useless and unfashion- 
able " plate sold was as follows : Two college cups given by Mr. 
Gideon Delaune, the cup and cover given by Mr. Edward Taylor, 
the large salt given by Ann, wife of Richard Glover, and the " other " 
saltcellar, the lesser " Monteth," and the two lesser salvers 1 Alas 1 
the Plate Committee reported that the three silver-gilt cups used on 
the Confirmation Day by the Master and Wardens at the ceremony 
of election were out of order, inasmuch as their covers did not fit. 
These were ordered to be repaired. On January 3, 1760, in response 
to a representation from the Naval authorities, it was determined to 
open a drug and medicine warehouse at Portsmouth in order that the 
supply might be equal to the demand. The officers for the years 
1760-61 were Mr. Benjamin Charlewood, Mr. Daniel Hanchett, and 
Mr. John Springett. Mr. Allen seems to have conquered his shyness 
as to having his portrait painted, for we find an entry recording not 
only its reception by the Court, but that the sitter had become the 
donor. He was, of course, duly thanked for his generosity. On 
December 4, 1760, Mr. Gataker presented the Company with a carving 
in stone of the arms of the Society, the which was set up over the gate, 
and the thanks of the Court conveyed to the donor. At the meeting 
held on March 12, 1761, it was reported to the Court that the Ward of 
Farringdon Within intended to elect a Member of the Company to 
the office of Lamp Collector. As all freemen were exempt from 
holding such offices, the nominee, a Mr. John Field, was instructed 
to refuse to serve, and an indemnity from all fines was furnished him 
by the Company. The officers for 1761-2 were Mr. Daniel Hanchett, 



146 APOTHECARIES 

Mr. John Springett, and Mr. Josiah Higden. On August 28, 1761, a 
new set of flags and streamers was ordered by the Court for the 
barge. The cost was ;^48, exclusive of the silk. The banners bore 
the King's Arms, the City Arms, the Company's Arms (with crest and 
supporters) and the Company's Arms (without). The two streamers 
bore "the City and Company's and proper ornaments thereto." 
These streamers, one altered after the legislative union with Ireland, 
are in existence, and hang in the Hall. The amount of silk ordered 
from Messrs. Palmer and Fleckwood is given, and amounted to 
twenty-three yards of crimson Mantua silk at 9s. a yard and seven- 
teen yards of blue Mantua silk at 8s. The barge and the colour 
staves were at the same time ordered to be painted. For 1762-3 the 
officers elected were Mr. John Springett, Mr. Josiah Higden, and 
Mr. Edmund Mills. On April 28, 1763, Mr. Backler, the beadle, 
having died, a successor was appointed, by name Richard Reynell. 
The widow of Mr. Backler received a quarter's salary, and was con- 
tinued in the post of butler to the Company, with the promise of the 
first vacant pension. Her salary as butler was fixed at £lb per annum. 
On the Election Day Mr. Josiah Higden was chosen Master, 
and Mr. Edmund Mills Upper Warden. Mr. Gisbey was elected 
Renter Warden, but fined, when Mr. John Peck was chosen and 
accepted office. The Blackfriars Bridge was now about to be built, 
and a portion of the Company's estate was required by the Building 
Committee of the new bridge. The matter of compensation was 
arbitrated, the award being ^1,100, a sum which was duly paid to 
the Company. The amount of land taken was 28 feet frontage to the 
river, 127 feet from north to south on the west side next Water Lane, 
and 126 feet on the east side. The east strip included a part of the 
White Swan Inn. Originally the Company demanded ;^ 1,400, but, as 
has been said, obtained ;^ 1,100. On Election Day, 1764, one of the 
Assistants, a Mr. Thomas Harris, having been elected Sheriff of 
London, was put in nomination for Master, He was elected, and 
paid ;^40 fine for not having served the offices of Renter and Upper 
Warden. Those who were elected first to these offices also paid 
fines, and after a second election Mr. John Peck and Mr. Marmaduke 
Westwood accepted office. The election over, the bill of expenses 
incurred over the sale of the slip of land to the Bridge Committee 



I7SO TO 1758 147 

was iianded in. It amounted to £^2 is., and out of this the Clerk 
had £y. IIS. 6d. 

On October 25, 1764, the Court requested the late Master, 
Mr. Higden, to sit for his portrait. This picture, ultimately the 
gift of the sitter, is still in the possession of the Company. The 
old barge having now become unserviceable, a new one was ordered 
from a Mr. Charles Cownden, boatbuilder. The vessel was to cost 
£fy\o^ a sum which included all fitting and painting except plate-glass 
for the windows. The ofl&cers for 1765-6 were Mr. Charlewood (a 
past Master), elected again because he was to be one of the Sheriffs of 
London ; Mr. Westwood Upper and Mr. Edward Ferrand Renter 
Warden. For the offices of Warden Mr. David Graham and Mr. 
John Wilmer both fined. 

The new barge seems to have been a grand afiPair. At any rate, 
mention is made of crimson damask coverings for the back of the 
Master's seat therein, and an " occasional footstep " for the Master, as 
well as special cushions. At this date the gown of the Beadle seems 
to have been made of blue cloth with yellow trimming. Evidently 
the finances of the Company did not run to gold lace. 

An entry dated October 24, 1765, tells us that the inscription 
beneath the picture of Mr. Cornelius Dutch was then put up "to 
perpetuate the memory of a faithful servant," and that this was done 
at the instance and expense of the present Clerk, who had been 
Mr. Dutch's assistant. 

On November 28, 1765, we read that three dozen "Virginia 
Walnuttree Chairs" and three mahogany tables were ordered to be 
bought. The tables were to match those already in the parlour. At 
the end of May Mr. Charlewood, the Master, died, and a fresh election 
was held, at which Mr. Edmund Mills was chosen and accepted office. 

At the August election Mr. John Peck, Mr. Ferrand, and Mr. 
John Chandler were elected officers for 1766-7. The Court, after 
the business of choosing was concluded, voted two sums of ;^5o 
as a charitable gift to the sufferers by fires at Bridgetown in Barbados 
and Montreal in Canada. This year the Navy Stock was most 
flourishing, its business increased by the addition of the East India 
Company to its customers. In consequence it was determined to 
augment the capital, and for this purpose the subscriptions of the 



148 APOTHECARIES 

Livery were invited. This year an unknown donor presented ;^ioo 
to the Company for the increase of the pensions. These now 
amounted to ^^6 per annum each. From an entry dated March 26, 
1766, we find that Mr. Edmund Mills was the donor of the handsome 
chandelier which is still in the Court Room. The extension of the 
Navy Stock caused some little stir in the Company. Several who had 
held back from contributing to the Stock in the past now desired to 
come forward, A petition was forwarded by them to the Master and 
Wardens for admission thereto. However, after taking counsel's 
opinion the Master and Wardens entirely refused to grant the 



request. It was, however, thought advisable to increase the security 
given by the Clerk from ^2,000 to ;^4,ooo. 

The officers for 1767-8 were Mr. Marmaduke Westwood, Mr. John 
Chandler, and Mr. Jeremiah Armiger, The Master, however, died 
in March, and there was in consequence a new election. A Mr. 
Wilmer was first chosen, but paid a fine of £yi and was excused ; Mr. 
Chandler was then elected and accepted office. Mr. Latham was 
elected Upper Warden in his room, while Mr. Armiger remained 
in his original position. Some trouble occurred at this time with 
the apprentices that attended the botanical lectures and private 



I7SO TO 1758 149 

'* herbarizings." It seems that disorderly characters managed to 
obtain admittance, with the result that not a little disturbance took 
place. A scandal thereby arose, and it was found needful to frame 
very stringent rules for governing the conduct of apprentices and 
excluding the persons whose behaviour had been complained of. On 
February 2, 1768, the Company's fire engine was ordered to be 
repaired by Messrs. Broadbent, the cost thereof being £\2 i6s. 6d. 
Under date June 22, 1768, is an entry recording the presentation 
to the Company of the picture of the late Master, Mr. Marmaduke 
Westwood. The officers for 1768-9 were Mr. Samuel Latham, Mr. 
Jeremiah Armiger, and Mr. Robert Gamon. Thanks to an anony- 
mous donation of j^ioo, the pensions were increased to £(i los. each 
per annum. In December, 1768, the butler, Mrs. Backler, died, and 
was succeeded in her post by the wife of the beadle, Mrs. Reynell. 
The Beadle, it may be observed, was at this time in disgrace, and 
narrowly escaped being discharged for misconduct. He was, how- 
ever, reinstated after having been suspended for some weeks. This 
officer, however, does not seem to have taken warning, for, having 
again transgressed, he was discharged on March 15th. His wife was 
nevertheless permitted to retain her post as butler. At an election 
held on June 16, Mr. Ezekiel Varenne was chosen to fill the vacancy. 
As a new year's gift Mr. Thomas Basden, one of the Assistants, pre- 
sented the Company with the King's Arms, painted and gilt. These 
no longer exist. Thanks to another donation of j^ioo the annual 
pensions were increased to £^ each. The officers for 1769-70 were 
Mr. Jeremiah Armiger, Mr. Robert Gamon, and Mr. John Lisle. 
Benefactions to the pension fund were now frequent, and the annual 
amounts were soon raised to ;^8. In July the Upper Warden died, 
and was succeeded by Mr. John Lisle, Mr. John Channing being 
elected Renter Warder. At the August election Mr. Lisle became 
Master, Mr. Channing Upper Warden, and Mr. John Pearce Renter 
Warden. During this year no event of any kind happened which 
is worth recording. For the following year the officials were Mr. 
Channing, Mr. John Pearce, and Mr. James Kettilby. On August 22, 
1 77 1, two of the cedar trees in the garden were ordered to be cut 
down and disposed of for the benefit of the Society. At the same 
meeting the Latin inscription which was to be cut on the statue of 



ISO APOTHECARIES 

Sir Hans Sloane was finally decided on, and its terms are inserted in 
the Minute Book in full. 

On December 17, 1771, the Renter Warden was empowered to 
purchase the freehold of a house in Water Lane at that time in the 
occupation of a certain Mr. Chillingworth. The price was fixed 
by agreement at ;^3o8. This house, it seems, was mortgaged at the 
time for ;^i5o, but the mortgagee had died and his heir-at-law could 
not be found. A conveyance of the equity of redemption to Mr. 
Benjamin Phillips and the Clerk of the Company, in trust, was 
therefore taken. This year a present of plate to the value of ;^3i ids. 
was given to the "Demonstrator of Plants," Mr. Alchorne, upon his 
resigning his post. The officials for 1772-3 were Mr. Pearce, Mr. 
Kettilby, and Mr. Josiah Colebrooke. For the office of Renter Warden 
Mr. John Cawte was first elected, but paid fine and was excused. 
During August, 1773, some important arrangements were made with 
regard to some of the property of the Company in Water Lane. 
It appears that this had been leased to a Mr. Barlow, who had 
expended thereon ;^7,400 in building. The Company now lent him 
;^4,ooo on mortgage. Barlow surrendered his original lease and 
received separate leases for 97 years. The properties are all 
enumerated. Their ground rent, clear of taxes, amounted to ;^300 
per annum. This property consisted of the wharf and eight houses, 
a house with stable and coach-house, and two others with areas and 
coal-cellars. The officers for 1733-4 were Mr. Kettilby, Mr. Cawte, 
and Mr. Thomas Basden. Within a month Mr. Cawte was in- 
capacitated through sicknesss, and Mr. Colebrooke was elected in 
his place. The arrangement with Mr. Barlow was in the event most 
unsatisfactory. He borrowed ;^i,ooo more from the Company and 
then tried to obtain another ;^2,ooo, at the same time asking them 
to give up the lease of the wharf which was held in trust. The 
Company, however, refused, and instructed the Clerk to press for 
and obtain the arrears of rent. On June 9, 1774, Mr. Allen, a former 
Master, by his will bequeathed ;^i,ooo to the Society. The election 
for 1774 resulted in Mr. Colebrooke Master, Mr. Basden Upper and 
Mr. William Prowting Renter Warden. By resolution of a General 
Court of the Proprietors of the Laboratory Stock held this year, a 
set of new rules was framed for its management. It seems that 



I750 TO 1758 151 

the trade of the Laboratory was much increased, and that the method 
of dividing the profits was not found to work well. By the new 
regulations this latter defect was remedied. On March 22, 1775, Mr. 
Ezekiel Varenne, the beadle, resigned and was succeeded by Frederick 
Kanmacher. Immediately after his resignation Mr. Varenne was 
elected into the Livery, paying ;^i5 fine and 20s. to the garden. 
The officers for 1775-6 were Mr. Prowting, Mr. George Clarke, and 
Mr. William Lane. Mr. Colebrooke, the Master for 1774-5, had, 
however, died a few days before the election day. As a temporary 
arrangement, after an election he was succeeded by Mr. Basden, but 
Mr. Prowting became Upper and Mr. Clarke Renter Warden. 
This election was, however, merely formal, and those named only 
held office for a few hours, as the real election took place the same 
day. Mr. Barlow being again in arrear with his rent his goods 
were distrained on September 27, 1775. 

On February 5, 1776, Mr. Dennison ceased to be Clerk, and was 
succeeded by Mr. Walter Williams. The officers for 1776-7, elected 
August 28, were Mr. George Clarke, Mr. William Lane, and Mr. 
Thomas Roberts, and no other event occurred which requires notice. 
For 1777-8 Mr. Lane was elected Master, Mr. Thomas Roberts 
Upper and Mr. Richard Elliott Renter Warden. This year there 
was a rather strange arrangement made. Mrs. Reynell, the butler, 
was permitted to retain her salary, but was not expected to perform 
the duties of the post. These duties were undertaken by Mr. 
Kanmacher, the Beadle, but a proviso was made that Mrs. Reynell 
should attend for a time and coach the Beadle in his office. Time 
went on and Mrs. Reynell vanished, never coming near the Hall and 
leaving no address where she could be found. Kanmacher found 
himself in an awkward position, having agreed to perform (as a 
kindness) duties of which he knew nothing, and with much valuable 
property in his charge. Accordingly he resigned the post of butler, 
after petitioning for leave so to do. The Court, angry at the 
behaviour of Mrs. Reynell, at once stopped her salary. Mr. Barlow, 
the troublesome tenant, again appears this year ; this time as 
endeavouring to damage the houses of the Company in "Barlow's 
Buildings," Blackfriars, by pulling oflf tiles, wrecking windows, and 
removing doorcases. This was at once put an end to, still con- 
siderable havoc was done prior to discovery. 



CHAPTER XVr 

1778 TO 1795 

a Private Court held on April 7, 1778, William 
Griffith, son of John Griffith, of the parish of Christ 
Church, in the County of Middlesex, Apothecary, 
was bound to Mr. Joseph Jackson for eight years. 
For a considerable time negotiations had been in 
progress with a certain Mrs. Thornicroft as regards 
the sale to the Corporation of certain premises behind the Hall. These 
premises were, on May 29, 1778, duly purchased by the Company for 
a sum of ;£i,200. At the Court of Assistants held on June 25, 1778, 
Mrs. Reynell, the ex-buller, again came under notice. It appears 
that she had had possession of some of the effects of the Company 
and had refused to give them up. For this and for other misdemean- 
ours her pension had therefore been stopped. The woman was now 
penitent, and it was ordered that upon her replacing the property the 
pension should be continued as usual. 

On the Election Day, August 27, 1778, Mr. Lane and Mr. Roberts 
were placed in nomination for Master, and Mr. Richard Elliott and 
Mr. Joseph Partington for Upper Warden ; Mr. Joseph Partington 
and Mr. Isaac Mather as Renter Warden. The result of the election 
was, Mr. Roberts, Master, Mr. Elliott Upper and Mr. Partington 
Renter Warden. At the same Court a Mrs. Elizabeth Jepson was 
elected to the vacant post of Butler. 

Dated December 17, 1778, is a rather curious entry ; in which Mr. 
Deputy Treasurer Field applied to the Court to give permission for 
the Navy Committee to sit in the Library and to use the Great Hall 
as their shop in the same manner as the Laboratory Stock had done. 



T»Je. Gr^TE.'Wfify. 



1 54 APOTHECARIES 

He also requested the use of the kitchen as a warehouse for heavy 
goods, and the garret and rooms now converted as part of the Clerk's 
apartments as a warehouse for light goods. These requests were all 
granted. 

On Election Day, August 26, 1779, Mr. Elliott became Master, Mr. 
Joseph Partington Upper and Mr. Isaac Mather Rertter Warden. 

At this meeting a Memorial was presented by the Clerk, Mr. Walter 
Williams, in which he advised that the dining-parlour, the small 
parlour, the kitchen, and several other rooms should be taken away 
from him and handed over to the Committees of the Navy and Labora- 
tory Stocks, and that he should in lieu inhabit the house till then 
occupied by Mr. Friend. This house was the building on the left of 
the gateway where the present porter's lodge now is. During the 
remainder of this year little of interest is to be discovered — the time 
and attention of the Court being mainly occupied by matters con- 
nected with structural alterations, improvements, and rather extensive 
repairs in the fabric of the premises. These, when carried out shortly 
afterwards, would appear to have resulted in the rebuilding of the 
street frontage — a rebuilding which in its effects rendered the appear- 
ance of the Company's Hall that which it retains to the present day. 
But the expenses were very heavy, for it was discovered that the 
general fabric was in a most dangerous condition. The work of 
rebuilding, after the Great Fire, had been ill done, the materials used 
were very defective, and the wonder is not only that the roofs of the 
general buildings had not fallen in, but that the Great Hall itself had 
not collapsed. Luckily, however, the mischief was detected and 
repaired, at a cost of ;^i,332. 

On the Election Day, August 24, 1780, Mr. Joseph Partington was 
chosen Master, Mr. Isaac Mather Upper and Mr. Thomas Hawes 
Renter Warden. A long letter of complaint from a certain Mr. 
William Slade came before the Private Court held on June 5, 1781. 
The writer leased two houses in close proximity to the Hall, and found 
that the fumes, chemical and otherwise, which issued from the Labora- 
tory annoyed his tenants. He also had another grievance, viz., that 
some of the new buildings of the Company obstructed the light in 
some of his windows. The matter was referred to the Joint Com- 
mittee of the Laboratory and Navy Stocks for due consideration. 



1778 TO 1795 155 

On the Election Day, August 28, 1781, Mr. Isaac Mather was chosen 
Master, Mr. Thomas Hawes Upper and Mr. Charles Moore Renter 
Warden. There is very little indeed of interest recorded during the 
years 1781-2. It would appear that the expenditure of the Company 
had rather exceeded its income, and a scheme was prepared and dis- 
cussed by which certain economies could be put in practice. One 
entry of great length contains a most elaborate plan for supplying 
Assistants for the Court — as of yore, people were not too desirous of 
serving. There was also trouble at this time with the Clerk, Mr. 
William Williams ; his accounts seem to have got into a very 
confused state — payments to the Company which he ought to make, 
he did not make, and in lieu asked for leave of absence. This was 
refused, and at last he was compelled to submit the differences 
between himself and the Company to a specially called Court of 
Assistants. Meanwhile Williams affixed an offensive warning notice 
that he alone was qualified to discharge the official business of the 
Company. This notice was ordered to be torn down by the Beadle. 
Matters rested in this way till after the Election Day. On that day, 
August 22, 1782, Mr. Thomas Hawes was chosen Master, Mr. Robert 
Cooke Upper and Mr. Edward Thomas Nealson Renter Warden. A 
vacancy in the office of Clerk was at once declared, and a Committee 
was appointed to inquire into, regulate, and apportion the fees proper 
to be taken by the new Clerk. The butler, Mrs. Jepson, having died, a 
new butler, Mrs. Hodder, was elected. On September 12th the 
election of a new Clerk took place ; there were several candidates, and 
in the result Mr. Warden Cooke was selected. During the entire year 
no event of the slightest importance is chronicled. The officers 
elected on August 21, 1783, were Mr. Edward Thomas Nealson, 
Master, Mr. John Devall Upper and Mr. John Field Renter Warden. 
Taught by experience, the new officers framed and appended to the 
Minute Book a careful list of the fees which the Clerk was to be per- 
mitted to receive. The Clerk's salary was fixed at £^0^ and the fees 
varied from 2s. 6d. for small searches in documents to £(i 6s., the 
amount authorised to be paid for making up the Warden's account ; 
drawing out the Company's account Dr. and Cr., and making a 
schedule of plate, etc. Sixpence in the pound was also allowed to the 
Clerk on all rents received or collected by him. For the remainder of 



156 APOTHECARIES 

the official year no entry of interest occurs — the Company pursued 
the even tenour of its way, admitting liverymen when vacancies 
occurred, binding apprentices, herbarising, and occasionally "search- 
ing." On the Election Day, August 12, 1784, Mr. John Devall was 
chosen Master, Mr. John Field Upper and Mr, William Ball Renter 
Warden, Mr. Robert Cooke, the Clerk, appears to have been a great 
success, if the businesslike method in which the Minute Books are 
kept during his term of office is any criterion. It is noteworthy too, 
that the signature of the Master at this time first begins to appear in 
the Minute Books, showing that greater care and supervision was 
being exercised over those important records of the proceedings of the 



OLt) BALLOT BOX 

Company. At the Court of Assistants held on October 21, 1784, the 
receipt from Mr. Warden Field of a ballot-box was announced, and 
that gentleman was duly thanked for his gift to the Company. This 
box is still used. On December 16, 1784, a Committee was appointed 
to inquire into the duties, fees, and emoluments of the Beadle of the 
Company, and to state the same and deliver their opinion thereon to 
the next Court. At the Court of Assistants held on March 15, 1785, 
orders were given to stucco the front of the Hall, and to erect thereon 
the Company's arms. On the same occasion the Report of the Com- 
mittee of inquiry into the duties, etc., of the Beadle was received. In 
that document the duties performed by that officer and the fees 
received by him were approved, but he was forbidden, in future, to 



1778 TO 1795 1 57 

receive a certain 2s. 6d. which it had been customary hitherto to levy 
on apprentices when handing to them a botanical book. This fee 
was in future to be charged to the Company in the Beadle's annual 
accounts. 

On Election Day, August 25, 1785, the following officers were 
chosen : Mr. John Field, Master, Mr. William Ball Upper and Mr. 
Thomas Greenough Renter Warden. The last-named gentleman, 
however, declined office, and after ofifering ;^5o as fine for declining 
both Wardenships it was resolved that he should pay ;^2o as fine for 
the office of Renter Warden, but that his other request could not be 
granted. Mr. Greenough paid the ;^20, a fresh election was held, 
and Mr. Matthew Yatman was chosen in his room. On October 21, 
1785, an entry occurs with regard to the Company's fire engine — the 
former keeper thereof, one Richard Price, was paid his annual salary 
of two guineas, but was discharged on the ground that being *' a Fire 
Porter " he was not a proper person to be engine keeper for the future. 
A certain John Kirby was appointed in his place at the same salary, 
and was ordered to bring out the engine and play it four times a year, 
for which he was to be paid an extra guinea ; the cost being shared 
equally between the Company, the Navy, and the Laboratory Stocks. 
On November 25, 1785, an important letter was received from the 
College of Physicians and signed by Dr. Harvey, in which it was 
announced that the College had come to the resolution of revising 
their Pharmacopoeia and requesting the assistance of the Company 
therein, in order that it " should be as correct and free from errors as 
possible, and that all the formulae should be such as can be easily 
prepared by the gentlemen of your Society." It is needless to add 
that the Company immediately complied with the request of the College, 
and a Committee, nominated of the Master and Wardens, Mr. Devall, 
Mr. Wingfield, for the Laboratory, and Mr. Hodgkinson and Mr. 
Carter for the Navy Stocks. On December 15, 1785, tickets admitting 
members of the Company to the Physic Garden, at Chelsea, were first 
instituted. It seems that some members had been refused admission. 
Complaint of this was made. The gardener being called to account, 
with reason answered that he could not possibly know all liverymen 
by sight, neither could his men. In consequence, a copperplate was 
ordered to be " suitably ornamented and embellished." Each livery- 



I S8 APOTHECARIES 

man was furnished with a ticket printed therefrom, and requested to 
produce the same when visiting the garden. On March 17, 1786, a 
Mr. Godfrey, a member of the Society, attended before the Court and 
complained that he had been prosecuted and fined by the Commis- 
sioners of Excise for selling spirituous liquors. He claimed as an 
apothecary to be able to do so. The Court, however, while upholding 
him so far as he had sold " Spirituous Compositions made bona fide 
according to Medical Dispensations and Physician's Prescriptions," 
pronounced against him as they found he had sold "some plain 
simple spirit," an offence against which they had warned the members 
of the Society. They also added that complaints laid before the Court 
should be made in writing and not verbally. On Election Day, August 
24, 1786, Mr. Yatman and Mr. Greenough, who would, in all probability, 
have been put in nomination, both wrote asking to be excused, 
and from Mr. Ball a similar letter was received. A Mr. James Brom- 
field who was senior enough also desired to escape office. The 
reasons are not very clear why there should be a sudden return to the 
old method of endeavouring to shirk responsibilities. Mr. Ball's excuse 
was that he intended living in the country and could not attend to his 
duties. In the event, Mr. Matthew Yatman was chosen Master, Mr. 
James Bromfield Upper and Mr. Peter Girod Renter Warden. On 
October 23, 1786, the barge was ordered to be newly painted and 
gilded at an expense of £6^, in consequence of which the Company 
made no appearance on the Thames on the Lord Mayor's Day. At the 
election held on August 23rd, for 1787-8, there again appeared a dis- 
inclination on the part of members of the Court to take office, Mr. 
Greenough again paying his fine — eventually Mr. James Bromfield 
was chosen Master, Mr. Peter Girod Upper and Mr. Thomas Cater 
Renter Warden. 

During December, 1788, we read entries which show that there had 
been some hitch in the usual festivities on Lord Mayor's Day. It 
appears that such a number of guests had been invited by the Society 
that the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants had been quite 
elbowed out of their proper places. In consequence, a list of 
functionaries, whom it would in future be proper to invite, was drawn 
up, and the places, in due order of precedence, assigned to their 
invited guests settled in form. At this period it would appear that the 



1778 TO 1795 159 

Company not only employed a female butler, but a female plumber, 
the name of the latter being Mrs. Naylor. On Election Day, August 
21, 1788, Mr. Peter Girod was chosen Master, Mr. Thomas Cater 
Upper and Mr. Paul JulHott Renter Warden. This year the stewards 
for Lord Mayor's Day renewed their request to be permitted to give "a 
Ball at Night" on November 9th. They had been refused permission 
in 1787, but their request was now granted after a show of hands, the 
number being eight of the Court in favour of the festivity and five 
against it. On October 7th we read that new forms were ordered for 
the Hall, for use on festive occasions, and that a curtain was purchased 
to hang up behind the Master's Chair on the barge. With regard to 
the projected Ball on November 9th, it would appear that there was a 
rather strong feeling — so much so that on November 4th the three 
stewards for Lord Mayor's Day attended at the private Court and 
withdrew their request for a Ball, " having heard the Court were not 
unanimous," and adding that they took this course " for the sake of 
good harmony." In consequence all ill-feeling was removed. 

At a Special Court of Assistants held on ApJril 30, 1789, a humble 
and congratulatory address was drafted to be presented to the King on 
his recovery from his late severe illness — and a similar one was 
prepared to be forwarded to the Queen. The Minute Book contains 
both these addresses in full, with the reply thereto signed by Lord 
Sydney. During this year the old trouble of fees cropped up again. 
It seems that at the General Herbarizing the Beadle was in the habit 
of collecting half-crowns from those who attended. This collection, 
we read rather vaguely, was attended by " disagreeable circumstances." 
The Court, therefore, finding that the average amount collected was 
about £\Zy resolved that in future this sum should be allowed by the 
Society, and the collection by the Beadle was forbidden. 

On Election Day, August 27, 1789, Mr. Thomas Cater was chosen 
Master, Mr. Paul Julliott Upper and Mr. Herbert Lawrence Renter 
Warden. Throughout this year there is no entry of the slightest 
interest. The officers chosen for 1790-91, at the election held on 
1 8th August, were, for Master, Mr. Paul Julliott ; for Upper Warden, 
Mr. Herbert Lawrence ; and for Renter Warden, Mr. William 
Heckford. 

Mention is this year made of a present to the Society of a "very 



i6o APOTHECARIES 

valuable collection of tracts, relating to the history of the Society." It 
would be interesting to discover if these tracts are yet in existence. 
The donor was a former Master, Mr. John Field. The regulations for 
the award of the botanical prize were now made very stringent. If one 
candidate presented himself, three errors disqualified him ; if two, two 
errors ; and if three candidates, no errors at all were allowed 1 1 1 

The officers for the year 1791--2, elected on August 17th, were 
Mr. Herbert Lawrence Master, Mr. William Heckford Upper and 
Mr. John Willey Renter Warden. 

At this Court the report of the Committee appointed to ascertain 
the best method of investing and employing a legacy of about ;^300, 
bequeathed to the Society by a former Liveryman, Mr. Wingfield, was 
received. The Committee suggested that, in accordance with the 
known wishes of the deceased, they considered that an increase to the 
pension fund would best carry out his intentions. This was duly 
agreed to. On Election Day, August 22, 1792, Mr. William Heckford 
was chosen Master, Mr. John Willey Upper and Mr. John William 
Benson Renter Warden. On the same day a donation of twenty 
guineas was made to the Philanthropic Society, and a letter containing 
a request, of what nature is not stated, sent by the Secretary of the 
Small Pox Hospital, was considered by the Court. It is noted briefly 
that the request was refused. During this year the roof of the Hall 
was covered with lead. It had first been proposed to use copper, but 
the expense was found to be far beyond the present resources of the 
Company. The business of the Society during the last year had not, 
it would appear, been transacted with regularity owing to the frequent 
absence of the Master and Wardens through illness. A resolution was 
therefore passed to the efifect that duly qualified deputies should be 
appointed, and this was accordingly done ; Mr. William Prowting, Mr. 
Thomas Cater, and Mr. John Field being nominated as Deputy Master, 
Upper and Renter Warden respectively. 

At a Special Court of Assistants, held on December 24, 1792, a long 
patriotic resolution was submitted. It is a curious document in which 
the attachment of the Master, Wardens, and Assistants is declared to 
the King, the Constitution, etc. This paper appears to have been 
ordered to be copied and left for general signature by the Livery, in 
order to " give the Livery and Freemen an opportunity of declaring 



1778 TO 1795 i6i 

their sentiments." The document was also to be signed by the Clerk, 
and published in three morning and three evening papers. 
Doubtless a very loyal act and proper, but it is not easy to see why 
it was needful at that particular time. 

In this year the Confirmation Day Ball was postponed because the 
Great Hall was under repair. The officers elected on Election Day, 
August 21, 1793, being Mr. John Willey Master, Mr. John William 
Benson Upper and Mr. John Devaynes Renter Warden. On 
October 16, 1793, it was resolved that " the south end of the Hall will 
be more commodious for the place of the Assistants' table than the 
north," and as the Hall was then under repair, it was determined that 
" the arch and carved arms and the screen on each side be removed 
and carried back to the wall, and the place now behind it be made as 
convenient and respectable and light as may be necessary for their 
convenient accommodation." The Master, Wardens and Committee 
were charged to see this alteration carried into effect. At a Special 
Court held November 5, 1793, the question of repairs was again 
discussed. The Court adjourned to the Great Hall. There they 
ordered a new floor which was to " be raised to the level of the present 
hunting." The pre-existing dais therefore vanished. The wainscot of 
the Hall was to be made good and as like the old as possible. This is 
an important entry in the history of the Great Hall. On December 
II, 1793, Mr. John Field resigned his Deputy Treasurership of the 
Navy Stock to the great regret of the Court. At the election, August 
21, 1794, Mr. John William Benson was chosen Master, Mr. John 
Devaynes Upper and Mr. William Towle Renter Warden. On 
September 25, 1794, Mr. William Prowting, the late treasurer of the 
Navy Stock having died, it was resolved that "agreeable to the desire of 
the General Committee of the Navy Stock " a whole-length portrait of 
the deceased should be placed in the Great Hall. This picture is now 
in the south-west corner of the Great Hall. Mr. Prowting was much 
respected and beloved, and the entire Court went into "close 
mourning." The deceased treasurer bequeathed ;^ioo South Sea 
Annuities to the Society for the purpose of establishing lectures in 
Materia Medica. The establishment of these lectures was a favourite 
project of Mr. Prowting's, though it had not hitherto found favour 
with the rest of the Court. He also bequeathed them a valuable 

12 



i62 APOTHECARIES 

collection of rare drugs, once the property of Dr. Crow. The testator 
adds to his bequests a proposition that if the foundation of lectures be 
disapproved of, the money should go towards the augmentation of 
pensions. In this year the Laboratory Stock purchased seven houses 
in Fleur de Luce Court for a sum of ;^65o. 

On Election Day, August 27, 1795, Mr. John Devaynes was chosen 
Master, Mr. William Fowle Upper and Mr. John Bradney Renter 
Warden. At a Special Court held on November 30, 1795, a humble 
address to the King was ordered, the cause being his Majesty's " late 
providential deliverance from a most traitorous and nefarious attack " 
against his royal person. This of course refers to the attempted 
assassination of the King in that year. 



CHAPTER XVII 



THE RISE OF THE SOCIETY AS A TEACHING BODY 



1 


3 

Z 


1 



HE question of "foreign apothecaries" now became 
rather important, and a Special Court was held on 
February 29, 1796. It appears that a petition had 
been sent to the House of Commons by certain 
Apothecaries not free of the Society of Apothecaries 
of London. The Court nominated a Committee and 
determined to oppose any Bill brought in which might militate against 
the Chartered Rights of the Society. The Minutes of the meeting held 
March 8, 1796, show that the Society had determined to carry into 
effect, if possible so to do, the wishes of Mr. Prowling by establishing 
a lecture on Materia Medica. The entry referring to this, which is in 
the shape of a report, is, however, unfortunately incomplete. On 
Election Day, August 25, 1796, Mr. William Fowle was chosen Master, 
Mr. John Bradney Upper and Mr. Isaac Bouquet Renter Warden. 
Throughout this year there is no entry of the least interest. The 
officials chosen for the year 1797-8 were as follows : Mr. John Bradney, 
Master, Mr. Isaac Bouquet Upper and Mr. Thomas Watson Renter 
Warden. A Mr. Saxon had been elected Renter Warden, but declined 
office and paid the fine. His excuse was that his health was most 
precarious, and that he was compelled to live at Bath. 

This year the Barge did not join in the Lord Mayor's Water Show 
because the " colours," i.e., flags and streamers, were out of repair and 
could not be got ready in time. As this entry is dated August 31st, 
and the Show was not until November 9th, one cannot help believing 
that the real reason is not mentioned in the Minute Book. On 

August, 1798, for the first time we find the term " Election Day " 

163 



i64 APOTHECARIES 

omitted from the Minute Books. The election was, however, held on 
the 2oth, the officers chosen being Mr. Isaac Bouquet, Master, Mr. 
Thomas Watson Upper and Mr. John Collier Renter Warden. On 
this occasion Mr. Cotton and Mr. Alchorne were both elected in 
succession for the junior office, but declining to serve, paid fines of £20 
and ;^ioo respectively. Mr. Cotton's fine exempted him for one term 
only, but Mr. Alchorne was freed from all offices. 

This year the expenses of the dinner on " Master's Day " amounted 
to £i22 6s. 6d. Of this, ;f 100 was paid by the Master and Wardens, 
the balance of ;f22 6s. 6d. being furnished by the Company. The 
Income Tax and the Redemption of the Land Tax at this time formed 
the reason for calling a Special Court, and a Committee was nomi- 
nated to consider and report on the best steps to be taken with regard 
to the interests of the Society in these matters. These reports were duly 
furnished, and it is noted that they had been approved and confirmed. 
From this time forth it was ordered that every person admitted to 
membership in the Society should have a certificate of his examination 
signed by the Master and Wardens for the time being. At this period 
we meet with a definite statement as to the annual income of the 
Society. The amount was ;^i,8o2 7s. 3d. The value of the Labora- 
tory Stock, which had been that year divided, was ;£2,209 4s. 2d., and 
of the Navy Stock ;£7,938. The Commissioners for the Redemption 
of the Land Tax, it would appear, demanded ;^ 2,811 2s. 2d. as con- 
sideration for redeeming such Land Tax. To this document is 
appended an elaborate scheme for reducing the expenditure of the 
Society. The Herbarizing meetings were to be reduced to four in 
number ; to the expense of these the Society determined henceforth 
to contribute ;^30 to the " Master's Lead " — his special botanical 
expedition, that is to say — and any further expense was to fall on the 
Master. The Second or General Herbarizing was to be conducted by 
five Stewards, who were equally to divide the expense, the Company 
allowing 2S. 6d. for each member present. The third and fourth (or 
Private Herbarizings) were to be under the direction of two Stewards, 
who were to bear the whole expense. Apprentices attending were to 
be allowed is. each for breakfast, and a plain, substantial dinner. 
Towards the expenses of "Confirmation Day" the Company was to 
contribute £'^o on the express condition that a " Ladies' Ball be given " 



T"— 



RISE OF THE SOCIETY AS A TEACHING BODY 165 

under certain regulations and restrictions, the Master and the Wardens 
being bound to defray any extra sum of money spent on the occasion. 
The Dinner on the Lord Mayor's Day was to be paid for by the five 
Stewards, and the Company was only to be responsible for the ex- 
penses connected with the Barge. In future it was agreed that in lieu 
of paying fines when a member declined office, that member should 
nominate a deputy and bear the whole of the expense of that deputy^ 
just as if he were himself serving. At the election of officers, held 
August 21, 1799, Mr. Thomas Watson was chosen Master, Mr. John 
Collier Upper and Mr. Timothy Lane Renter Warden. The Minutes 
of June 18, 1800, contain an almost illegible copy of an address 
presented to the King congratulating his Majesty on escaping 
assassination. 

The officers for 1800-1 were Mr. John Collier, Master, Mr. 
Timothy Lane Upper and Mr. Richard Haworth Renter Warden. 
A brief entry, under date August 22, 1800, tells us that "Glasses be 
put up in the Hall agreeable to a pattern produced by Mr. Bristow " ; 
but whether this refers to the glazing of the windows or to mirrors 
the Minutes give no clue. Two entries, dated December 12th, are 
worth noting. The first is a grant of twenty guineas towards the 
supply of soup to the poor ; the other a payment of ;£ii us. to Mr. 
Kanmacher, the Beadle, to defray his expenses in connection with the 
London Volunteer Association. On June 30, 1801, we read that the 
Directors of the Honourable East India Company had determined that 
the Society should supply them with all drugs and medicines which 
they might in future require. On Election Day, August 14, 1801, Mr. 
Timothy Lane was chosen Master, Mr. Richard Haworth Upper and 
Mr. Uriah Bristow Renter Warden. During this year two small 
estates, one in Glasshouse Yard and the other in Water Lane, were 
added to the real property of the Society. On Election Day, August 
13, 1802, Mr. Richard Haworth was chosen Master, Mr. Uriah Bristow 
Upper and Mr. Bartholomew Saddington Renter Warden. The old 
barge, which had carried the members of the Society so long, was now 
found to be in a most unsafe state ; in fact, those who had attended 
the General Herbarizing Meeting at Greenwich had run considerable 
risk of sinking. It was resolved, therefore, to repair the old boat, and 
orders were given to that effect. The estimates for these repairs 



i66 APOTHECARIES 

amounted to £j,()o> In this year it was resolved to appoint a watch- 
man for the Hall. Mr. Robert Cooke, the Clerk, being very aged and 
in a most indifferent state of health, now made an application to be 
permitted to appoint a Deputy. The Court of Assistants at once 
complied with his request, a certain Mr. Sotherton Backler being at 
once appointed. A new bargemaster, by name John Babington, was 
also elected in the room of the late holder of the office, Henry 
Ballintine. On March i8, 1803, the Society voted one hundred guineas 
towards the rebuilding of Christ's Hospital on what was its late site. 

On July 5, 1803, the first lecture on the Materia Medica was given 
in the Hall by Mr. Timothy Lane. This lecture, it will be remembered, 
was established under the bequest of Mr. William Fronting, who died 
in 1794. At the Court held on Election Day, August 12, 1803, a 
rather troublesome matter occupied the earlier portion of the sitting. 
It would appear that the accounts of the Renter Warden for 1801-2, 
Mr. Uriah Bristow, and who was now Upper Warden, had been found 
in such confusion that it was needful to appoint a Committee to 
investigate them. It was, however, discovered that the discrepancy 
was owing to the age and infirmity of the Clerk, Robert Cooke, who 
had been in the habit of late years of trusting to his memory. After 
all, the deficiency was only £()^ 17s. 6d. Mr. Cooke was called in and 
informed that in any future case he would be held responsible, even 
though he acted through a deputy. On proceeding to the election 
Mr. Uriah Bristow was chosen Master, Mr. Bartholomew Saddington 
Upper and Mr. Augustine Towson Renter Warden. A donation of 
one hundred guineas to the Patriotic Fund, we read, concluded the 
business of the Court. On September 16, 1803, it was determined to 
erect " horse mills " to grind drugs on the ground adjoining the New 
Wall in the Laboratory Yard. The entry regarding a disfranchise- 
ment, under date January 26, 1804, is interesting as showing the cost 
of such a proceeding, viz., ;^59 15s. 6d. The person disfranchised 
was one Dr. Edmund Moore, of Harley Street, but the reason he 
assigned for wishing to be disfranchised does not appear to be clear. 
He puts it thus : "That his present situation renders it adviseable that 
he should no longer remain on their list." In his letter he calls him- 
self " Dr.," but in the certificate he is styled " Mr." In February of 
1804 the Upper Warden, Mr. Saddington, died, upon which the then 



RISE OF THE SOCIETY AS A TEACHING BODY 167 

Renter Warden, Mr. Towson, was elected to fill his place for the 
remainder of the term, and Mr. A. Moore was chosen Renter Warden. 
On March 16, 1804, the beadle, Mr. Frederick Kanmacher, desired to 
resign his office, professedly owing to his physical weakness. At the 
election of officers held August 22, 1804, Mr. A. Towson was chosen 
Master, Mr. Adam Moore Upper and Mr. Robert Sherson Renter 
Warden. On the same day fifty guineas was subscribed to the 
Military Association of the Ward of Farringdon Within. More, 
however, lay behind the resignation of Mr. Kanmacher than was 
apparent. He had been beadle for thirty years, and as far as could 
be ascertained had always been well-behaved in the performance of 
his duties. Without a doubt he was in ill-health, but after offering 
to resign he appears to have changed his mind and asked for an 
increase of salary and a right to employ assistants. A Committee was 
appointed to investigate the matter fully ; and this they did, as a most 
voluminous report testifies. As a result, finding that the annual 
average income of the Beadle was £12'] y of which about £ii i8s. 
was obtained from optional fees — "disgraceful to the Beadle and 
discreditable to the Company, should never have been permitted, and 
ought to be abolished forthwith," as the report reads — it was deter- 
mined to pay this official a fixed salary of ;^I20, neither more nor 
less. Kanmacher was called in and informed of the decision of the 
Court ; the new terms were propounded to him, and he was fain to 
accept them. This action on the part of the Court was only a 
continuance of their fixed policy, which consisted in, as far as in 
their power lay, discountenancing and in every way preventing the 
levying of vexatious exactions on the part of their officials. 

It is pleasing to read that the newly established lectures on the 
Materia Medica appear to have been regularly given and also to have 
been well attended. Mention has already been made of Mr. Field's 
collection of tracts relating to the Society which he gave to the 
Hall. A Minute, dated October 19, 1804, relates to these, and 
contains an order that "it be not shown to anybody" without 
the permission of the Court of Assistants. At the Court held 
December 4, 1804, two items of the agenda may be mentioned. The 
first relates to the butler — still a woman. It was ordered that her 
salary be increased to ;f 20 per annum, exclusive of the usual gratuity 



i68 APOTHECARIES 

of £t. The second entry concerns the payment to be made on 
admission to the Livery. Owing to the additional Stamp Duty, the 
sum of i2s. was added to the sum paid previously. During this 
month a certain Mr. Gabb petitioned the Court to be allowed to 
inspect their books for the purpose of tracing the pedigree of a certain 
Mr. James Nelson, a former member of the Society. It appears that 
the recovery of some property was at stake — property, as he alleged, 
due to his wife, the daughter of Mr. Nelson. The Court, in declining 
to accede to his request, however, gave permission to their Clerk to 
inake a search for any information likely to be of service for the 
purpose stated. A sad accident in June, 1805, marred the "private" 
botanical excursion. One of the apprentices, a certain George 
Simmons, the son of Mr. William Simmons, of Soho Square, going 
to bathe in the Thames after the customary dinner, was unfortunately 
drowned. The Court, while sympathetically condoling with the 
father, were compelled to point out that these botanical excursions 
were intended to improve the knowledge of the youths, and were 
emphatically not instituted as parties of pleasure. On Election Day, 
August 23, 1805, Mr. Adam Moore was chosen Master, Mr. Robert 
Sherson Upper and Mr. William Haynes Renter Warden. Conse- 
quent on the death of the apprentice Simmons, an order was issued 
prohibiting bathing while on the botanical excursions. For a future 
first offence a reprimand before the assembled Court was agreed upon, 
for a second the delinquent was to be for ever debarred from the 
privilege of attending either herbarizing, botanical lectures, or excur- 
sions. 

Early in January, 1806, the old Clerk, Robert Cooke, whose duties 
had for some years been performed by his deputy, Mr. Sotherton 
Backler, died. By election the former deputy-clerk was elected in his 
room. To a request from the College of Physicians that the Society 
would, as on former occasions, co-operate in a revision of the 
Pharmacopaeia, dated January 7, 1806, a favourable response was 
immediately sent. At this time, by special resolution, it was ordered 
that "Mr. Field's History of the Corporation be laid on the table 
every Court Day." In company with other City Companies the 
Society attended on board the Barge and took part in the funeral 
procession of Admiral Lord Nelson ; the expenses are noted as 



RISE OF THE SOCIETY AS A TEACHING BODY 169 

;^5o 19s. 6d. On July i, 1806, the pension of a certain Mr. Howard 
was suspended ; it seems that he had not on this or on several 
occasions given himself the trouble to attend the Court to receive 
his allowance. At the election held August 15, 1806, Mr. Robert 
Sherson was chosen Master, Mr. William Haynes Upper and Mr. 
Hugh French Renter Warden. On August 25th the Bargemaster, 
John Babington, having died, his brother, George Babington, was 
elected to the vacant office. A new fire-engine keeper, by name 
Thomas Woodgate, was appointed by the same Court on the same 
date. At the Court held on December 19, 1806, the sum of ten 
guineas was subscribed towards the funds of the 5th Regiment of 
Loyal London Volunteers. Dated March 20, 1807, we find a request 
from Mr. Bowyer, of the " Historic Gallery," Pall Mall; that the Society 
would subscribe to a portrait of Mr. Pitt. The Clerk is ordered to 
return the subscription card to Mr. Bowyer not signed ; the word 
"not" is underlined. On the same day the Society subscribed one 
hundred guineas to the London Hospital, and ordered the purchase 
of certain books on the Materia Medica to complete their library — the 
amount to be expended not to exceed twenty guineas. In May, 1807, 
Mr. Haynes, the Upper Warden, died, and in consequence Mr. Hugh 
French succeeded him in the ofi&ce for the remainder of the term, the 
office of Renter Warden in a similar way being filled by the election 
of Mr. E. D. G. Fassett. It is to be noted that this is the first case 
of a man with three Christian names being an officer of the Society. 
Two letters from the London Bridge Water Works need passing 
notice. In the first a heavy claim was made on the Society for an 
alleged supply of water extending over many years. The second was 
a withdrawal of the claim, it having been ascertained on proper 
investigation that no such supply existed. Before the Court of 
Assistants on June 18, 1807, a long letter from a certain Mr. Varenne 
was read. The facts as alleged were these. He had been bound to 
his father for about one year. His father then died, and he was 
"turned over" to Mr. Reynell, a member of the Society, who died 
fifteen months later. On application to Mr. Cooke, the Clerk, 
Varenne states that he was repeatedly informed that any further 
"turning over" would be unnecessary. He was at that time 
Apothecary to Marylebone Infirmary, and wished to take up his 



I70 APOTHECARIES 

freedom. This the Court refused, as he had not served his proper 
period of eight years. In a letter dated June 17, 1807, Varenne tries 
to bluff the Court, blustering and threatening all kinds of legal pro- 
ceedings ; the letter, as was natural, was treated with contempt. On 
Election Day, August 21, 1807, the office-holders chosen were Mr. 
Hugh French, Master, Mr. Fassett Upper and Mr. W. H. Higden 
Renter Warden. On October 6, 1807, a curious attempt was made by 
a certain Mr. Charles Mogg, of Tunbridge Wells, to get the son of 
a friend, by name William Owen Lucas, bound both to himself and 
to the elder Lucas. On being informed that the two, not being 
partners, it could not be done, he demurred ; the Court then offered 
to bind the boy to Mogg alone, but this was declined. 

Mr. Thomas Cater, a past Master and well-known member of 
the Society, having died during this year, by his will bequeathed 
to the Society the sum of one hundred guineas, to be devoted to 
charitable uses. On August 25, 1808, Mr. Fassett was chosen 
Master, Mr. W. H. Higden Upper and Mr. Charles Nevinson 
Renter Warden. This year, on the motion of a certain Mr. 
Roberts, it was resolved that the "Attendance Money" paid to 
every member of the Court of Assistants on his attendance should 
be increased to half a guinea. 

For a wonder, during a " search " this year a Piccadilly Apothe- 
cary, one Mr. Hugh Da vies, was found lacking a stock of certain 
drugs which he was reasonably bound to keep, and also that those 
he did keep were of bad quality. It was many years since the 
searchers had had cause to complain. The delinquent was at once 
summoned to attend the Court. On his presenting himself he 
attempted to make excuses ; these were not accepted, but the 
culprit was let off with a severe reprimand. 

The lectures on the Materia Medica were now bearing fruit in 
the increased knowledge of those attending them. From a lengthy 
report of two of the lecturers anent the examination of three senior 
apprentice students, the Court was led to adjudge three prizes to 
these youths as rewards for diligence. At Christmas this year Mrs. 
Hodder, who had for so many years acted as butler to the Society, 
resigned her post. From this time forth the pensioners of the 
Society were granted an additional two guineas per annum each. 



RISE OF THE SOCIETY AS A TEACHING BODY 171 

At the Court held June 22, 1809, one Mrs. Daston was elected 
butler. 

The officials chosen for the year 1809-10 at the election held on 
August 28th were Mr. H. J. Higden, Master, Mr. Charles Nevinson 
Upper and Mr. Richard Griffith Renter Warden. During the entire 
year nothing of importance is entered in the Minute Book, the 
mere routine of chronicling the binding of apprentices, the taking 
up of freedoms, etc., being all that is to be read there. For the 
year 1810-11 on the Election Day, August 23rd, the following 
were chosen : Mr. Charles Nevinson as Master, Mr. Richard Griffith 
as Upper and Mr. P. Nicholas as Renter Warden. 



CHAPTER XVIIl 

NECESSITY FOR MEDICAL REFORM— THE WAR OFFICE 

E now arrive at a most important epoch in the 
history of the Society of Apothecaries. Imme- 
diately after the election of the new Master and 
Wardens for the years 1810-11, the outgoing Master 
brought before the Court a letter that had been 
received from Mr. Harrison, of the Treasury, on 
the subject of the necessity of a Medical Reform in general, and 
announcing that the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury 
had under their consideration the sketch of a Bill which it was pro- 
posed to introduce into Parliament with a view to the " Improve- 
ment of the Medical, Surgical, and Veterinary Sciences ; and for 
regulating the practice thereof." The Lords Commissioners had 
desired copies of the document to be transmitted to the Society. 
A Committee, consisting of the Master and Wardens with Messrs. 
Haworth, Bristow, Newsome, Simons, Box, and Wheeler — were 
appointed to take the matter into consideration and report thereon. 
The sketch of the Bill was outlined from the suggestions made in 
a memorial transmitted by a certain Dr. Harrison, who, however, is 
not to be confounded with the Mr. Harrison of the Treasury. The 
substance of the reply of the Society was to the effect — 

1. That the medical practice in this country needed reform, was 

capable of much reform, and that the general welfare of 
the nation demanded that reform. 

2. That the proposed system of reform would place every branch 

of the profession in respectable and competent hands and 
rescue the country from the impositions of ignorant and 
avaricious quacks. 



NECESSITY FOR MEDICAL REFORM 173 

3. That the Society had possessed for a series of years powers 
to control the evils which had so long existed as far as 
their science was concerned, and they therefore submitted 
to their Lordships the rules and regulations by which their 
Society was governed. 

Here follow the rules for the admission of apprentices, and for 
their examination on admission ; the rules under which freemen 
were admitted after examination ; the regulations as to testimonials 
of education ; the laws as to the right of search for bad drugs, 
and the penalties for finding such ; the efforts made by the Society 
to encourage the study of botany by means of the physic garden, 
the lectures, and demonstrations ; and lastly, the lectures on the 
Materia Medica periodically held at the Hall. 

The document concludes with a paragraph to the effect that, 
while the Society considers that their rules are sufficiently stringent 
to ensure the admission only of qualified Apothecaries to the prac- 
tice of the "Art and Mystery," they did not presume to give an 
opinion as to "what reform may be necessary in the other parts 
of the science," but refer their Lordships to the information they 
will receive from the different Colleges to which their letters had 
been addressed. This document is eminently dignified in its tone 
and wisely conceived in its expression. 

With the sending of this reply matters for a time rested, but it 
is fitting here to mention the beginning of the agitation. 

We now come to a lengthy correspondence between the Army 
Medical Board and the Society. It seems that the Secretary of 
War had determined that the supply of drugs and medicines required 
for the use of troops on service and at home should be procured 
from the Society. It will be remembered that the Navy had been 
for years in the habit of purchasing their supplies from the Hall, 
and that the East India Company now obtained theirs in a similar 
manner. It was now the turn of the Army authorities to enter into 
negotiations. Page after page in the Minute Book is filled with 
letter after letter, query after query, and reply after reply. Some 
of the requests of the Army Board we will instance as a fair example. 

I. Information as to whether the Society had or could have a 
sufficient stock of drugs to supply the Army. 



174 APOTHECARIES 

2. Would the Society keep ready packed enough for instant 

foreign service, as well as be prepared to furnish drugs and 
medicines for home consumption ? 

3. Would the Society establish depots in Portsmouth, Plymouth, 

Falmouth, or anywhere else ? 

4. Would they exchange damaged drugs for fresh ones or receive 

back those not wanted ? (This was a very cool request.) 
In response to this letter, two members of the Society were 
deputed to call at the War Office to discuss details and report to 
the Society. This they did, and a written reply was under con- 
sideration by the Court, when down came a second letter demand- 
ing an immediate response. The Society in their letter stated that 
they could do all that was required; that they would not establish 
depots ; that they were only in the habit of supplying pure drugs ; 
and finally, that " returned damaged goods " they declined to receive 
or exchange for good ones, it being their custom to destroy all defec- 
tive drugs or medicines. They might have said, but did not, that 
drugs not good enough for one class of the community would hardly 
be good enough for another. 

Back to the charge came the War Office, and repeated most of the 
queries. To these the Society furnished a second and similar set 
of answers. Then the Society naturally desired to know how it was 
to receive payment, and made a suggestion. They also, before 
entering into any expense in enlarging their premises, or into any 
monetary arrangements to increase their capital — two matters which 
would both have to be considered — desired to have an official 
Document of Appointment from the War Office. To this the Army 
Medical Board replied that they did not know, and had no means 
of ascertaining, the past annual amount spent on drugs for the 
Army. They, therefore, could not say, but referred the Society to 
the Fifth Report of the Commissioners of " Military Inquiry," m 
which, they add, they believe the amount " for several years back 
is stated, and, as we suppose, correctly." This is delightful. It 
was too much trouble, of course, to enclose this Report. The 
Medical Board then goes on to say that supposing the amount 
therein stated to be correct in the past, it by no means followed 
it would be correct in the future ! Next follows a list of the 



NECESSITY FOR MEDICAL REFORM 175 

medicines and drugs usually required and thought proper " to form 
the Army Pharmacopoeia." Finally they state that the mode of 
payment will depend on the Treasury, and that the "propriety of 
giving an official notification or document to the Company regard- 
ing the intended supply will be referred also to that body, the 
Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury." A few months 
later two members of the Society, the Master and the Treasurer 
of the Navy Stock, attended at the Comptroller's Office, White- 
hall, at the request of the Comptroller of Army Accounts, to discuss 
the question of the supply of drugs. 

The upshot of this meeting was the receipt of another string 
of questions. 

1. If the Society supplied the Army as well as the Navy, would 

they do so for both services at a cheaper rate than they 
do for the Navy only ? 

2. What credit did the Society give ? 

3. What profit, if any, more or less, did the Society expect 

on the prices they paid for the drugs they bought ? — this 
was calm ! 

4. Would the Company receive back such of these medicines 

as have never been shipped for service, provided these are 
in good condition ? Or, at what deduction per cent, will 
they take them back ? Or, will the Company be content 
to receive a proportionate payment for damaged drugs ? 

5. What have their annual dealings for the last five years with 

the Navy averaged ? 

6. What similarly for dealings with the East India Company ? 
To these queries lengthy and detailed replies were sent, in 

which the Company made various small concessions. The most 
interesting facts obtained from the document are that in 181 1, and 
for five years previously, the drugs and medicines supplied to the 
Navy cost on an average ^^24,917, while those purchased by the 
East India Company averaged ;^2 1,582. For a few weeks the Army 
Medical Board were content to digest the contents of the letter in 
answer to their queries. They then started on a new tack. 

On March 8, 181 1, they forwarded an epistle which began by 
informing the Company that there were, or that "it appears that 



176 APOTHECARIES 

there are," several drugs of the same nature, possessing various 
degrees of quality, and bearing very different prices. They add, "it 
is said, from apparently good authority," that it is the custom of 
druggists to mix these and offer them for sale, so that not even 
doctors can get genuine drugs. Do the Society mix various 
qualities of drugs ? 

They then select Peruvian Bark as a very particular example 
and enter into details. Next they wish to know whether the Com- 
pany bought their drugs " in gross " and powdered them after- 
wards themselves, giving as instances " Ipecacuanha and Jalap, as 
well as Bark " I 

This required a long letter in reply, the gist of which is that 
doubtless there were more kinds and qualities of bark than one ; 
that the Society bought everything *' in gross " ; that their purchases 
were made by a Committee of fifteen professional gentlemen who 
were skilled in the knowledge of every article of the Materia Medica, 
and that samples of every purchase were retained for comparison, 
etc., etc. 

Such a complete answer required a change of front. On 
March 13, 181 1, the Assistant Secretary to the Comptrollers of 
Army Accounts wrote to ask for the average for ten years, instead 
of five, as regards the drugs supplied to the Navy and East India 
Company. He also inquired whether the Society supplied anything 
else but drugs and medicines. These averages, it may be stated, 
were ;f20,i6o and ^£18,072 respectively. We also learn that the 
articles supplied from the Hall included "drugs, chemical and 
Galenical medicines, and utensils such as bottles, phials, mortars, 
etc., etc." 

Having obtained this information, the Army Board returned 
to the subject of " Bark." This letter contains an insinuation 
which should never have been made, or if made should have been 
proved up to the hilt. As it was, there was no apparent justification 
for making it. It was one of adulteration. Somebody is alleged to 
have bought some bark at the Hall, and the Comptroller of Army 
Accounts professed to have " papers " which showed in this sample 
a proportion of 3 in 16 of an inferior bark mixed with the best. 

As a matter of fact, the most eminent druggists in l-rondon at 



NECESSITY FOR MEDICAL REFORM 177 

that time were not perfectly decided as to what was the dividing 
line between the "Crown" and the inferior "small quilled bark." 
At least, it was at any rate a matter of opinion. 

Here the matter rested ; nor, indeed, was more heard from the 
Comptroller's Office for many a long day. 

On August 20, 181 1, Mr. Richard Griffith was chosen Master, 
Mr. P. Nicholas Upper and Mr. John Woodd Renter Warden. 

An entry dated March 26, 181 2, records a subscription of fifty 
guineas to the relief of the widows and families of the officers and 
men unfortunately drowned on board His Majesty's ships St. George 
(98), Hero (74), Defence (74), and Saldhana (36). At the same time 
the sum of one hundred pounds was voted towards the building 
fund of Bethlem Hospital. 

On Election Day, August 26, 181 2, Mr. Philip Nicholas was 
chosen Master, Mr. John Woodd Upper and Mr. John Stephen 
Bacot Renter Warden. This year it was resolved that the allowance 
to the Master and Wardens on Confirmation Day should in future 
be £%Oy and that the allowance to the Master at his " Private Lead" 
should be £^0. In November, 18 12, a new gown was ordered for 
the Clerk at a cost of ;f 10 15s. 

On February 4, 1813, a Special Court of Assistants was called 
to consider a letter received from Mr. George Man Burrows, the 
Chairman of the Committee of Apothecaries of England and Wales. 
In this letter were enclosed the answers of the Royal Colleges of 
Physicians and Surgeons which had been sent to the said Com- 
mittee. It was resolved, that, as a body, the Society could not 
concur with the Committee in their intended application to Parlia- 
ment, and that the Master and Wardens, with Mr. Simons and such 
legal assistance as might be judged proper, should be authorised 
" to take such measures as may be requisite to protect the Company 
against any infringements of their Charter, which may arise from a Bill 
about to be submitted to Parliament for the regulation of that part 
of their profession comprising the Apothecary, Surgeon Apothecary, 
and Practitioner in Midwifery, and all vendors and dispensers of 
medicines throughout England and Wales." 

On March 25, 1813, the sum of fifty pounds was paid into the 
hands of the "Committee at the City of London Tavern in aid of 

13 



178 APOTHECARIES 

the people of Russia, suffering the severest privations and distresses, 
in consequence of the French Invasion." Ten guineas was at the 
same meeting voted towards the funds of the School for the 
Indigent Blind in St. George's Fields. 

The Master and Wardens for 1813-14 were Mr. John Stephen 
Bacot, Mr. John Newsom, and Mr. Edward Roberts respectively, 
Election Day being August 13th. 

On the "Confirmation Day," however — September 30, 1813 — it 
was found impossible to hold a Court, there not being a sufficient 
number present. The swearing-in of the new Master and Wardens 
was therefore postponed to a Special Court, which was held on 
October 9th. At the next General Court of Assistants the Master 
laid before the Court a letter received from Mr. William Tilleard 
Ward, the Secretary to the Committee of Apothecaries and Surgeon 
Apothecaries of England and Wales, which solicited the co-operation 
of the Court in their renewed application to Parliament for a Bill 
"for regulating the Profession and Practice of the Apothecary and 
Surgeon Apothecary in England and Wales." After discussion, the 
Court resolved that, taking also into consideration a communication 
on the same subject received from the Royal College of Physicians, 
they were of opinion that they could only enter into measures for 
any improvements in Pharmacy "in conjunction with that body." 
A copy of the resolution was ordered to be transmitted to Mr. Ward. 

In February, 1814, we note that the Society voted fifty guineas 
to relieve the distress in Germany. 

On May 6, 1814, at a Special Court of Assistants, the report was 
read of a Committee appointed a few months previously to consider 
such measures as should be thought expedient to effect the objects of 
a Bill to be introduced into Parliament for the improvement of the 
practice of medicine, upon "the basis recommended by the Royal 
College of ' Physicians.' " The report favoured the following points : — 

1. The confirmation of the Charter of the Society, and its 

enlargement in some particulars. 

2. The regulation of the practice of Apothecaries throughout 

England and Wales. 

3. The establishment of examinations before admitting any 

person to the practice of the Science of an Apothecary, 



NECESSITY FOR MEDICAL REFORM 179 

4. That the Society was in agreement with the Royal College 

of Physicians. 

5. That the effect of the Bill would be to give powers 

extending the operation of the Society to all Apothecaries 
in England and Wales, instead of confining them to 
those of London and a certain radius round London. 
This report was agreed to, and the seal of the Corporation 
was thereto affixed. 



CHAPTER XIX 

MEDICAL REFORM—THE COURT OF EXAMINERS 

N Election Day, August 25, 1814, Mr. John Newsom 

was chosen Master, Mr. Edward Roberts Upper 

and Mr. R. R. Graham Renter Warden. At this 

Court we notice that a Member oi the Society 

who had misbehaved himself on the occasion of a 

Herbarizing Dinner at Highbury was most severely 

censured. It is noteworthy that cases of indecorous behaviour ou 

festive occasions were extremely rare, but that when unhappily they 

did occur, the Court was prompt to rebuke the offender in no 

measured terms. 

On September 20th, Mr. R, R. Graham, the newly elected Renter 
Warden, was compelled to resign, and, with the concurrence of the 
Court, paid the usual fine. His health was unfortunately so bad 
that he was unable to leave his house. At an election which at once 
took place, Mr. Thomas Hardwick was unanimously chosen to fill the 
vacant office. On October 28, 1814, a sum of fifty guineas was voted 
to the funds of the London Hospital. Towards the end of this 
month, Mr. Fairbairn, the principal gardener at the Chelsea Physic 
Garden, died. His successor was a certain Mr. William Anderson. 
It is to be noted that the widow of the late gardener was granted a 
pension of ^40 per annum. The testimonial, a lengthy one, on 
the strength of which Mr. Anderson was appointed gardener was 
written by Sir Joseph Banks, who had been in his youth a student of 
botany at the garden in the days when Miller was gardener. Anderson 
appears to have been a thoroughly capable man, a member of the 



MEDICAL REFORM i8i 

Linnean Society, and eminently the best man who could have been 
found to fill the vacancy. 

A note in the Minutes for June 29, 1815, is curious : it contains 
a resolution to the effect that " in future the Master, Wardens, or any 
of the Members of Committees requiring the accommodation of 
carriages, the said carriages shall be what are denominated Glass 
Coaches " ! 

At a Special Court held on July 19, 1815, the Clause in the Act 
relating to the choice and appointment of a Court of Examiners was 
read, and the Court proceeded to elect by ballot twelve persons 
properly qualified for that purpose. The following gentlemen had 
the honour of forming the first Court of Examiners of the Society 
of Apothecaries of London : Messrs. Simons, T. Wheeler, Edward 
Browne, Henry Field, J. G. Ridout, John Hunter, James Hill, James 
Upton, R. S. Wells, G. M. Burrows, George Johnson, and Edward 
Brande. The Committee to whom the affairs connected with the 
Society's interest in the new Bill had been entrusted were thanked, 
and their chairman, Mr. William Simons, was voted an honorarium of 
fifty guineas. At the next Court the newly appointed Examiners took 
their oaths in accordance with the provisions of the Act. A certain Mr. 
John Watson was then appointed Secretary to the Court of Examiners, 
his term of office being for one year. The fees proposed to be paid to 
each member of the Examining body were fixed as follows : 5s. 3d. 
on each certificate granted to an Apothecary ; but in the case of 
a certificate to an Assistant £1 is., to be equally divided. The Clerk's 
fee on granting a certificate to an Apothecary was 2s. 6d., and the 
same amount was paid to the Beadle. Both Clerk and Beadle 
received is. for every certificate granted to an Assistant. This was 
not approved of, and at the next Court held on August 23, 1815, 
the sum of £'^ 3s. to be equally divided among those of the Court 
of Examiners who had been present at the examination was sub- 
stituted for the payment of 5s. 3d. The consideration of the fee 
to be paid to the Clerk was deferred. At the election, the Upper 
Warden next in rotation, Mr. Edward Roberts, wrote declining that 
office, shoiild he be elected. The election followed, and Mr. Charles 
Hai'dwick was chosen Master, Mr. William Simons Upper, and Mr. 
William Box Renter Warden. 



1 82 APOTHECARIES 

The new examinations were not, as we can easily understand, 
exactly popular among the students of medicine and apprentices, 
and these sent a memorial to the Court of Examiners on the subject. 
The Court of Examiners forwarded the memorial, with a letter, to the 
Court of Assistants, and the latter, after deliberation, determined to 
take counsel's opinion thereon. The memorial and the opinion of 
counsel are given in the Minutes of the Court of Examiners. 

Meanwhile, the Royal College of Surgeons had introduced a Bill 
into Parliament which had not passed ; the College, however, 
announced its intention of renewing their application. It was there- 
fore resolved to revive the old Parliamentary Committee of the Society. 
This was done, and they were charged with the duty of watching 
carefully the progress of this Bill, and preventing any encroach- 
ments on the chartered rights of the Society, or any interference with 
the powers given them by the Bill already passed into law. The 
Committee were empowered to employ counsel, and adopt any such 
measures for the interest of the Society which they should think 
fit. On February 6, 1816, the first cases of trouble over the new Act 
were reported by the Court of Examiners. It appears that persons 
appointed as Apothecaries to the Dispensaries of Public Institutions, 
charitable and otherwise, claimed to be exempt from examination. 
Several persons in the Medical Departments of the Army and Navy 
also entered into practice as Apothecaries after the date on which 
the Act came into operation, viz., August i, 1815. A case, too, is 
mentioned of a man who set up in Wrexham without any qualifica- 
tion whatever, and defied the Act. The Court of Assistants at once 
took legal advice as to their proper procedure under the circum- 
stances. The Army Medical Board now joined in the discussion, but 
went no farther than desiring a conference between themselves and 
some members delegated by the Society. A conference was held, 
with this result, that those Surgeons whose warrants were dated 
prior to August ist where held to be exempt from examination "as 
practising apothecaries." 

On Election Day, August 23, 1816, Mr. William Simons was chosen 
Master, Mr. William Box Upper and Mr. William Wheeler Renter 
Warden. At this Court the sum of one hundred guineas was voted to 
the Committee of the Association for the relief of the *' manufacturing 



MEDICAL REFORM 183 

poor." The question of the heavy expense attaching to the entertain- 
ment of the apprentices at the Monthly Herbarizings now occupied 
the attention of the Court. Hitherto this expense had fallen on the 
two "Leaders" of the day. It was resolved that in future the cost 
should be defrayed by the Society, and that an allowance of "a 
bottle of wine and a bottle of cyder, with table beer between every four 
should be made, and tea given as usual." On October 30, 1816, Mr. 
Sotherton Backler, the Clerk, was presented with a piece of plate of 
the value of fifty guineas, in recognition of the faithful and diligent way 
he had discharged his duties for many years. Backler then resigned, 
and was succeeded by Mr. Edmund Bacot. A new difficulty now arose 
with regard to the Act of 1815. It was this. Could the Society legally 
admit to the Freedom persons who claimed the same by patrimony or 
servitude, without passing their examination before the new Court of 
Examiners ? Counsel's opinion was taken, and the various aspects of 
the question are duly set forth in a lengthy document, of which we 
can but give a brief digest. 

1. By the custom of the City of London, all the Guilds, Companies 

and Fraternities of the City of London, are under the control 
and government of the Court of the Lord Mayor and Alder- 
men — and the Charter of the Society of Apothecaries states 
that they are so to be. 

2. There are three modes by which a person becomes entitled to 

the Freedom of the City. Two of Right, i.e.^ Patrimony and 
Apprenticeship for seven years, and the third by purchase or 
donation, commonly called Redemption. The first being by 
Inheritance, if a parent was a Freeman Apothecary the son 
must necessarily be one, and on paying the fees is entitled to 
be one ; though he never means to practise as an apothecary. 
It would be absurd to examine a person who never intended 
to practise. Moreover, the son of a Freeman Apothecary 
cannot be admitted into any other Company without a special 
order from the Court of Aldermen for that purpose. 

3. A person who has faithfully served his seven years' apprentice- 

ship to a Freeman Apothecary can compel the Company to 
grant him the Municipal Right of the Freedom, though he 
may be deficient in the ability to practise the art. He may 



i84 APOTHECARIES 

not open a shop without examination, but he can be made a 
Freeman. 

4. This person can demand his Freedom, and he can refuse if the 

Company offer to buy him his Freedom in an inferior Com- 
pany. Moreover, too, this could only be done by consent 
of the Court of Aldermen, and this would hardly be given. 

5. If the Master and Wardens of the Apothecaries refused to 

admit to Freedom the son of a Freeman, and offered to buy 

him his Freedom in a Superior Company, they could be made 

to do so as the candidate for the Freedom wished ; he could 

refuse the Superior Freedom, and at law compel the Court 

to make him a Freeman Apothecary. 

We now hear of the poor old barge for the last time. In January, 

1817, it was reported to be "ruinous and full of water," and on 

February 4th it was ordered to be sold. Hundreds of pounds had 

been from time to time spent on the old vessel, but its day had gone 

by. The two long streamers which hang in the Hall, and two small 

pieces of carving still preserved, are the sole relics of its departed 

glories. One would have gladly reproduced an old engraving or 

picture of the barge had such a thing been in existence, but there is 

none as far as the writer has been able to ascertain. 

On February 28, 1817, trouble arose between one member of the 
Court of Examiners and the Society. 

It appears that a letter addressed to the Court of Assistants and 
dated October 2, 18 16, had appeared in the Medical and Physical 
Journal for January, 1817. The Court having considered the con- 
tents of the letter, came to the conclusion that it could only have 
emanated from Mr. George Man Burrows. Mr. Burrows was sum- 
moned to attend, and did so, when he was called upon to resign, and 
he was by the authority of the Court removed and displaced as a 
member of the said Court of Examiners. Mr. Henry Robinson was 
then elected in his room. Mr. Burrows's letter is stigmatised as " a 
violation at least of Propriety in any Member of the Society." His 
position was a confidential one, and such procedure on his part would 
be "a breach of the obligation contracted by his oath on his admission 
to the Society." The absolute subject of the letter is not, however, 
stated. 



MEDICAL REFORM 185 

From the report of the Court of Examiners, we find that between 
August I, 1816, and January 31, 1817, sixty-five candidates applied for 
certificates to practise as Apothecaries and sixty were admitted. Two 
candidates for Assistants' certificates presented themselves, and both 
were passed. 

On June 3, 1817, it was reported that the Society possessed a 
quantity of old plate "which in its present shape was useless." It 
was proposed to sell this and purchase new plate instead. 

At the Court held July i, 1817, it was ordered that "the 
Clerk do take proper steps for disposing of part of the old plate 
and of purchasing or exchanging the same for modern plate." 
What would not have been the value of this plate in these days ? 

On Election Day, August 19, 18 17, Mr. William Box was 
chosen Master, Mr. Miles Partington Upper and Mr. William 
Atkinson Renter Warden. 

The Society had now been in existence for two centuries, and 
it was accordingly determined to celebrate the anniversary of the 
date, viz., December 6, 1817, by a dinner in the Great Hall. The 
Court and Livery were entertained, the Stewards appointed for- the 
occasion being Messrs. Upton, Johnson, Robinson, and Walker. 
It was resolved that the Master and Wardens should be privileged 
to invite two guests each, the remainder of the Court being 
limited to one guest. The following officers of the Company were 
also bidden to the festivity : — Mr. Edmund Bacot, the Clerk ; Mr. 
John Watson, the Secretary to the Court of Examiners ; Mr. William 
Thomas Brande, the Professor of Chemistry; Mr. Frederick Kan- 
macher, the Beadle ; Mr. S. Backler, the Navy Accountant ; Mr. 
William Bonner, the Chemical Accountant ; Mr. S. Ronalds, the 
Chemical Operator ; Mr. R. Clarke, the Galenical Operator ; Mr. W. 
Anderson, the Gardener ; and a Mr. Thomas Morpeth, whose position 
is not stated. He may have been related to Mrs. Marie Morpeth, 
housekeeper in 1827. 

At the Court of Assistants held on December 30, 1817, the report 
of the Committee appointed to consider the returns of those members 
of the Society whose duty it had been during the past year to search 
for imperfect medicines and drugs under the extended powers granted 
by the late Act of Parliament was received. Thirty-one Apothecaries 



1 86 APOTHECARIES 

are named as selling goods of very inferior quality, and a preliminary 
circular was drafted and approved. This circular warned the delin- 
quents in the first place, and enclosed with it was a copy of the clause 
in the Act which applied to their case. 

At the Court of Assistants, March 24, 1 818, an insolent letter dated 
January 19th, which had been received from one of the Apothecaries 
above mentioned, a certain Mr. Edward Bean, was read. It was 
stigmatised as " highly reprehensible, insolent, and indecorous," and 
deserving censure. The Clerk was desired to take up the matter 
forthwith. Another letter on the same subject from a Mr. Hand, 
of Walworth, was read, and ordered "to lie on the table." The 
floor of the Great Hall at this time appears to have shown serious 
signs of subsidence. At any rate, the sum of £2^] 8s. lod. was 
paid for iron pillars to support it. 

More letters having been received complaining of the reports of 
those whose duty it was to search for " imperfect medicines," it was 
determined to proceed with the utmost vigour against old offenders 
and to press for a conviction. A legal Committee for this purpose was 
forthwith appointed, consisting of the Master, the Wardens, and 
Messrs. Haworth, Bacot, Simons, Lawford, and Field. 

During this year the byelaws of the Society were revised, and 
approved by the Common Sergeant of the City. These, having been 
signed by the Revision Committee, were ordered to be laid before the 
proper authorities for approbation and confirmation. 

On Election Day, August 25, 1818, Mr. Miles Partington was 
chosen Master, Mr. Samuel Lawford Upper and Mr. Joseph Jackson 
Renter Warden. 

On October 27, 1818, Mr. Henry Field, a member of the Court, 
was asked to *' occupy such portion of his time as may be convenient 
to himself in completing the account begun by his father " from the 
close thereof (1794) and bringing the same up to date. 

The first action laid by the Society against an Apothecary, a person 
of the name of John Warburton, for practising contrary to the 
provisions of the late Act of Parliament, it is recorded, terminated in 
a verdict for the Society. 

During this year the duties and emoluments of the Clerk had 
been under consideration. It was found that from salary and 



MEDICAL REFORM 187 

variable fees the annual remuneration which that officer received 
from the Corporation on an average amounted to ;^i55. It was 
henceforth determined to raise this to ;^2io per annum, but this 
increased sum was to include the fees and allowance for house 
rent. The Clerk was, however, empowered to charge the usual 
business fees for work done for either the Navy or the Laboratory 
Stocks. The class of business to be charged for was, however, distinctly 
stated. Meanwhile the funds of the pension list were happily being 
increased by donations, with the result that the widows' pensions 
were raised to ^^15 per annum. 

The report of the Committee appointed to examine the accounts 
of the Secretary of the Court of Examiners, Mr. John Watson, furnishes 
us with some rather interesting information. It appears that during 
the year beginning August i, 1818, and ending July 31, 1819, fourteen 
certificates were granted for London practice and two hundred and 
thirty-nine for Provincial. These produced in fees for certificates the 
sum of ;^i,652 14s. The cost of the Examining body was £^^f> 19s. 
The Beadle's fees amounted to £'^1 12s. 6d., and consequently the 
balance on the year was in the favour of the Society to the sum of 
;^824 2s. 6d. 

On Election Day, August 24, 1819, Mr. Samuel Lawford, Mr. 
Joseph Jackson, and Mr. George Cabbell were elected Master, Upper 
and Renter Warden respectively. 

This year a curious case is mentioned in the Minute Book. It is 
that of a certain man named Bennett who personated and passed an 
examination before the Court of Examiners in the name of and as a 
Mr. Fox. Bennett obtained the certificate, which was made out in 
the name of Fox. The delinquent was ordered to be prosecuted. 



CHAPTER XX 

THE ARMY MEDICAL BOARD— THE EXAMINATIONS OF THE 
SOCIETY IMPROVED 

E now suddenly find the question of supplying the 

Army Medical Board with drugs and medicines again 

arising. Why this should have been shelved for 

some eight years does not at first seem clear, till a 

solution is obtained from the announcement of the 

death of Mr. Gamier, the King's Apothecary, Mr. 

Garnier had vested interests in the supply to the Government, and 

hence it was that the Society had been unable to come to terms. 

Red tape and vested interests were too much for them. The 

vested interest was no more, but the red tape was as alive as ever, 

and the disquisitions on drugs were renewed. 

A note, under date January 4, 1820, shows that Mr. Bennett, the 
sham candidate and his accomplice, Mr. Fox, were being hunted up- 
These two worthies hailed from Macclesfield, and we read that a 
deputation of two of the Court of Assistants who went thither to 
interview them expended the sum of £2y 8s, 6d. on the journey and 
in various expenses belonging thereto. 

With the death of George III. and the accession of George IV, the 
usual address of condolence and congratulation was forwarded to 
the new King. 

On Election Day, August 22, 1820, Mr. Joseph Jackson, Mr- 
George Cabbell, and Mr. John Baker were chosen Master and 
Wardens for the year. The titles of Upper and Renter Warden 
seem at this time to have fallen into disuse, those of Senior and 
Junior being now substituted therefor. 



THE ARMY MEDICAL BOARD 189 

On October 2, 1820, Mr. Frederick Kanmacher, who had been 
Beadle for no less than forty-five years, tendered his resignation. 
This was accepted, and his services were rewarded by a pension of 
;^i20 per annum. A successor to Kanmacher was at once elected 
in the person of Mr. John Sayer. 

An application made to the Court in September, 1820, by the 
new *' King's Apothecary," Mr. Richard Walker, now entailed a 
considerable amount of labour on a Committee of three who were 
appointed to consider the matter, search for precedents, and report 
thereon. 

Mr. Walker was a Liveryman of the Society, but he claimed, as 
King's Apothecary, to be entitled to be elected one of the Court of 
Assistants on a vacancy occurring. The Committee were compelled 
to wade through the whole of the Minute Books in the course of 
their search. Sixteen cases were found which related to the status of 
King's Apothecary in the Society. The conclusion to which the 
Committee came was that it had been a custom so to advance 
King's Apothecaries, but that the person so advanced would have 
"to pay all fines for such stewardships as he would be liable 
to serve previously to the usual period of admission to the Court." 
Mr. Walker was then requested to transmit to the Court a copy of 
the instrument or instruments of his appointment. A copy of the 
Appointment was received : Mr. Walker's claim was allowed, and he 
was duly elected. 

The Examinations had now been established for six years, and 
in a Minute the progress and development of the scheme is shown, 
the number of certificates granted in the six years respectively 
being 173, 181, 209, 253, 255 and 284. That the result was gratifying 
there can be no doubt. More value was being attached yearly to the 
certificates, and the percentage of failure was slowly decreasing. It is 
strange that lack of knowledge of Latin should have been, in most 
cases, the cause of rejection. 

On Election Day, August 17, 1821, Messrs. George Cabbell, John 
Baker, and Thomas Wheeler were chosen Master, Senior and Junior 
Wardens respectively. The events which occurred during this year 
worthy of notice are few indeed. Some trifling alterations were intro- 
duced to minimise expenses to the Stewards personally, but these 



I90 APOTHECARIES 

hardly need to be chronicled in detail. One point, however, requires 
notice, and that is that it was for the first time proposed to unite into 
one concern the Navy and Laboratory Stocks. For this purpose a 
Committee of seven was appointed, viz., the Master and Wardens, and 
four of the proprietors of the stocks. To these gentlemen the duty of 
consiHering the propriety of the amalgamation was entrusted, and they 
were likewise requested to devise the best means in their power to 
carry out the proposal. 

In July came the usual Annual Report of the Court of Examiners. 
This was in the main most favourable, still it was a matter of regret 
that no less than twenty candidates had been perforce rejected owing 
to failure in Latin. One passage from the Report needs quotation : " In 
concluding this report, the Court of Examiners have great satisfaction 
in congratulating the Court of Assistants upon a circumstance truly 
gratifying to all who are in any manner concerned in carrying into 
effect the provisions of the Act of Parliament, a circumstance indeed 
not less pleasing and beneficial to this Society than honourable to the 
learned and liberal person from whom it emanates — the present dis- 
tinguished President of the Royal College of Physicians, by whose 
unqualified approbation of the plans which have been pursued for 
increasing the utility and value of the General Practitioner, and by 
whose public testimony of the great advantages which have resulted 
from them, the powerful assistance of the official head of that ancient 
and learned Corporation has been given in aid of the excellent inten- 
tions of the Legislature." There was, therefore, complete harmony 
between the College and the Society in the year 182 1-2. 

On Election Day, August 20, 1822, the gentlemen chosen for 
Master, Senior and Junior Wardens were Mr. John Baker, Mr. 
Thomas Wheeler, and Mr. Edward Browne respectively. At the 
same Court the gift of three pictures to the Society by Mrs. 
Higden is gratefully acknowledged. The titles of these pictures, 
however^ are not given. The amalgamation or co-partnership of the 
Navy and Laboratory Stocks having been agreed upon, a co-partner- 
ship deed was signed and sealed with the Corporation Seal at a Special 
Court held on November 9, 1822, on which occasion a special dinner 
was given to celebrate the union of the two Stocks. The monetary 
affairs of the Society being in a flourishing state, it was resolved to 



THE ARMY MEDICAL BOARD 191 

increase the pensions to the widows ; these pensions were therefore 
raised from ;^I5 to ;^i8 per annum. At the Court of Assistants, 
March 25, 1823, a letter of thanks from ten Surgeons or Apothecaries 
of Halifax was read, in which the obligations of those who practised 
in that town were expressed, for the prompt way in which the Society 
had noticed upon due complaint any illegal actions in that district. 
Special mention is made of one extremely bad case, in which a prose- 
cution entered into by the Society had crushed an offender who was 
both " illiterate and unqualified." 

It was this year that the Retail Drug Department was established 
in the enlarged position it now occupies beneath the Colonnade. The 
Examination Report for 1822-3 shows that 405 candidates were 
examined, and that to 381 of these certificates were granted. Of these 
381, twenty were qualified to practise in London and the neighbour- 
hood. Ignorance of Latin is again deplored, and a note is made of 
the fact that some eighteen persons who were yet unqualified were 
practising and daily incurring penalties. The last passage in the 
Report shows that it had been determined to exercise great caution in 
the reception of testimonials shown by candidates who profess.ed to 
have attended Lectures on the Practice of Physic. 

On Election Day, August 26, 1823, Mr. Thomas Wheeler, Mr. 
Edward Browne, and Mr. Henry Field were chosen Master, Senior 
and Junior Wardens respectively. 



CHAPTER XXI 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXAMINATIONS HELD BY THE 
SOCIETY 

E now meet with a rather important dlBiculty which 

needed the opinion of Counsel. It was this : A 

doubt arose whether under the Act of 55 George III. 

the Master of the Society alone had the power to 

administer the oath to the Court of Examiners, or 

whether the Wardens had such power without the 

Master, or whether the Master and Wardens together possessed the 

requisite power ; or whether the Court of Assistants was the body to 

perform the same. Incidentally, too, it was asked whether any 

member of the Court of Assistants could also be a member of the 

Court of Examiners. 

Mr. Denman, of Lincoln's Inn, who was consulted, in his opinion 
stated that it would be extremely awkward if the power was given to 
the Master or Assistants (" or " was the word in dispute), seeing that 
the Master must necessarily be an Assistant. The Counsel also gave 
it as his view that the Master, Wardens and Assistants could not 
properly be appointed members of the Court of Examiners. To 
deliberate upon these knotty points a Special Committee was imme- 
diately appointed. 

Under date September 2, 1823, we find a curious letter from the 
Rector of the united parishes of St. Andrew's Wardrobe and St. Ann 
Blackfriars. The parson memorialised the Society in the hope of 
getting an augmentation to hisstipend, which he asserted had dwindled 
from the fact that the buildings of the Apothecaries had increased, 
while the inhabitants had in consequence diminished, his fees thereby 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXAMINATIONS 193 

suflfering. When the memorial came up for discussion it was deter- 
mined that the rector should receive six guineas instead of three for 
his clerical services on the anniversary festival of the Society. But 
the Court was " not satisfied that any diminution of fees had taken 
place in consequence of the improvement made in the Society's 
Laboratories." Still, they doubled their annual donation to the rector. 
In this year it was worthy of note that twelve guineas was the fee of 
each member of the Court who went on "search" for bad drugs. 
The fees for granting certificates for country and London practice 
in 1822-3 amounted to no less a sum than ;^2,5i7 i8s. 

The Committee appointed to deliberate on Mr. Denman's legal 
opinion previously mentioned now sent in their report. Not satisfied 
with one opinion, they had taken further advice from another Counsel. 
He coincided with Denman, and there was then a consultation 
between the Clerk to the Society and the two legal advisers. It was 
decided that an explanatory Act of Parliament would be required to 
make clear the meaning of the first, and that meanwhile not more than 
four Assistants should be appointed to the Court of Examiners. We 
now find Mr. George Man Burrows severing his long connection with 
the Society. It was obligatory, as he had become a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians. In granting his request for disfranchisement 
the Court of Assistants testified to the many and great services he had 
rendered to the Society, especially as Chairman to the Associated 
Apothecaries of England and Wales. The usual fine paid on disfran- 
chisement was in his case remitted. Nothing was entered relative to 
the quarrel of a few years back. His offence had evidently been 
condoned. 

At the Court held on December 16, 1823, a most important resolu- 
tion was passed with regard to the Lectures ; it reads as follows : 
" That this Court are of opinion that it will be highly conducive to the 
honour and respectability of this Society for the present Lectures on 
Materia Medica and Pharmaceutical Chemistry to be so extended that 
a complete course on these subjects may be gone through every year." 
It was decided to carry this resolution into immediate effect. 

We now find a proposal made to alter certain details in the Bye- 
laws of the Society ; the alterations in themselves were not very 
important, and were mainly directed towards the simplification of the 

14 



194 APOTHECARIES 

laws and economy. A Committee was appointed to deliberate on the 
proposals and recommend what course should be pursued. About a 
month later the Committee gave in its report, which was in favour of 
the proposed changes and abrogations. The Resolution was then put 
to the vote and carried. 

Ignorance of Latin now crops up again, this time in the form of a 
notice which was to be put up in the offices of the Clerk and the 
Beadle. It appears that members of tlie Society had of late presented 
many youths to be bound apprentices who were absolutely ignorant of 
the Latin tongue, and had to be rejected in consequence. Members 
of the Society were requested "to be more careful in their nominations 
in the future." 

In the Report of the Court of Examiners for the year 1823-4 
we read one curious paragraph : — " Upon the list of rejected persons 
who might again have applied to be examined there are nineteen 
who have not done so : — many of whom are probably now in practice 
and certainly contrary to law." Verily the Act for the regulating 
of Apothecaries was not yet quite in proper working order. A 
gift to the Society by Dr. Maton is noted on July 26, 1824. It 
consisted of a cast from a bust of Sir Joseph Banks, by Garrard, 
which '* Dr. Maton thinks may not be unworthy of a place in that 
garden wherein Sir Joseph felt always so much gratification," etc., etc. 
The gift was accepted, and it is needless to add, was most gracefully 
acknowledged by the Society. 

On Election Day, August 27, 1824, Edward Browne, Henry Field, 
and Joseph Littlefear were chosen Master, Senior and Junior Wardens 
respectively. 

The Secretary to the Court of Examiners now appears in the 
form of a memorialist. It seems that a banking house, by name 
Marsh & Co., of Berners Street, had suspended payment, and Mr. 
Watson, the Secretary, had been in the habit of banking the 
examination fees with them. At the time of the failure he had 
there ;^I26 belonging to the Society. He prays not to be called 
upon to make good any deficiency. He admits that legally he can 
be compelled to pay the whole, but urges that it was through no 
fault of his own the loss occurred. His prayer was granted, and 
the banking house of Messrs. Goslings & Sharp was decided on 
as the future custodian of the moneys of the Society. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXAMINATIONS 195 

At the Court of Assistants held March 22, 1825, the death of 
Richard Walker, Esq., was announced, and a vacancy in the Court 
declared. Mr. Walker had been Apothecary in Ordinary to the 
King. He was succeeded in his office by a Mr. John Nussey, 
who in virtue of the appointment claimed to be elected on to the 
Court. His claim was, as usual, admitted, and he was forthwith 
elected. 

The matter of the new Explanatory Act of Parliament to amend 
certain points in the old one and to clear up certain ambiguities 
now needs notice. According to their instructions the Committee 
had caused a Bill to be drafted, but on presentation it was withdrawn 
in conformity to the opinion of the Speaker, that the matter was a 
subject for a public and ,not a private Bill. A new Bill was then 
introduced by Henry Brougham, but met with great opposition. 
This was a rather strange fact, and was to be accounted for in this 
way : — A small knot of members desired to drag into the Bill clauses 
affecting the status of graduates of the Scotch Universities and members 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, who were to be 
allowed to practise in England and Wales without examination. 
This would have been a blow to the prestige of the Society, as may 
be easily imagined. At length, after a hard fight, the Bill passed the 
Commons and then fell into the clutches of the Lords, who passed it 
after some delay, but limited its action to the first day of August, 
1826, the obvious intention of which being to reopen the question in 
about a twelvemonth's time. The report of the Committee concerned 
in the passing of the Bill concludes with some elaborate accounts 
showing how the money received for fees in carrying out the Act 
of 181 5 had been expended. These accounts are of an elaborate 
character, but their length precludes the possibility of reproducing 
them. 

On Election Day, August 19, 1825, Mr. Henry Field, Mr. Joseph 
Littlefear, and Mr. Julian Mariner were chosen Master, Senior and 
Junior Wardens respectively. In the October of this year the 
kitchen chimney of the Beadle's house caught fire. It is rather 
amusing to read that it cost £/^ to put the fire out ; at any rate 
this was the amount he charged the Society and which the Society 
paid. One is inclined to doubt the accuracy of the Beadle's ac- 



196 APOTHECARIES 

counts. No event is of sufficient importance to require notice during 
the remainder of the official year. 

On Election Day, August 25, 1826, Mr. Joseph Littlefear, Mr. 
Julian Mariner, and Mr. Andrew Ewbank were chosen Master, 
Senior and Junior Wardens respectively. In the search after bad 
drugs which took place towards the close of this year, the discovery 
was made of what is called "a dangerous circumstance of a bottle 
containing Liq. Arsenicalis being labelled Tinct. Rhubarb." The 
offending Apothecaries were Messrs. Tatham and Baillie Poplar. 

In June, 1827, the aged housekeeper, Mrs. Daston, who had been 
so long in the employ of the Society, resigned. She was granted a 
pension of ;^2o per annum. 

The report of the Court of Examiners for this year is a very long 
document indeed, and therein the Examiners again lament that they 
are obliged to reject so large a proportion of candidates owing to 
ignorance of the Latin language. They then go on to comment on 
some cases in which deception had been successfully practised in the 
examinations. One case, that of a certain Harry Fry, is mentioned as 
a particularly bad one. The examiners also complain that fraudulent 
indentures (forgeries) had been in some cases forwarded with a view 
to ''deceiving the Court into the belief that apprenticeships had been 
duly served." 

The report of the Committee appointed to take into consideration 
the proper duties of a housekeeper is also a very long document, and 
furnishes some amusing reading. The investigation showed that a 
good deal of money could be saved by reform in the department : 
the main changes were these, viz., for the Society to employ its own 
tradesmen instead of permitting the housekeeper to cater for them. 
The details into which these worthy gentlemen enter show that they 
must have gone about their business most thoroughly. The report 
was agreed to, and a certain Mrs. Marie Morpeth reigned in the stead 
of Mrs. Daston ; but she reigned with a much diminished chance of 
hoarding up her gains. 

On Election Day, August 24, 1827, Mr. Julian Mariner,' Mr. 
Andrew Ewbank. and Mr. William Trew were chosen Master, 
Senior and Junior Wardens respectively. At the same Court a very 
important proposal was made by means of a memorial signed 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXAMINATIONS 197 

by a large and influential number of members of the Society. 
This was to the effect that a regular medical library should be 
formed at the Hall. It was pointed out that the nucleus of a 
library existed already, but that now, seeing that the status of the 
Society had been so much raised by the passing of the Act of 181 5, 
it would both add to its dignity and importance if such an institution 
could be started, and moreover it would contribute in no small degree 
to the general diffusion and advancement of medical knowledge. 

It will be remembered that in their report the Court of Examiners 
had mentioned certain cases of imposition by candidates, and that 
forged indentures had been presented. A Committee had been 
appointed to investigate the matter. The report made by this 
Committee contains several suggestions to prevent the occurrence 
of such misdeeds in the future. They advise that legal opinion 
should be taken as to whether the Society might insist on all Articles 
of Apprenticeship being deposited in their custody. But with regard 
to the study of the Latin tongue they demur to making the examination 
harder, and propose that it should be limited to the interpretation of 
the London Pharmacopoeia and the reading and translation of pre- 
scriptions, of which they state that " many in the possession of the 
Court of Examiners are written in a siile of pure and elegant and not 
merely of commonplace latinity " I 

A part of the recommendations were accepted, but the remainder 
were referred back for further consideration. And here it may be 
well to note what was required of a candidate who desired to practise 
as an Apothecary. 

1. He must have served an apprenticeship of not less than five 

years, and must be of the full age of twenty-one and of good 
moral character. 

2. He must produce certificates that he had attended not less than 

one course of lectures in {a) Materia Medica and Medical 
Botany ; (6) Chemistry ; (c) two courses of lectures in 
Anatomy and Physiology ; (rf) two courses of lectures on the 
Theory and Practice of Medicine, and these last must have 
been attended subsequent to the lectures on Materia Medica, 
Medical Botany, and Chemistry. 
The certificates for the lectures on the Principles and Practice of 



198 APOTHECARIES 

Medicine required the signature of a " Fellow, Candidate, or Licentiate 
of the Royal College of Physicians." A certificate also was required 
that the candidate had attended for at least six months the medical 
practice of some public Hospital or Infirmary, or for nine months at 
a Dispensary, and that such attendance commenced subsequent to the 
termination of the first course of lectures on the Principles and Prac- 
tice of Medicine. Candidates were also recommended to attend one 
or more courses of lectures on Midwifery and the Diseases of Women 
and Children. 

The precise subjects in which papers were set were : — i. Trans- 
lating grammatically parts of the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis and 
Physician's Prescriptions ; 2. Chemistry ; 3. Materia Medica and 
Medical Botany ; 4. Anatomy and Physiology ; and 5. The Practice 
of Medicine. 

But the Court of Examiners were not quite satisfied with the way 
their report had been received, and consequently sent a deputation to 
the Court of Assistants begging that their report might be printed and 
published. The deputation pointed out that it was the wish of the 
Court of Examiners that the public should know that they were fully 
aware of the defects which at present existed in the examination of 
candidates, and that they for their part had pointed out those defects 
and had recommended the adoption of measures for the purpose of 
removing them. Upon this a resolution was passed by which this last 
application of the Court of Examiners was referred to a Committee 
consisting of the Master, Wardens, and Messrs. Field, Hunter, Nussey, 
and Upton, and that such Committee should have power to act 
therein as they think proper. 

In November, 1827, the Junior Warden (Mr. William Trew) died, 
and Mr. Joseph Hurlock was elected to succeed him in office for the 
remainder of the official year. 

The next entry of interest refers to a legal question upon which it 
became needful to take Counsel's opinion. It was this. A Mr. Arthur 
Tegart was a member of the Court of Examiners, and during his year 
of office was chosen on to the Court of Assistants. The point was, 
did he or did he not vacate his seat on the Court of Examiners ? 

In the report of the Committee appointed to search for bad drugs 
we find that the outlook in that direction was improving, two cases 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXAMINATIONS 199 

only occurring where drugs were decidedly bad ; but the searchers 
report that they much wish that in the matter of " order and cleanli- 
ness " the shops themselves could be improved, " as on these points 
there are many of them very defective." Under date January i, 1828, 
we read that Mr. Deputy- Warden Field had, under direction of the 
Court, sold a quantity of old pewter belonging to the Society, the 
price he obtained for it being ;^34 8s. 3d., and certain old brass and 
iron which fetched j^'i 19s. 6d. This probably accounts for the 
disappearance of all pewter from the Hall. That a large quantity 
existed we may conjecture, and it must have been a good deal to have 
produced in those days such a price as that above named. 

With regard to Mr. Tegart, about whose seat on the Board of 
Examiners a doubt had arisen, the opinion of Counsel (Mr. J. Scarlett) 
stated that any Examiner who was elected an Assistant at once 
ceased to be an Examiner, for the reason that the Court of Assistants 
are to choose or displace Examiners, and, " therefore, cannot 
elect or sit in judgment on themselves." In consequence of this 
opinion Mr. Tegart relinquished his seat on the Court of Examiners, 
and a contest occurred as to who should succeed him. Two 
candidates were proposed, one being Mr. John Hunter, jun., and 
the other a Mr. Thomas Hardy. On a ballot being taken, the latter 
gentleman was declared elected. 

The question of a petition to Parliament praying the attention 
of the Houses to the difficulties which attend the attainment of 
anatomical knowledge now occupied the attention of the Court. At 
this period both the Royal College of Physicians and the College of 
Surgeons had petitioned on the same subject, and it was felt that the 
Society should certainly do the same. In June, 1828, we note that 
the Society subscribed ;^30o "as a donation to the new college to 
be called the King's College." At the same Court £2^^ was voted to 
the Smallpox Hospital, *' the funds of which institution being 
exhausted, or nearly so." 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for the year 1827-8 
we gather that during that period five hundred and ten candidates 
presented themselves for examination, and of these four hundred and 
forty passed and received certificates. The Report contains very 
severe strictures on the lack of information — nay, more, on the 



200 APOTHECARIES 

absolute ignorance of many who had the ''audacity" to present 
themselves. The masters of these apprentices are blamed, and 
rightly, for not instructing them. Next the document passes to a 
very important matter, viz., to the establishment of medical schools 
in large provincial towns where well-regulated hospitals exist. The 
Examiners note that some of their best candidates came from the 
provinces. In conclusion another very bad case of fraud and forgery 
which had occurred was mentioned, and also an ingenious method of 
selling the certificates and obliterating the name of the original holder, 
refilling the blank with a fraudulent entry, which appears at the time 
to have become a regular trade. Of a truth the Society had difficulties 
enough in carrying out provisions of the Act of 1815. 

On Election Day, August 20, 1828, Mr. Andrew Ewbank, Mr. 
Joseph Hurloch, and Mr. William R. Macdonald were chosen Master, 
and Senior and Junior Wardens respectively. 

And now another small cloud arose between the Society and 
the Royal College of Physicians. A letter which appeared in the 
Lancet of January 10, 1829, attacked the Society in what they 
justly considered an "illiberal and ungentlemanly way." This was 
either written by a former Censor of the College, or he was at 
any rate credited with having written it. The Master and Wardens 
thereupon forwarded a letter to the President and Censors of the 
College complaining of the terms of the printed effusion. In reply, 
the Registrar of the College expressed his regret, and stated that all 
the former Censors of the College save one had repudiated the author- 
ship, but that the exception, a certain Dr. Ramadge, "though 
summoned, has not attended any of the meetings held for the purpose 
of investigation." To this the Clerk of the Society replied in suitable 
terms, and the matter then dropped. But from the reply of the 
Registrar of the College it would appear that the reflections cast on 
the Society and the members of it must have been of a very gross 
character. 

From the report of the Court of Examiners for the year 1828-9 
we gather that the number of candidates was fewer than had been 
customary — i.^., 365 only, of whom 65 were rejected. The cause 
of this diminution was to be found in the new regulations which had 
been framed in 1827, and which compelled candidates to undergo 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXAMINATIONS 201 

a far longer period of preparation than hitherto. Mention is also 
made in the document of an agreement which had been come to 
between the Court of Examiners and the Council of the University 
of London by which a plan of medical education had been devised, 
which was " equally satisfactory to the Council of the University and 
to the Court of Examiners." 



CHAPTER XXII 

EXTENSION OF THE EXAMINATIONS— TROUBLES WITH 
CANDIDATES AND OBJECTORS TO THE ACT OF 1815 

N tlie Election Day, August 20, 1829, Mr. Joseph 
j Hurlock, Mr. William R. Macdonald, and Mr. 
John Hunter were chosen Master, and Senior and 
junior Wardens respectively. Questions of finance 
now claimed the attention of the Court ; for some 
years the expenditure of the Society had exceeded 
its income, and it was needful to retrench, and largely too. The 
affairs of the Society were taken in hand by a Committee, who went 
into the business with great zeal and discretion. It was found, after 
careful investigation, that by a further abandonment of dinners, 
herbarizing festivals, and other merrymakings, a considerable reduc- 
tion could be effected, and that by careful management the monetary 
position of the Society could again be placed on a sound financial 
basis. 

The last entry for 1829 concerns the Physic Garden at Chelsea. 
It had long been felt that its usefulness as a school for students 
of Medical Botany could be much increased, and the time had now 
arrived when it became possible to use the garden to a far greater 
extent than of yore. Consequently it was practically thrown open to 
all genuine students who could obtain the necessaiy letters of 
recommendation. Rules for admission were framed, and these were 
circulated far and wide amongst the medical profession. 

The labours of the Society to improve the study of surgery in the 
country were now t>eginning to twar fruit, as is evidenced by the 



EXTENSION OF THE EXAMINATIONS 203 

following Resolution passed by the Obstetric Society and transmitted 
through Dr. Ramsbottom. It runs as follows : — 

^' Resolved that a communication be made to the Worshipful 
Company of Apothecaries of the thanks of the Society for the 
attention which they have given to former letters from the Obstetric 
Society, and their desire to render their assistance to the Society of 
Apothecaries in endeavouring to obtain an Act of Parliament 
authorising the Apothecaries' Society to examine those candidates 
who appear before them as to their qualifications to practise mid- 
wifery." 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for the year 1829-30 
we gather that out of a total number of 525 candidates, 439 received 
certificates. As usual, lack of knowledge of Latin was in the majority 
of cases the cause of failure. 

On the accession of William IV. the usual address of condolence 
and congratulation was forwarded by the Court. 

On the Election Day, August 27, 1830, Mr. W. R. Macdonald, Mr. 
John Hunter, and Mr. James Hill were elected Master, and Senior and 
Junior Wardens respectively. 

With the new reign came a new Apothecary to the King, Mr. 
E. A. Brande, who, following the usual custom, claimed to be elected 
on the Court of Assistants on the first vacancy. 

In the month of October, 1830, the old Beadle, Mr. John Sayer, 
resigned, and was succeeded in his office by his son William Henry. 
The retiring Beadle received a gratuity of twenty guineas, and to the 
new officer a slight increase in his emolument was granted, viz., ten 
shillings for each attendance at* the Botanical lectures, and also an 
allowance of two chaldrons and a half of coals per annum. 

A curious case occurred at this time which gives some idea of the 
difficulties attending the carrying out of the Act of 1815. A man 
named Alfred Westwood, the son of a Freeman of the Company, 
technically an apothecary but in reality a chemist and druggist, 
applied for leave to practise. He had apparently been familiarised 
with the compounding of prescriptions, etc., in his father's shop, and 
had subsequently entered as one of the house pupils at the Bedford 
Infirmary, had studied also in Paris and elsewhere. He submitted 
that he had complied with the spirit of the Act, though not the letter 



204 APOTHECARIES 

of it, as his father, though an apothecary from the livery point of view, 
was in reality only the keeper of a chemist's shop. 

His case was referred to the Committee, who in turn referred the 
matter to the Attorney General. 

The reply of the Attorney General, as may be gathered from a 
lengthy document, was unfavourable to the applicant. That it was 
a hard case is probable, but the provisions of the Act were such as to 
preclude the possibility of any other reply. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for the year 1830-31 
we gather that certificates were granted to only 361 candidates out of 
a total number of 465. 

On Election Day, August 26, 1831, Mr. John Hunter, Mr. James 
Hill, and Mr. William Griffith, were chosen Master, Senior and junior 
Wardens respectively. 

At this time it was determined to make a change in the composi- 
tion of the Court of Examiners, and the change was probably a wise 
one. Heretofore it had been customary for many members to be 
elected year after year, but it was now settled that senior members 
of the Court should in future be ineligible for election. 

Two brief extracts are of interest and may be noted. One refers 
to the placing of the armorial bearings of the Society in the Hall of 
Christ's Hospital, and the other to the fact that the Society were 
possessed of six nominations for pupils at King's College, and that 
the same would be in the gift of members of the Society. 

At the Court held December 19, 183 1, a most important draft 
memorial to Lord Melbourne was read and approved. It was on the 
subject of surgery, and though too long to quote in full may well be 
digested. The case of the Society was this : — 

We are the body to whom the administration of the Act of 18 15 is 
intrusted, and our position is as follows : By this Act we are bound 
to require of candidates a sufficient medical education, and this 
cannot be obtained without an intimate acquaintance with practical 
anatomy. 

But a knowledge of practical anatomy cannot be obtained without 
infringing the existing laws. 

It will be remembered that at this date (1831) the "resurrec- 
tionists" were the usual purveyors of corpses to the medical 



EXTENSION OF THE EXAMINATIONS 205 

profession. What the Society prayed for was some enactment 
legalising a fit supply of subjects for anatomical students. 

It is needless to add that both the College of Physicians and the 
College of Surgeons had forwarded similar memorials. 

In March, 1832, we note a small economy. It was ordered "that 
the wine and cakes usually given on occasion of reading the Laws 
and Orders (of the Society) be discontinued, and that Tea and Bread 
and Butter be substituted." 

At this same date, too, the old project of forming a library in the 
Hall and also a museum of such branches of natural history as are 
connected with medicine was revived, and a Committee appointed to 
carry out this design should they think fit to do so. 

In June, 1832, it was determined to conduct the Botanical Exami- 
nation on a far " more extensive and scientific scale " than heretofore. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for the year 183 1-2 
we gather that out of a total of 446 candidates 73 were rejected ; and 
for the first time the Court seems to have hopes that an improvement 
in the knowledge of Latin is more than apparent. 

At Ascot Races this year a discharged Greenwich pensioner threw 
a stone at the King and struck his Majesty on the head. The 
Society, as was to be expected, forwarded a dutiful address on the 
occasion. 

On Election Day, August 27, 1832, Mr. James Hill was chosen 
Master ; Mr. Warden Griffith, owing to ill-health and loss of eyesight, 
was excused for serving the office of Upper Warden, his place being 
taken by Mr. John Nussey, while the Junior Warden was Mr. 
Samuel Griffith. 

It was now resolved to do something which had long been 
suggested, and which was certainly much needed — this was, to 
print and circulate a list of all those persons who, by obtaining 
certificates, had qualified themselves under the Act of 1815 to practise 
as Apothecaries. 

It is somewhat amusing to read a letter addressed by one Cornish, 
a medical student at Edinburgh, to Mr. Watson, the Secretary to the 
Court of Examiners, in which the young man gravely announces 
his intention to petition Parliament for an alteration in the Act of 
1815, so as to allow Licentiates of the University and Royal College 



2o6 APOTHECARIES 

of Edinburgh to practise as Apothecaries in England without further 
examination. 

But an attack on the Act was actually projected and it became 
the duty of the Society to oppose any alteration, so for this purpose 
a counter-petition was framed and forwarded. 

Under date June i8, 1833, we read that the Botanical Demon- 
strator was having some trouble with the apprentices who were 
supposed to be his pupils. He complains that on Herbarizing days 
those who came were, many of them, inattentive, and some did not 
arrive on the scene till the hour appointed for their free dinner. 

The Court determined that in future these students should pay 
for their own dinner, " which they are of opinion would prevent 
the attendance of any apprentices who are not studiously inclined." 

A rather cool proposition from a Dr. Buchanan, of Hull, is quite 
worth mention. He writes to the Society that he is desirous of aiding 
them in every possible way he can to oppose the new Bill in Parliament, 
and for that purpose proposes to sell to the Society a museum formed 
by himself, and also suggests that he should become a member of the 
Society. He puts the price of his museum at ;^50o, and requests 
that his Redemption Fine of ;^2i3 should be deducted therefrom 
and the balance sent to him. His offer was declined. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for 1832-3 we gather 
that the number of candidates had diminished owing to the greater 
stringency, the total being 362, out of which 62 were refused 
certificates. 

On Election Day, August 27, 1833, Mr. John Nussey, Mr. Samuel 
Griffith, and Mr. James Upton were chosen Master, Senior and Junior 
Wardens respectively. 

In October, 1833, for the first time for many years, the 
"searchers" were met by a refusal to permit search. The delin- 
quent's name was Thomas Porter, of Bishopsgate Street. Prompt 
measures were taken by the Society, and the offender was advised to 
submit, or take the legal consequences of refusing. He, with 
equal promptitude, gave way. 

In December, 1833, Mr. Samuel Griffith, the Senior Warden, died, 
and was succeeded by Mr. James Upton, the Junior Warden ; Mr. 
Upton's place being taken by Mr. William King. 



EXTENSION OF THE EXAMINATIONS 207 

At a Special Court held Tuesday, April 15, 1834, the death of a 
good old official of the Society was announced — Mr. Edmund Bacot, 
the Clerk. A pension of ;^5o was granted to his widow, and 
preparations were made for the election of a new Clerk. His 
duties were to remain the same, with the exception that he was 
no longer to have charge of the wines of the Society. For the 
office there were four candidates, all of them ** legalised attornies," 
namely, Messrs. G. Brace, A. Hall, R. B. Upton, and G. Malim. On 
the first ballot the two first went out, and on the second ballot the 
choice fell upon Mr. Robert B. Upton, who forthwith took the 
required oath. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners we find that for 
the year 1833-4 the candidates numbered 448, of which 65 failed. 

On Election Day, August 22, 1834, Mr. James Upton, Mr. William 
King, and Mr. Joseph Anterac were chosen Master, Senior and 
Junior Wardens respectively. 

To the retiring Master, Mr. John Nussey, a piece of plate of the 
value of twenty-five guineas was voted as a permanent memorial of 
" this auspicious event," and of their sincere and respectful congratu- 
lations. The "auspicious event" was the birth of a daughter during his 
mastership — a like event not being previously recorded in the annals 
of the Society. 

At the same Court a donation of ;^ioo was voted towards the 
rebuilding of Christ's Hospital ; — the Court were in an evidently 
generous mood. 

We now find that the Lancet had been again falling foul of the 
Society. This time it was the Beadle and Gatekeeper who were 
attacked. It was alleged that they touted among the candidates for 
certain private teachers. There does not appear to have been 
more than a slight ground for the aspersion, and measures were 
taken by the Court to prevent even the slightest irregularity in the 
future. 

The Botanical Demonstrator, Mr. James Lowe Wheeler, having 
resigned, the rules relating to the Garden at Chelsea and the arrange- 
ments for the lectures came under careful consideration, and were in 
many cases modified. 

In February, 1835, a former Master, Mr. W. R. Mac Donald, pre- 



2o8 APOTHECARIES 

sented the Society with a horius siccus, which he had himself formed. 
His gift was gladly accepted and gratefully acknowledged. 

At the election of a Demonstrator to fill the vacant post there were 
two candidates, one Mr. Richard Bagshaw Ward, and the other Mr. 
Gilbert Thomas Burnet. The candidature of the first was withdrawn, 
and Mr. Burnet was then forthwith chosen. 

In June, 1835, the Beadle, Mr. Sayer, requested an increase to his 
salary, the ground on which he based his application being the 
considerable augmentation of his duties of late. His prayer was 
granted : a donation of ;f 20 was given him, and an extra 6d. added to 
the 2s. 6d. certificate fee which he was paid on each certificate given. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners we gather that the 
total number of candidates for the year 1834-5 ^^ 45^> ^"^ ^^^ 
number of rejections 65. 

The Examiners speak hopefully of the working of the new rules, 
and especially of the increase in the pupils at the provincial schools. 

Mr. Barnett, the Professor of Botany at the Hall, having died, it 
was resolved to present his representatives with;^8o (a year's salary) in 
respect of his services. A few days later, however, the resolution was 
changed in form, £^0 only being paid to the late Professor's representa- 
tives, and ;^5o given into the hands of the trustees of a fund which was 
being raised for the benefit of the mother and sister of the deceased. 

On Election Day, August 25, 1835, Mr. William King was chosen 
Master, and Mr. Joseph Anterac Senior Warden. Mr. Richard Strong 
Wells, who was next in rotation for the office of Junior Warden, 
begged to be excused for a year on the score of ill-health, and Mr. 
Edward Augustus Brande was chosen instead. 

But Mr. Brande, by a letter already written, declined office. The 
Court, however, refused to accept this, and though Mr. Nussey 
appealed to them to be allowed to appear on behalf of Mr. Brande, it 
was at once put to the vote and Mr. Brande was fined fifty guineas. 
This sum Mr. Nussey at once handed over, whereupon the election of 
Mr. Brande was declared null and void. A fresh gentleman was 
found in the person of Mr. John Hingeston, who was promptly 
elected Junior Warden. 

At the Court held on October 2, 1835, *he Clerk to the Court of 
Examiners, Mr. Watson, received an honorarium of £2^ on account 



EXTENSION OF THE EXAMINATIONS 209 

of the extra pains and trouble he had been put to while in attend- 
ance on the Committee of the House of Commons on Medical 
Education. 

A note of a now vanished place of worship hard by the Hall may 
be quoted ; it is as follows : — 

" A letter of thanks was read for the permission granted by the 
Court to place on the south-west corner of the Hall a direction board 
to the New Jerusalem Church." Of this church (or chapel) I have 
found no trace. 

For the vacant office of Professor of Botany five candidates were 
in the field : Mr. Thomas Henry Cooper, Mr. Edward Selleck Hare, 
Mr. Charles Johnson, Dr. Lindley, and Mr. William Salisbury. On 
a ballot being held Dr. Lindley was elected. 

Mr. James Upton, who for a long time had held the responsible 
position of Deputy Treasurer of the United Stock, was now compelled 
through failing health to resign. His resignation, it is needless to add, 
was accepted with extreme regret. 

A matter of an unpleasant nature now caused considerable trouble 
to the Society. It appears that at the Examination for certificates held 
on January 7th of this year a certain Mr. Thomas Smith was rejected, 
and took his rejection very badly. He assailed one of the Court of 
Examiners, Mr. Ridout by name, in the Lancet, and by implication in 
the Medical Gazette, charging that gentleman with using '* coarse and 
contemptuous language" to the candidates, and having otherwise 
conducted himself towards them in a "rude, petulant and overbearing 
manner." Another Examiner, Mr. Wheeler, was also reflected on in 
the Lancet, and the Clerk to the Court of Examiners, Mr. Watson, 
was charged with gross rudeness and incivility. 

The matter did not rest here : an indignation meeting of students 
was held at the Crown and Anchor on January i8th, and something 
had to be done. It was at first proposed to print a reply, but later this 
course was thought inadvisable. 

The charges against the Examiners themselves were rebutted, but 
in the case of the Clerk it was shown that his temper, soured by ill- 
health and bodily suffering, was such that he was practically unable to 
carry on the duties of h?s office ; moreover, too, that though civil to 
the candidates while in the presence of the Court, he on other occa- 

15 



2IO APOTHECARIES 

sions was very much the reverse. Mr. Thomas Smith, the ultimate 
cause of all the trouble, was proved to be a most ignorant student, but 
he acted as stalking-horse for the rest. Somebody had to be hanged, 
and as it was proved beyond dispute that the whole of the work of the 
Secretary had for a long time been not only greatly in arrear — that is 
to say, important communications had remained unanswered. Minute 
Books ill-kept, Resolutions unentered and often lost, etc., it was 
decided to permit him " to absent himself from his duties until the 
end of July next." As an interim Secretary the Clerk was requested 
to discharge Mr. Watson's office until the date named. 

At the Court held June 21, 1836, a long letter was read from 
the new Professor of Botany, Dr. Lindley, in which he stated that 
there was no catalogue of the living specimens of plants in the garden, 
and volunteered both to mark all the plants and also to make such a 
catalogue. The wisdom of such a course was at once seen, and the 
Court gratefully accepted Dr. Lindley's offer. 

Mr. Watson, the absent Secretary, now wrote offering to resume 
his duties, feeling well enough for his usual work ; but his offer was 
for the present declined, lest he might "possibly endanger the progress 
he has made." 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners we gather that in the 
year 1835-6 there were 556 candidates, of whom 450 received certi- 
ficates, fifteen of them having specially distinguished themselves. We 
also now learn for the first time that on the occasion of the " plough- 
ing" of Mr. Thomas Smith there was something like a small riot at 
the Hall, and that various threats were used. But six months had 
elapsed, tempers had cooled down, Mr. Thomas Smith had returned 
to his studies, and presumably had made good use of his time, for the 
report specially mentions that he had received his certificate. 

Mr. Watson presumably ceased to be concerned with the Secre- 
taryship, as we find Mr. Robert Brotherson Upton appointed in his 
place at a salary of j;^i30 per annum. 

The great expenses which were involved in the holding of the 
office of Steward at the General Herbarizing Dinner now form the 
subject of a long letter from the Stewards of that year, Messrs. John 
Ridout and Richard Henry King. Six other former holders of the 
office concurred in the sentiments contained therein. The matter 



EXTENSION OF THE EXAMINATIONS 211 

certainly needed some reform, for it appears that year after year the 
same people were invited, and all kinds of outside guests were 
admitted, so that the allowance for the banquet was, if the banquet 
was to be well done, very inadequate. The proposals were to limit 
the number of invitations, and also, in view of the increase in the 
members of the Society, to slightly augment the allowance. 

On Election Day, August 23, 1836, Mr. John Hingeston was 
chosen Master, and Messrs. George Johnson and Wentworth Malin 
Senior and Junior Wardens respectively. 

At the Court held October 4, 1836, the death of the Beadle, Mr. 
William Henry Sayer, was reported, and a successor, the eldest son 
of the deceased, Mr. Edward Sayer, was immediately elected to the 
vacant post. 

Early in October, 1836, there was again trouble with the 
students, "scenes of outrage and riot," to quote the report. The 
afiFair seems to have arisen from the candidates delaying to register 
their " class tickets " until the very last day. Consequently there was 
a mob all struggling to get to the Registration Books at once, before 
the said books were closed. It does not appear to have been pre- 
meditated, and probably was the outcome of the exuberance of 
youthful spirits. But of course the Court of Examiners was bound 
to take notice of the matter, and a conference between a Committee 
of that Court and the Court of Assistants was at once resolved on. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

LONDON UNIVERSITY AND THE COURT OF EXAMINERS — 
THE SOCIETY AND THE SURGEONS — MR. BRANDE'S 
SCHEME 

N December 6, 1836, a serious charge against Ihe 
Society's gardener was formally reported to the 
Court by Dr. Lindley, the Professor of Botany. 
This was nothing less than supplying a candidate, 
at one of the examinations in that science, with 
information as to the plants to be used, etc., etc. 
An investigation was of course ordered. 

But the year was not to be ended without further trouble, and this 
time of even more serious a nature. At the examination held on 
December 22nd, a student named Charles Wadham Wyndham 
Penruddocke, "in the most wanton and unprovoked manner, inflicted 
severe wounds on three members of the Court, one of them (Mr. 
Hardy) having had his life placed in great risk." The delinquent was 
handed over to justice and the Clerk ordered to prosecute. 

A prosecution, or rather two prosecutions, were undertaken. The 
first seems to have failed, through, as the Court of Examiners averred, 
"gross negligence and want of energy" displayed by their counsel, 
Mr. Adolphus. 

For the second prosecution the Court of Assistants engaged the 
same counsel, and to this the Court of Examiners demurred. But 
the prisoner pleaded guilty and was committed to prison ; as a matter 
of fact, he was lucky to have saved his life. From Giltspur Street 
Prison, dated July 6, 1837, there comes a petition for clemency from 
Penruddocke. He appears to have been very ill, and was doubtless 



THE COURT OF EXAMINERS 213 

not a little down in the mouth, but the style of the petition has a 
false ring about it, and the repentance alleged does not read as if it 
were genuine. 

On the accession of Queen Victoria an address of the usual form, 
expressing condolence and congratulation, was forwarded to the 
Secretary of State for the Home Department for presentation to Her 
Majesty. 

Reverting to the Penruddocke case, it appears that the prisoner 
succeeded in getting the remainder of his sentence remitted, and was 
set at liberty in August. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for the year 1836-7, 
we gather that out of 622 candidates, 9 passed with distinction and 87 
were rejected. 

It would appear that two members of the Court of Examiners since 
their election in 1836 had joined the Senate of London University. 
The Court of Assistants felt hurt at this, and in a Minute express their 
regret that, seeing "the powers conferred by the Crown on the 
London University are likely at no distant period to affect materially 
those of the Society, and in such case to place those gentlemen in the 
anomalous position of owing a divided allegiance, that they failed in 
their duty to the Governing Body of the Society in not seeking its 
concurrence and assent, previous to accepting the offer made to them 
by the London University, and it is therefore with much pain that 
the Court of Assistants feel called on to notice such an instance of 
disrespect from those who, from their high character and station in 
the Society, have always been considered as among the most zealous 
and faithful of its members." 

It will be remembered that Mr. R. B. Upton had been appointed 
both Clerk to the Society and Secretary to the Court of Examiners. 
He now stated that he found the work too heavy, and in August, 1837, 
requested to be relieved of the latter ofl&ce. 

The offending members who had joined the Senate of London 
University were Mr. John Bacot and Mr. John Ridout, but they were, 
notwithstanding, re-elected on the Court of Examiners. However, 
in a letter dated August 3, 1837, ^^ ^^^ them declining ofl&ce, and 
in the list of the Court their names are erased. The letter in which 
they decline office is dignified in tone, and one cannot but help 



214 APOTHECARIES 

coming to the conclusion that there must have been some private and 
personal feeling other than the usual guild spirit at work to cause a 
break in the general calm of the life of the Society. 

The real reason for the resignation of Mr. Upton, which appears 
later, points in the same direction : it seems that it was not the work 
which troubled him, but the fact that an annual vote of thanks to him 
had been withheld by the Court of Examiners. This he took to 
imply censure, and consequently resigned. The Court of Examiners 
was then informed, and practically apologised to Mr. Upton, who 
thereupon consented to serve. 

On Election Day, August 22, 1837, Mr. Richard Henry King was 
chosen Master ; Mr. Wentworth Malim, who should have been Senior 
Warden, declined on the score of ill-health, and was excused, Mr. 
John Higham being chosen in his place. The office of Junior 
Warden was filled by Mr. David Clapton. 

But the Bacot-Ridout affair was not yet ended. Dated October 
2, 1837, comes a letter from those two gentlemen in which they 
acknowledge the receipt of a vote of thanks, dated August 21st. This 
they assume to override the minute of censure. They accuse the 
Court of Assistants of having overstepped its province in interfering 
with their right to belong to any scientific body they please. But, 
reading between the lines, it is apparent that what they wanted was 
that the vote of censure should be expunged. 

On December 19, 1837, ^^* Henry Field, a former Master, 
Deputy Master, and Treasurer of the United Stock, was compelled 
through illness to resign. His resignation was accepted, and in the 
Minutes of the next Court, which was held on December 30th, we 
read that the worthy old Apothecary had died. 

At the Court held March 30, 1838, there is a curious entry as 
follows : — 

" Mr. Nussey stated to the Court that it had been intimated that it 
was the intention of Government to devote the Royal Gardens at Kew 
to public purposes connected with the advancement of botanical 
science, and that a suggestion had been made for the consideration of 
the Society whether it would be to the interest of the Society to 
obtain a grant of a portion of Kew Gardens as a Botanical Garden in 
lieu of their present garden at Chelsea, supposing such an arrange- 



THE COURT OF EXAMINERS 215 

ment could be effected." Whereupon a Committee was appointed to 
meet and confer with the Government on the subject of the proposal. 

On June 26, 1838, the Senior Warden, Mr. John Higham, died. 
He was succeeded in office by the Junior, Mr. David Clapton, to 
whose place Mr. James Seaton was by election voted. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for 1837-8 we find 
that 520 candidates were examined, of whom 79 were rejected, fifteen 
of the successful students being worthy of special commendation. 

It would appear that Mr. Watson, the old Secretary, never 
recovered his health, and moreover fell upon evil days. At any 
rate we find him petitioning, through his son, for a pension in con- 
sideration of his twenty years' service. The Court awarded him 
sixty-five pounds. 

On Election Day, August 21, 1838, Mr. David Clapton, Mr. James 
Seaton, and Mr. Allen Williams were elected Master, Senior and 
Junior Wardens respectively. 

In March, Mr. R. B. Upton resigned his positon of Secretary to 
the Court of Examiners, and was succeeded by Mr. Henry Blatch, 
who resigned his seat on the Court of Assistants to become a 
candidate for the post. Mr. George Malim also endeavoured to 
obtain the Secretaryship, but on a ballot was defeated. 

Under date December 24, 1838, we find a letter addressed by 
Professor Brande to the Court of Assistants from the Royal Mint. 
In it he states that he has long meditated a change in regard to the 
plans upon which the Lectures at the Hall are conducted, and is glad 
to have an opportunity of laying his views before the Court. He 
complains of certain verbal orders which had been given him to 
change their form, and points out that, should these be carried out, 
injury to the Lectures on Materica Medica must inevitably result. 
He deprecates the placing of Botany above that subject by the 
establishment of medals and honours, and formulates a scheme for the 
improvement in the teaching of the Hall in all the subjects embraced. 
In conclusion he announces that, should his views be unacceptable to 
the Court, he must regretfully resign his Professorship. 

But the Court resolved to adhere to its new regulations as com- 
municated to Mr. Brande, and to inform him of their resolution. 
This was done, and the Professor's threat of resignation was withdrawn. 



2i6 APOTHECARIES 

In June, 1839, Mr. Edward D. Moore, having been appointed 
Apothecary to the Queen, claimed his right to be elected on to the 
Court of Assistants on the next vacancy. But there appears to have 
been some hesitation as to whether his claim should be allowed, the 
reason being that Mr. George Nussey, who was also Queen's Apothe- 
cary, already had a seat on the Court. 

The Beadle now craved the consideration of the Court on a 
private family matter. He had hitherto been expected to allow 
;^6o per annum to his mother, who was the widow of the late 
Beadle. But his mother had married again, and though not desiring 
the allowance any more for herself, wished the unfortunate man 
to pass this heavy charge on his income on to two of her daughters. 
One would have imagined that the Court could have speedily decided 
the matter, but routine required a member to " inquire into the 
circumstances " and report thereon. The next we read of the 
matter is that Mr. Sayer was ordered to furnish the Court with a 
list of his fees, emoluments, etc. His accounts were shortly after 
presented to the Court, and it was found that his annual income 
amounted to ;^2oi 17s. 4d. On this he was informed that he would 
not be required to continue the allowance. A somewhat unpleasant 
matter arose this year in connection with the election on to the Court 
of Mr. John Allen Gillham. This gentleman having been proposed, 
seconded, balloted for and elected on July 30, 1839, ^^s summoned 
to attend at the next Court to pay his fines and fees and take his seat. 
The date for the next Court happened to be August ist, but in the 
interim Mr. Gillham had had a paralytic stroke and could not attend, 
but sent a medical certificate and the requisite fine, £\2^ and pro- 
posed to take the oath as soon as his medical advisers should permit 
him. One passage in his letter reads somewhat curiously ; he writes 
of '• the office you have had the honour and justice to confer on me." 
Perhaps this ruffled the Court, for the reading of the letter was at 
once followed by a resolution that, as Mr. Gillham had been sum- 
moned to attend, and that as he had not attended, his election was 
null and void. Thereupon Mr. Ridout was proposed, seconded, and 
immediately elected in his stead. On the top of this came a reso- 
lution that Mr. Gillham's excuse for not attending was a reasonable 
one and should be allowed. What was the Court to do next ? 



THE COURT OF EXAMINERS 217 

Considerable doubt arose as to the legality of the proceedings, and 
recourse had to be made to the opinion of Counsel. Two queries 
were put to the men of law. 

1. Was the Court justified in doing what it had done ? 

2. If yes, was it imperative on the Court to act as it had done ? 
Counsel was of opinion that Mr. Gillham's excuse was reasonable, 
and that Mr. 'Ridout's election was null and void, and lastly that it 
was not imperative upon the Court to act as it had done. 

By August 20th Mr. Gillham was convalescent. The Court rescinded 
both its resolutions. Mr. Gillham was reinstated, and Mr. Ridout 
informed that for the present his election must be deferred. 

All these matters having been despatched, the Court proceeded to 
the election of a Master, and Senior and Junior Wardens. For these 
offices Messrs. James Sexton, Allen Williams and Henry Robinson 
were chosen in the order named. 

We now find that though Mr. Brande had withdrawn his threatened 
resignation, he had by no means abandoned his hope that he should 
get the arrangements for the Lectures amended, for he returns to 
the subject with a new and elaborate scheme, and this time the 
Court met him in a more accommodating manner, and agreed to give 
his propositions their most careful consideration. The matter was 
then referred to the Committee charged with the duty of carrying out 
the provisions of the Act of 1815. Another letter on a totally diflFerent 
subject was read at the same meeting. It appears that at several 
dinners of the Society of late at which guests had been present, 
" confusion and great disadvantage to the propriety of their reception 
in point of politeness" had occurred. This was much to be 
deplored, and was attributed to the fact that while in the days of the 
old Beadles Kanmacher and Sayer, senior, it had been the practice 
for that functionary, garbed in his gown, to announce each guest by 
name, and when dinner was served to call each guest forth from the 
"withdra wing-room" to take his place in the Hall. But this custom had 
fallen into disuse since Mr. Sayer, junior, had been appointed Beadle. 
It was therefore proposed to revert to the old custom, for it was 
observed '* this duty can be entrusted to no other person than the 
Beadle, as he alone knows who has been invited." 

A hired waiter had been for some time experimentally employed. 



2i8 APOTHECARIES 

and "from his ignorant illiterateness and incapacity, the most absurd 
and ridiculous blunders were committed." The complaint was a just 
one, and it was determined to consult how it should be hereafter 
avoided. In the result the Beadle was informed that he would have 
in future to revert to the customs of his predecessors. It is doubtful 
whether that functionary was too pleased on hearing the decision. 

On December 23, 1839, the Society was approached by the Royal 
College of Surgeons on a matter of some importance, in which the 
mutual privileges of the Society and of the College were likely to be 
involved. 

The Surgeons suggested that a Conference should be held with the 
Apothecaries on an Act of Parliament which was expected to come 
on for discussion in the next Session. The chief point was the 
''Apprenticeship " question. The College held that every gentleman who 
possessed its diploma ought to have the privilege of being examined 
before the Society of Apothecaries on the production of that diploma, 
together with certificates of having studied Practical Pharmacy for a 
certain number of months. 

The Master and Wardens replied that they would be happy to 
confer with the President and Vice-Presidents of the College on 
this matter. 

The answer of the "Act of Parliament" Committee on the 
question of the Lectures and Mr. Brande was presented in due 
course. They requested more time for consideration as the subject 
was of great consequence, and stated that, pending their consideration, 
they had suspended Mr. Brande's lectures altogether. 

We now find the collection of the Materia Medica taking form : 
all the articles of the present Pharmacopoeia had been obtained and 
properly selected, labelled and arranged. It was next proposed to 
extend the collection by foreign examples and comparative samples, 
and also specimens of imitations and spurious drugs. But the grant 
of money was now exhausted, and it was strongly urged on the 
Society that a further grant should be made. The Court of Assistants 
thereupon invited the " United Stock" to contribute to the expense to 
the extent of three-fifths of the whole amount. 

The result of the Conference between the Apothecaries and the 
Surgeons was as follows : — What the Surgeons really wanted was that 



THE COURT OF EXAMINERS 219 

the possession of their diploma should practically do away with the 
five years' apprenticeship. To this the Apothecaries could not agree, 
and indeed the Apprenticeship Clause in the 181 5 Act stood in the 
way. Also, too, the College wished to exclude any examination in 
Physiology or Anatomy at the Hall, and confine the test there to 
Materia Medica, Chemistry, Botany, Practice of Medicine, and perhaps 
Midwifery. That for Surgeons, only twelve months' hospital practice 
should be required in the place of eighteen, and one course on the 
Theory and Practice of Medicine consisting of seventy lectures in the 
place of two courses of one hundred lectures. What this meant to 
the Society it is not difficult to understand. They could in no sense 
acquiesce, but though they hailed " with great satisfaction the over- 
ture " made to them by the College, in declining trusted *' that the 
intercourse so auspiciously commenced between the two bodies " may 
be continued, and that possibly " some solution may be reached" which 
will protect the rights and privileges of both, and at the same time 
remove all existing grievances. 

On March 13, 1840, Mr. James Seaton, the Master, died, and for 
the remainder of the term Mr. Allen Williams was chosen to fill the 
vacancy. Mr. Henry Robinson, the Junior Warden, became Senior, 
and a new Junior Warden was found in the person of Mr. Jacob 
William Robins. At the same Court Mr. John Ridout, whose 
previous election had been illegal, was chosen to fill a vacancy 
caused by the death of Mr. William Robinson. 

On the marriage of Queen Victoria, an address of congratulation 
was forwarded by the Society to Her Majesty, and similar documents 
were sent to H.R.H. the Prince Consort and H.R.H. the Duchess of 
Kent. 

From the Committee appointed to consider the question of the 
Lectures and Mr. Brande's proposals there came at length the long- 
delayed report. They in the first place suggested that the Lectures on 
Materia Medica, as at present delivered, should be in future discontinued. 
Next, that Mr. Brande's proposal to give twelve lectures in reference 
to prizes for proficiency in this study was not desirable, but that he 
should deliver a course of not less than eight lectures on select subjects 
connected with that branch of science. That prizes in Materia 
Medica and Therapeutics should be established, a gold medal being 



220 APOTHECARIES 

given to the best student, and a silver one to the second best. Then 
follow a few proposals as to examinations and classification of 
candidates. 

We now come to a lengthy document which embodies the opinions 
of the Court of Examiners in regard to the action of the Surgeons and 
the proposed new Act of Parliament. 

The Court of Examiners advocated the repeal of the apprentice- 
ship clause, and the substitution therefor of an alternative of either a 
diploma or an apprenticeship. This they deem would be a good so- 
lution of the difficulty, and would remove from the Society " the great 
obloquy to which it has been unjustly exposed" from being obliged 
by the Act of 1815 to refuse to examine candidates who had not 
served a five years' apprenticeship. In other respects they state they 
do not see much cause for alteration in the existing law, and recom- 
mend a few modifications only, and state emphatically that the 
question of midwifery is one on which there is great need for legis- 
lation. The difficulty which occurred to the Court in regard to the 
diplomas was this : if that of the College of Surgeons of London was 
to be recognised, then why not those of the Colleges of Physicians 
and Surgeons of London, Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere. 

The Examination report for 1839-40 tells us that out of 506 can- 
didates, 414 received certificates, and of these 13 were especially 
commended. For the first time written questions were set to be 
answered in writing : a striking addition to the old vivd voce 
examination. The report states that the change was very much 
appreciated. 

On Election Day, August 21, 1840, Mr. Allen Williams was chosen 
Master, Mr. Henry Robinson and Mr. Jacob William Robins being 
Senior and Junior Wardens respectively. 

At the Court of Assistants, held October 2, 1840, the Bill for the 
Registration of Medical Practitioners and for establishing a College 
of Medicine, which had been read the first time in the House of 
Commons, was laid on the table, and the Committee for enforcing the 
Act of 1815 was directed to watch the progress thereof. 

We now come to a document of considerable length in which the 
" Act of Parliament " Committee report what alterations and amend- 
ments they consider ought to be made in the Act of 1815. 



THE COURT OF EXAMINERS 221 

1. The Society should give up searching shops. 

2. They desired to modify the Apprenticeship Clause, either by 

shortening the term, or by substituting a certain period 
of instruction (two years) in Practical Pharmacy at the 
option of parent or guardian. 

3. They would give up the power of prosecuting unqualified 

practitioners. 

4. They would introduce also a general registration of medical 

men. 

5. They would consent to the election of a certain proportion of 

their licentiates, of ten years' standing but not members of 
the Society, to the Court of Examiners (not to exceed one 
half), but the election to remain, as at present, with the 
Society. 

6. That there should be a uniform fee of £6 6s. for a certificate of 

qualification both for London and the country. 
So much for amendments and alterations. The additions the Com- 
mittee conceived needful were : — 

1. Apprentices to Surgeons should be admitted to examination. 

2. Army and Navy Surgeons and Assistant Surgeons, as well as 

those in the Service of the East India Company, should 
be allowed to practise without further examination. 

3. All chemists and druggists ought to be compelled to undergo 

an examination in the Latin Pharmacopoeia, Pharmaceutical 
Chemistry, and Materia Medica. 

4. All persons practising Midwifery to be examined. 

If these suggestions were regarded favourably by the Colleges of 
Physicians and Surgeons, then the College of Surgeons and the Hall 
should work together in harmony on those lines, and divide the 
subjects for examination : the College to examine in Anatomy, 
Physiology, Surgery, and perhaps Midwifery, the Hall in Latin, 
Botany, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Forensic Medicine, and the 
Practice of Medicine. 

This scheme is followed by the enumeration of certain grounds 
upon which a more general and extensive measure might be founded, 
which may be summed up as follows : — 

I. No plan would work satisfactorily as regards the general mass 



222 APOTHECARIES 

of the medical profession that did not concede some 
share in the management of each body to its respective 
members. 

2. The Examining body should be entirely distinct from the 

Educational body. 

3. Uniformity of education and of examination was requisite, 

and there should be nothing to prevent a licensed 
practitioner from practising in whatever part of the Empire 
he chose. 

4. Legally qualified practitioners should be secured from the 

interference of quacks, unqualified persons, chemists and 
druggists, and vendors of empirical remedies. 

In conclusion the Court hoped that the Government would make 
the Bill a Government measure. 

When this report was discussed an attempt was made to modify 
one passage therein, but this, on a ballot, was lost. 

The next phase in the affair was the report of the "Act of 
Parliament" Committee. This was read and considered at the 
Court held January 15, 1841. 

The Committee state that they had debated on the proposals 
of the College of Physicians respecting the formation of a Court 
for the Examination of the Apothecary, and also the objections 
raised by the College of Surgeons to the Apprenticeship Clause, and 
to the proposals for the formation of a Board for the Examination 
of Licentiates in Midwifery and a Board for the Examination of the 
Chemist and Druggist. 

Their views on these important questions were as follows : — 

I. The adoption of the proposal of the College of Physicians 
would leave the Society of Apothecaries a mere shadow, and cannot 
be entertained. Still, it is evident that some change must be made 
in the composition of the Court of Examiners. Consequently, the 
Committee propose the following modified plan : — ^That the Court of 
Examiners should consist of twelve Members. Two to be Fellows 
of the Royal College of Physicians, five to be Members of the Society 
of Apothecaries, legally qualified apothecaries of ten years' standing 
and residing in London or within a radius of ten miles, and the 
remaining five to be Licentiates of the Society qualified as above by 



I 



THE COURT OF EXAMINERS 223 

length of practice and residence. With regard to the Examination 
of the Chemist and Druggist, the College of Physicians are ready 
to undertiake it themselves, but request two Members of the Society 
of Apothecaries to act with two Physicians as Examiners. This the 
Committee think should not be agreed to, for the good and sufficient 
reason that it would probably bring the Society into conflict with the 
chemists and druggists all over the kingdom. With regard to the 
proposal that the Physicians and Surgeons should unite in instituting 
an Examination for Licentiates in Midwifery, the Committee are in 
entire accord, provided the Society furnishes two Members of the 
Examination Board. The Committee, in conclusion, deprecates any 
change in the Apprenticeship Clause unless it be by the acceptance 
of the modification already mentioned, viz., ^' instruction in Practical 
Pharmacy for two years, either as an apprentice or not, at the option 
of the parent or guardian of the pupil." 

The next step was to petition Parliament against the proposed 
Bill, and this was done. The petition is long, and need not be 
quoted in its entirety ; still, one or two points are worth notice. 

It seems that one provision in the new Bill was intended to do 
away with all distinctions of rank, i.e., with the titles of physician, 
surgeon, and apothecary, and to call them "medical practitioners." 
Another clause was to vest the election of the Medical Council in 
the whole body of medical men, then numbering some fifteen 
thousand persons. The elections were to be held every three years, 
and the petitioners rightly ask what really high-class medical man 
would have either time or inclination to canvass the whole country ; 
and point out that inferior but pushing people would probably be 
elected, and that this would be to the great detriment of medical 
science in this country. 

Following on the despatch of this petition came a memorial from 
the existing Court of Examiners, and addressed to the Court of 
Assistants. In it the memorialists deprecate the acceptance of 
any proposals to modify or change their constitution : they consider 
the admission of representatives from the Royal Court of Physicians 
as "derogatory to the honour and character" of the Court of 
Examiners, and express a belief that they have lost the confidence 
of their employers, the Court of Assistants. The entire document 



224 APOTHECARIES 

is querulous in tone, and hardly dignified. It was read, ordered to 
lie on the table, and the Clerk was directed to inform the Court 
of Examiners of the fact. This was the snub direct. 

At the audit of the accounts of the Society it was found that no 
less a sum than £(y] 5s. 6d. had during the year been expended 
in tea, sugar, bread, milk, and butter, and the auditors suggest 
that inquiries should be made into the authenticity of the bills. 

The Provincial Medical and Surgical Association next entered 
into the fray with regard to the Bill now before Parliament. Their 
Secretaries wrote a letter to the Apothecaries practically asking 
what they intended to do, and stating that on the reply would 
depend the action taken by the Provincial Medical and Surgical 
Association. 

A reply — perhaps more civil than the letter warranted — was 
sent. 

The snub administered to the Court of Examiners produced a 
better frame of mind in that body. A deputation of them waited 
on the Court of Assistants, and, after one of their number had shortly 
addressed the Court, he proceeded to read a paper which contained 
certain suggestions, but which was temperate in tone and lacked 
the peevish complaints of the former memorial. One point is made 
in this document which seems to have justice in it, and the passage 
may be quoted : 

"The Court of Examiners feel that one of the chief evils in the 
present position of the Apothecary is his name, which has little 
reference to his actual duties, that he is in fact the Medical Attendant 
on the larger mass of the community, and should be designated the 
General Practitioner of Medicine." 

In their reply the Court of Assistants assure the Court of 
Examiners that they have throughout the negotiations with the 
Physicians and Surgeons ever had the true interests of the Society 
at heart, and that whatever is done will be for the benefit of the 
Apothecaries as far as they are able to secure it. 

The College of Physicians now somewhat still more complicated 
the situation by agitating for a new Charter, and the Apothecaries 
naturally desired to know how this would affect their interests. 




CHAPTER XXIV 

THE CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS— QUALIFIED AND UNQUALI- 
FIED PRACTITIONERS— THE THAMES EMBANKMENT 
SCHEME — GRAHAM^S BILL — THE PARLIAMENTARY 
COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY 

N Election Day, August 25, 1841, Messrs. Henry 
Robinson, Jacob William Robins, and Charles 
Edward Clarke were chosen Master, Senior and 
Junior Wardens, in the order named. 

At the Examination held on September 2nd 
one of the candidates who had imbibed more 
than was good for him forced his way through the gateway, 
overpowering Alderson the porter, and created considerable alarm 
to two of the Examiners, who had to enter by a side door. In 
reporting the circumstance to the Court of Assistants, the Court 
of Examiners ask for " more efficient protection for the maintenance 
of due order," etc., etc., and admit that cases of insubordination 
on the part of candidates and their friends are by no means rare. 
We now find the chemists and druggists bestirring themselves. 
It will be remembered that the College of Physicians proposed to 
examine them — and justly too, for examination was sadly needed. 
But of this the chemists and druggists merely heard as isolated 
individuals. It was thus : — As chemists and druggists they did not 
exist as a represented and recognised body, and consequently there 
were no tangible means of holding communication with them. A 
Committee of chemists and druggists was formed, and the outcome 
of it was the establishment of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain. 

16 "5 



226 APOTHECARIES 

In their communication to the College of Physicians, a com- 
munication sent on thence to the Society of Apothecaries, the 
attitude of the Pharmaceutical Society is eminently correct. They 
recognise the urgent need for some test of efficiency, and are 
willing to abide by the terms of any really well-thought-out scheme. 

But the view of the Society on the matter was this. We, they said, 
have always advocated an examination of chemists and druggists, 
but we do not see the need for any new body being instituted. In 
fact they considered the Pharmaceutical Society "not only to be 
unnecessary, but in many respects highly objectionable." The Society 
desired to see the proposed Act of Parliament, before coming to a 
definite conclusion, but state beforehand that they would oppose any 
attempt to glorify the '* Chemist and Druggist " at the expense of 
the legally qualified practitioner ; and the Society hoped that the 
College of Physicians would co-operate with them in this matter. 

*In March, 1842, a change in the Byelaws of the Society was 
made. After no little deliberation, and three or four resolutions for 
and against, it was finally settled, " That a declaration be substituted 
for an oath in all cases, and that the formulae for the Byelaws be 
altered accordingly." About this time, in order that the Registration 
of Medical Students might be more effective, a Registrar at an annual 
salary of £^0 was appointed. Originally elected by the Court of 
Assistants, it was subsequently determined that the power of election 
to the office should be vested in the Court of Examiners themselves. 

On February i, 1842, Sir James Graham forwarded to the Society 
the Heads of a Bill which he had prepared for the better regulation 
of the practice of medicine and surgery throughout the United 
Kingdom. He asked the Master to deliberate on the matter and to 
consult some of his colleagues. The Master, in a lengthy but 
temperate reply, while approving of many of the clauses, could not 
but point out that the Society was in the others treated with but 
scant respect. That the Act of 1815 would be virtually repealed by 
the new measure, while it merely required to be amended, but that 
the draft of certain amendments which had been made with the con- 
currence of the Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons was already in 
the hands of the Marquis of Normanby. The Master also complained 
that in the new ''Central Council," which Sir James's Bill was 



THE CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS 227 

intended to establish, the Society, if not intentionally excluded, was 
at any rate ignored. To this Sir James replied, the " Company " of 
Apothecaries is a Company into which admission is gained not by 
professional acquirement, but by patrimony, apprenticeship, etc., and 
if Members of this Society were to form a component part of the 
Central Council, that would in fact extend their influence over all 
the practitioners of the three kingdoms. By this time the term 
"Company" had been dropped in favour of "Society," but it suited 
Sir James for purposes of his reply to make use of the expression. 

The Master in his first reply had suggested that for an unqualified 
man to practise medicine or surgery should be made a penal 
oftence. Sir James Graham, in his reply, utterly refused to sanction 
any penal clause. The reply of the Master, Mr. Henry Robinson, 
extends over five folio pages, very closely written. It is well put 
together, and sets forth the cases of the qualified and unqualified 
practitioner in what is almost eloquent language. Mr. Robinson in 
his view was undoubtedly right, and he possessed the power of 
putting his thoughts on paper with great clearness. But it was of 
no avail. In a brief entry the Master reports that, after an interview 
with the Secretary of State for the Home Department on the subject 
of his proposed measure of Medical Reform, " it did not appear that 
the opinion he had expressed in his last letter had undergone any 
change." 

Sir James Graham had an idea that the public would always 
call in a qualified man in preference to an unqualified man. Ex- 
perience had always shown that a large proportion of the public 
would invariably do just the reverse. So the public were to be left 
to be poisoned, or anything else, because " the man was too big a 
fool himself to believe in the folly of others." 

These threats of legislation had their effect on the numbers of 
candidates for certificates, and a diminution was duly recorded in the 
Examiners' Reports for 1 841-2. The number of failures to pass still 
continued high — at least for a qualifying examination, viz., 63 out 

of 393- 

On the Election Day, August 19, 1842, Mr. Jacob William Robins 

was chosen Master, but, owing to infirmity, could not serve. Mr. 

Charles Edward Clarke was elected in his room. Messrs. William 



228 APOTHECARIES 

Bagster and Edward Wallace were Senior and Junior Wardens 
respectively. Mr. Robins was fined ^50 for refusing to serve. 
This year Mr. Henry Blatch, who it will be remembered was 
Secretary to the Court of Examiners, was by that body elected 
Registrar. In a letter dated October 27, 1842, we find a curious 
fact mentioned. It was this. The Pharmacopoeia of the College of 
Physicians having been long out of print and no copies being pro- 
curable by the booksellers, the study of Medical Latin (an obligatory 
subject) was at a standstill. The Master, on hearing of this, at once 
wrote to the President of the College of Physicians, informing him 
of the scarcity and need of copies, and in reply was assured that 
the matter should have immediate attention. 

Up to this time the office hours for the Beadle had been from ten 
till two, and some inconvenience appears to have been occasioned 
by his absence during that time when engaged on other business 
of the Society. It was therefore resolved that the hours should 
be extended from two to four o'clock. Thereupon the Beadle wrote 
to the effect that by the new arrangement there would be more incon- 
venience than ever, as he would be more absent than before. Called 
in to explain, he endeavoured to do so and was told to withdraw 
from the room. Again recalled, ^^ it was intimated to him that the 
Order of the Court made on the 22nd February was to be obeyed.'* 

Having felt compelled to dismiss their old Housekeeper it was 
needful to find a successor, and for this purpose a Committee was 
appointed to consider the " duties and emoluments of the office of 
Housekeeper, and also to determine the qualifications of candidates 
for that same office." The Committee met several times, and fur- 
nished a report. Then the unfortunate ex-housekeeper wrote, throw- 
ing herself on the mercy of the Court, and praying for some pension 
as she was penniless. To this letter no reply was sent, but the Court 
granted her daughter a donation of twenty guineas. A new House- 
keeper was found in the person of a certain Mrs. Catherine Morgan^ 

On the Election Day, August 25, 1843, Messrs. William Bagster,. 
Edward Wallace, and John Bacot were chosen Master, Senior 
Warden and Junior Warden respectively. For the last-named office 
Mr. William Payne was first on the roster, but declined office and 
was fined £^0, 



THE CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS 229 

Having had trouble with their Housekeeper, the Society were now 
to have trouble with their Beadle, Mr. Edward Sayer. That func- 
tionary had been behaving in an unsatisfactory manner for some 
considerable time, but as far as was known he was honest. Unfor- 
tunately it turned out otherwise, the misappropriation of £170 being 
laid to his charge. The greater part of this was the balance of the 
account for the Herbarizing dinner of 1842, but some f^'^t was on 
account of Certificate Fees received but not accounted for. Called 
on for an explanation, the unfortunate man tried at first to brazen 
it out, but facts were too strong and he was there and then dismissed. 
He was succeeded in his office by Mr. Charles Rivers, who received 
a salary of ;^i8o, but various small privileges which had belonged to 
the office were withdrawn. 

From a letter dated September 8, 1843, we gather some particulars 
which we imagine are not generally known. The letter is of interest, 
and will be quoted in extenso. 

I, Whitehall Place. 
Sir, — The Commissioners appointed by Her Majesty "for en- 
quiring into and considering the most effectual means of improving 
the Metropolis, and of providing increased facilities of communication 
within the same," having had under their consideration the ex- 
pediency of making the now shore between Vauxhall and Battersea 
Bridges available for the health and recreation of the Public, by the 
construction of an embankment and road upon the lines shewn in 
the accompanying plan, I have to request that you will take an 
early opportunity of bringing the subject under the consideration 
of the Wardens and Assistants of the Apothecaries Company, with 
reference to the ground abutting on the river at present occupied 
for the purposes of their Botanic Garden, and that you will acquaint 
me whether, if the Commission were to recommend and the 
Government were disposed to accede to an arrangement for making 
the Collection now at Chelsea a portion of the Royal Gardens at 
Kew, there would be a disposition on behalf of the Company to 
co-operate, on the basis of a transfer to the public of the Company's 
interest in the ground at Chelsea, and to the extension to their 
collection, at the public charge, of all the benefits of the establish- 



230 APOTHECARIES 

ment at Kew, including of course the services of its present eminent 
Director. I have the honour, etc., etc., 

Lincoln. 
Chas. Ed. Clarke, Esq., etc., etc. 

To this letter, after discussion, a reply was returned, which may 
be thus summarised : — 

I. The Society would be happy to co-operate did they feel them- 
selves at liberty to do so. But with due regard to the purposes 
for which their garden at Chelsea was established, the distance 
of Kew from the Metropolis seems to be an insuperable objection, 
and the intention of the founder. Sir Hans Sloane, would be in 
a great measure defeated. 

2. At the same time the Society would be desirous if the necessary 
powers were afforded them of obtaining a "scite" better adapted 
for the purposes of their garden, both as regards soil and climate, 
than the present, but as easily accessible to the Metropolis, to 
entertain any proposal. 

It must be remembered that the means of communication between 
Kew and London was in those days far different from those now 
existing. As all are aware, the scheme fell through. 

Meanwhile the matter of the amendment of the Act of 1815 was 
proceeding. The "Statement" printed and published by the Society, 
in which their aims and intentions were set forth, was received on 
all sides with approval. The " Surrey Benevolent Society " forwarded 
a most complimentary letter on the subject. This was the outcome 
of a resolution moved by Dr. Mayo, of Epsom, and seconded by 
Mr. Edward Westall, of Croydon, the document itself bearing the 
signature of Dr. Martin, of Reigate, the President of the Surrey 
Society. 

And now a little internal trouble arose, and in this way : — When 
the agitation for the reform or amendment or alteration of the 
Act of 1 81 5 was at its height, it had been resolved that all con- 
fidential communications addressed to the Master and Wardens 
should be referred by them to such members of the " Act of Parlia- 
ment" Committee as were members of the Court of Assistants. At 
this, two members of the Committee took umbrage and resigned. 



THE CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS 231 

Their resignation, for which adequate grounds do not appear to 
have existed, was at once accepted. 

On Election Day, August 23, 1844, Messrs. Edward Wallace, 
John Bacot, and Samuel Merriman were chosen to fill the offices 
of Master, Senior and Junior Wardens. Mr. Merriman, however, 
from ill-health, declined office, paying the fine of ;^5o. Mr. Walter 
Drew was thereupon elected Junior Warden in his room. At 
the same Court, the Bill introduced into Parliament by Her 
Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department, entitled 
"A Bill for the better regulation of the Practice of Medicine 
throughout the United Kingdom," was laid on the table, and its 
provisions explained to the Court by Mr. R. B. Upton, the Clerk. 
Upon this the Court adjourned, to resume its consideration on 
August 28th. 

Further consideration showed the Society that from their point 
of view, and indeed it may be fairly claimed that from a general 
point of view, the Bill as it stood would more than realise their 
worst fears. It certainly looked as if it was intended to degrade, 
if not to destroy, the class of Medical Practitioners connected with 
the Society. 

1. It deprived the General Practitioner of any control over the 

education and examination of his own class. 

2. It did not strengthen the checks upon the practice of ignorant 

and unqualified persons. 

3. It removed the barrier now afforded by law, and thereby 

debased the character of the General Practitioner, thus 
reducing him to the level of an ignorant pretender. 

4. It deprived the General Practitioner of his legal rights, and 

subjected him to a useless and heavy tax. 

For these reasons it was determined steadily to continue opposi- 
tion to the Bill, by advertisement, by the co-operation of the 
Licentiates, and by calling for that purpose a meeting of General 
Practitioners in the Hall of the Society. 

The next step in the matter was the receipt by the Court of 
Assistants of the Report of the "Act of Parliament" Committee, 
and therein a most important proposal was made. This was, that 
a Charter of Incorporation for the General Practitioners should 



232 APOTHECARIES 

be applied for. It would appear that almost universally in the 
profession this solution of the difficulty was esteemed the most 
fitting. It was recommended by the " Act of Parliament " Committee, 
and the Society was asked to further the object in every way it 
could. The Society adopted the proposal and prepared for action. 

A largely signed Requisition for a General Meeting of the Society 
in the Hall was now received by the Master and Wardens, but 
this the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants were unable 
to grant for various reasons. One, and a most valid one, being, 
that to call such a meeting in its Corporate capacity would be 
unwarranted by the Charter of the Society — seeing that the 
government thereof was committed exclusively to the Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants. The Master and Wardens, too, felt 
rather hurt, as it looked as if a feeling prevailed that they had 
not been exerting themselves to the best of their power in 
watching, deliberating on, and opposing the Bill. Their reply, 
which is a very lengthy document, was ordered to be printed 
and circulated. 

Eventually it would seem that Sir James Graham's Bill was 
thrown out, for we find that he introduced into the House, on 
the 25th of February, 1845, ^ "^w Bill which was slightly different 
from the old one. 

On the subject of the proposed Charter of Incorporation, the 
" National Association of General Practitioners in Medicine, Surgery, 
and Midwifery," in March of this year forwarded a letter and a 
Resolution to the Society. They wished to know if the Society 
was still in favour of the New Charter, and if so, under what 
terms and conditions they would support it. 

The Society replied that they were in favour of a New Charter, 
but reasonably added that they required to know the terms of 
that Charter before proceeding further. To this the National 
Association replied by forwarding copies of three documents in 
which were embodied the heads of the proposed New Charter, 
and which also contained the provisions of the new Bill. These 
last, without being perfect, were a decided improvement on the 
terms of the old Bill which had failed to pass ; the point most adverse 
being that the Society was expected to resign the control over the 



THE CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS 233 

education and examination of the Apothecary as now possessed 
by them under the Act of 1815. 

Nominations to Christ's Hospital at this time seem to have been 
rather at a discount, for although the Society advertised in the 
Times that they had one in their gift which had lapsed to them, 
there was, the Clerk reported, only one reply, and he was con- 
sequently directed to repeat the advertisement in the Lancet and 
the other medical papers. 

On Election Day, August 25, 1845, M^* John Bacot was chosen 
Master, Mr. Walter Drew Senior, and Mr. John Ridout Junior Warden. 
And now it was found that opposition to the new Bill was being 
actively entered upon by both the College of Physicians and the 
College of Surgeons, and a renewal of conferences on the points of 
the Bill thereupon ensued. In October, 1845, Mr. Walter Drew, the 
Senior Warden, died, and was succeeded in his office by Mr. John 
Ridout, whose place as Junior Warden was, for the rest of the term, 
occupied by Mr. Edward Bean. 

At the Hunterian Oration on February 14, 1846, the Master was 
present by invitation of the College of Surgeons. The Orator had the 
good taste to mention in disparaging terms the class of General 
Practitioners, and particularly to do so with regard to the Society as 
an examining body. At the Court held March 27th, the Master 
" explained the course which he had felt it due to his position as 
Master of the Society to take upon the occasion." A Resolution was 
thereupon passed — " That this Court duly appreciate the prompt and 
judicious conduct of our Master on the occasion of the late Hunterian 
Oration, by which he maintained the honour and respectability of our 
Society, and they desire to express and to record their warm thanks 
to him for it." What the master did, however, is not precisely 
stated. 

The Report of the Court of Exammers for the year 1845-6 furnishes 
some interesting details. The rumour of proposed legislation had 
acted in a very unfavourable way, both on the number of candidates, 
which was now reduced to 285, and on the quality of their work, for 
no less than 55 failed. But, oddly enough, the number of practitioners 
had not diminished. This apparent anomaly was to be accounted for 
in this way. An impression (thanks to the proposed new Bill) had got 



234 APOTHECARIES 

abroad that the Society would not prosecute under the Act of 1815, 
seeing that the repeal of that Act was supposed to be imminent. 

An entry, which refers to a picture still in the possession of the 
Society, occurs under date August 4th : — " A curious and ancient 
picture representing Queen Elizabeth reviewing the Fleet after the 
defeat of the Spanish Armada, painted by Milliard in 1577 (see 
Walpole's Anecdotes), was presented to the Society by Mr. Nussey, a 
member of this Court, and having been cleaned and repaired by order 
of the Master and Wardens, was placed in the parlour of the Hall." 
It now hangs in the main corridor. On Election Day, Mr. John 
Ridout was chosen Master, Mr. Edward Bean Senior, and Mr. John 
Mordaunt Junior Warden. Mr. Mordaunt, however, declined office, 
and fined. In his place Mr. John Callander took office. 

The Society now forwarded to the House of Commons a lengthy 
petition against the new Bill, and prayed to be heard by Counsel at 
the Bar. Beyond the fact that in the earlier part of 1847 ^ letter was 
received from Sir Benjamin Brodie, in which that distinguished 
surgeon urged that it would be expedient if an endeavour could be 
made to harmonise the curriculum and examination of the College of 
Surgeons and the Society of Apothecaries, and proposed a meeting 
to confer on the subject between the Master and Deputy-Master and 
the President and Vice-President, there is nothing of importance to 
record until June 25th of that year ; but on that date the Master 
announced that certain conferences had been held, and that con- 
siderable progress had already been made in coming to an agreement 
as to the curricula of education, and that an assimilation was quite 
within reach. But unfortunately these conferences had been broken 
off owing to the introduction of a third Bill into Parliament, this time 
by a Mr. Wakley, for the Registration of Medical Practitioners. He 
also informed the Court that a petition against this Bill had already 
been sent, and that after some investigation the Bill had been with- 
drawn. A Committee of Inquiry was now appointed by the House 
of Commons under the chairmanship of Macaulay. A deputation 
of the Apothecaries Society was called to give evidence, but their 
evidence was not taken. Forthwith the Master obtained an interview 
with the Chairman, and complained very justly of the injustice done. 
Both the Physicians and the Surgeons had been allowed to give 



THE CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS 235 

testimony, but a similar privilege (though they had been called) was 
denied to the Apothecaries. In the end it was agreed that the Society 
should be heard during the next Session. 

On August 3rd it was determined "That a portrait of the late 
Dr. Burrows (painted from recollection after his death) be purchased 
by the Society." At the election, August 25, 1847, ^^ ^^ offices of 
Master, Senior and Junior Wardens, Messrs. Edward Bean, John 
Callander, and William Day were chosen. Mr. Day declined office 
and fined, his place being taken by Mr. John Brown Eyles. 

The conferences between the Apothecaries and the College of 
Surgeons were meanwhile progressing steadily. To them had also 
been added a deputation from the College of Physicians. Then a 
report of progress was made to the Secretary of State, who, in his 
reply, made the valuable suggestion that a body of General Practitioners 
should also be added to the conference. The wisdom of this step 
was at once apparent, and it was acted upon without delay, and 
Messrs. Bord and Ansell were the gentlemen selected. The upshot 
of these conferences was the drafting of rules and regulations by which 
a proposed " Royal College of General Practitioners of England " 
should be governed. The College was to be incorporated by charter, 
and was to be practically a Charter to the " Surgeon-Apothecaries." 

In March, 1848, John Walter, of Printing House Square, purchased 
the premises belonging to the Society, and situated at the east end of 
Playhouse Yard and south side of Glasshouse Yard. On Election 
Day, August 25, 1848, Messrs. John Callander, John Brown Eyles, 
and Michael Lambton Este were chosen Master, Senior and Junior 
Wardens for the ensuing year. The new Junior Warden, Mr. Este, 
had a few weeks before bequeathed the whole of the Stock he held in 
the Company to the Society — a most generous benefaction. During 
this year no other event of importance occurred. 

On Election Day, August 27, 1849, Mr. John Brown Eyles was 
chosen Master, Mr. Michael Lambton Este Senior Warden, and Mr. 
John Harrison Junior Warden. A Mr. John Peregrine was first elected 
to the last-named office, but declined to serve, and fined. Mr. John 
Harrison also took a similar course, and in the result Mr. William 
Thomas Brande agreed to serve. 



CHAPTER XXV 

COLLEGE OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS PROPOSEI>— 
ECONOMIES AT THE HAL^-A NEW MEDICAL BILL 

CURIOUS entry, dated October 31, 1849, relates to 
a "Serpentine Stick." It appears that this stick, 
formerly in the possession of the Governor of 
Fort Marlborough, Bencoolen, had been presented 
to the Society by the father of the applicant, forget- 
ful of a previous promise to bequeath it to his son as 
a family relic. The writer of the application on this ground begs its 
return to him, and his prayer was granted by the Court of Assistants. 
Towards the end of this year a change was made in the Latin 
Examination, a written translation was required in addition to the old 
established vivd voce. At the same time the Society lost a case in the 
County Court, owing to their Attorney not being in possession of a 
Retainer under their Common Seal. Henceforward a general Retainer 
was "ordered to be given to the Clerk to appear for the Society. 
It appears somewhat strange that such an omission should have 
occurred. 

At the Court held March 22, 1850, Mr. Bacot informed the Society 
that the Conferences at the College of Physicians with regard to the 
proposed Charter to the General Practitioners had come to an abrupt 
conclusion. The reason thereof we will quote — "In consequence of 
the objection of the College of- Surgeons to any power being given to 
the proposed College of General Practitioners to examine in Surgery, 
and the refusal of the delegates on behalf of the National Association 
to accept a charter which did not confer the right of examining in 
Surgery, and also of the refusal of the delegates on the part of the 



A COLLEGE OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS 237 

Society (of Apothecaries) to relinquish the powers conferred by the 
Act of 1815, unless such right of Examination in Surgery was given 
to the New College." Thus, as far as the College of Physicians, the 
College of Surgeons, the Society of Apothecaries, and the National 
Association of General Practitioners, matters were at a deadlock, and 
we cannot see how the Society were in any way to blame for the 
result when we consider impartially all that had gone before. 

At the end of June, 1850, a long letter was addressed to Sir George 
Grey, at that time Home Secretary. This letter was in reference to 
and explanatory of a Memorial which had been forwarded on the 
4th of May, and contains suggestions for an amendment of the 
Apothecaries Act of 1815 in several particulars. In the first place, 
however, the question of alleged objections to the Society as an 
examining body are dealt with. These were as follows : — 

1. That it was one of the Municipal Corporations of the City. 

2. That it was unbecoming that the important functions which 

devolve on the Society should be administered by a City 
Guild. 

3. That it was a trading body, and therefore unfit to be entrusted 

with duties of a scientific character. 

4. That the name under which the holder of a certificate acquires 

the right to practise, namely that of an "Apothecary," was 

objectionable. 
The answers to these were as follows : — We Apothecaries were 
a Municipal Corporation long before 1815, when we were chosen 
to perform these functions ; and with the consent, too, of both the 
College of Physicians and the College of Surgeons. That, moreover, 
the Surgeons of London (separated from the Barbers in 1745) were 
constituted a City Company and so continued till the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, when the sudden death of their Master on 
Election Day led to their re-incorporation as the Royal College of 
Surgeons. Similarly the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 
were known "as the Surgeons' or Chirurgeons' Craft," until a 
few days only before this letter was penned, and that these Edinburgh 
"Chirurgeons" formed one of the fourteen Incorporated trades of 
that City. Now, the Apothecaries were separated from the Grocers at 
their Incorporation in the time of James I. As to the allegation that 



238 APOTHECARIES 

the Society is a trading body, this is not the fact. The Society as a 
Society is not a trading body, and the letter here proceeds to state the 
circumstances of the founding of the Laboratory Stock. With regard 
to the name " Apothecary," which has vulgarly been supposed to mean 
a compounder of medicines rather than a "medical practitioner," the 
Society suggests : — Find us a better name if you will, still there are 
advantages in adhering to an old name which should not be lightly 
abandoned. The functions of an English Apothecary have been 
clearly and distinctly defined by legislative enactments. The status of 
an Apothecary in the present day is ascertained and his competency to 
perform what the law permits him to do is established. The recom- 
mendations we already know in the main. Apprenticeship was no 
longer to be compulsory. All persons holding a Degree in Medicine 
granted by any British University legally entitled to grant a licence 
should be admitted to registration by the Society without further 
examination. But registration should in all cases be insisted on. 
Lastly, that all Surgeons and Assistant Surgeons in the Army, Navy, 
and East India Company's Service should be admitted to registration 
after five years' actual service. With regard to a proposed change 
in the election of the Court of Examiners, the Society was prepared 
to consider any reasonable scheme laid before them. 

This was a most temperate letter, and placed the case of the Society 
not only plainly but without the slightest suggestion of any soreness 
on this long vexed question. 

In the Report of the Court of Examiners this year we find 
that efforts were now being made to "induce students to give 
more attention to that very important branch of instruction Clinical 
Medicine," and the Examiners trusted that their endeavours '* will be 
productive of beneficial results in due time." 

On Election Day, August 27, 1850, Messrs. Michael Lambton Este, 
William Thomas Brande, and William Montagu Lamb were chosen 
Master, Senior and Junior Wardens respectively. 

It is incredible the number of applications which were made to the 
Court for assistance, charitable donations, etc. They range from 
requests to assist people to send their sons to sea, to subscriptions to 
memorials, to the Exhibition of 1851, to every conceivable object 
whether connected with the Society or not. But one was at any rate 



A COLLEGE OR GENERAL PRACTITIONERS 239 

justifiable. It was read at the Court held on March 28, 185 1, and had 
for its subject a request for aid to establish "The Royal Medical 
Benevolent College," in these days known as Epsom College. 

The Minutes of the same Court record a rather startling departure 
in the Examination subjects. This was the establishment of a 
preliminary examination not only in Latin but in Greek. This 
was followed by the addition, a few months later, of Mathematics. The 
actual subjects are stated a few pages further on in the Minute Book, 
and consisted of Virgil's -^neid. Book I.; The Milo of Cicero; The four 
Gospels in Greek and the Acts of the Apostles ; Xenophon's Anabasis, 
Algebra and Euclid, Book I. We read in the same page that the 
results of the endeavours to promote the study of Clinical Medicine 
and Practical Chemistry had met with a greater measure of success 
than could otherwise have been hoped for. It may be added that the 
examinations in Medical Latin still continued. But though the stamp 
of student was improved and each time improving, the number of 
those presenting themselves was decreasing. This decrease was no 
doubt partly due to the fact that the examination was stringent, 
partly to the agitation which prevailed as to possible legal changes in 
the immediate future, and also that a false impression had got about 
"that the Executive at the Hall were either unwilling or unprepared to 
put in force the legal powers entrusted to them by the Act of 181 5, for 
the carrying out of which Act great facilities had been afforded by the 
jurisdiction of the County Courts." 

An exception to this preliminary examination was, however, made 
in the case of men of over forty years, for it was felt it would be unfair. 

It is noted as a curious fact in the following year that " two French 
gentlemen have lately presented themselves as candidates for the 
Certificate of the Court, one of whom, at his own request, was 
examined in his native language ; and both received their certificates." 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for the year 1852-3 we 
find that out of 269 students only 29 failed ; out of 143 candidates 
examined in Gregory and Celsus, 20 failed ; while the results of the 
Clinical and Mathematical preliminary were equally satisfactory. 

At this time the Court of Examiners proposed a slight change 
in the form of Certificate, but this proposal was, after deliberation, 
negatived by the Court of Assistants as inexpedient. In July the 



240 APOTHECARIES 

rectory of the United Parishes of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe and 
St. Ann Blackfriars became vacant through the elevation of the 
late Rector, the Rev. John Harding, to the Bishopric of Bombay. 
These parishes elect their own Rector, and on the day when the 
matter was to be decided, the Clerk of the Society attended to tender 
the vote of the Society. It was, however, refused, and the usual 
Committee of inquiry was appointed to investigate the rights of 
the Society in the matter. 

The three ofi&cials for the year 185 1-2 were Mr. William Thomas 
Brande, Master, Mr. Richard Strong Eyles Senior and Mr. John 
Parrott Junior Warden. For the office of Senior Warden Mr. 
William Montagu Lamb was next in rotation, but pleading infirmity 
of health, was excused. 

Again we find the question of finance troubling the Society, 
and economies were urgently required. A diminution in the number, 
and moderation in the style of the dinners in the Hall was agreed 
upon. What were known as the " Scrap " dinners were to be dis- 
continued — these have never been mentioned in the Minutes before, 
and it is now impossible to discover what they were. In lieu 
of the ** Scrap " dinners, " a dinner consisting of scraps " was to be 
provided to which " not more than fourteen persons in all " were to be 
invited, and that the Stewards' invitations to such dinner were to be 
limited to one medical friend each. The purchase of wine was to be 
regulated, and one wine merchant only was to be employed. The 
rent of the United Stock was to be raised from £^0 8s. 6d. to ;^55o, 
and the investments were to be shifted from Bank Stock to one of the 
Government Securities. Caution in giving promiscuously to charities 
as had formerly been the case was deprecated ; and lastly, on the great 
cost of the Chelsea Gardens the Committee promised a separate 
report. Such were the proposals which came before the Court 
held August 18, 1851. 

Nearly all the suggestions were resolved upon. The " Scrap " 
dinners disappeared, the Great Dinners were modified, and the wine 
bill was to be diminished. The change in the method of investing 
funds was agreed to. At the Court held October 31, 1 851, we read 
a letter from the Crewkerne and Yeovil District Medical Association 
calling upon the Society to withdraw the certificate of qualification 



A COLLEGE OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS 241 

from Licentiates practising Homoeopathy, and to use their influence 
with Her Majesty's Government to prevent the appointment of such 
Licentiates to any public medical ofi&ces. The reply of the Society 
informed the Crewkerne and Yeovil Medical Association that *'they 
had no power to recall a Certificate of Qualification once granted, and 
that the Court conceive the Society would be going beyond the sphere 
of their public duty if they were to exert any influence with a view to 
preventing individuals who had satisfied the Court of Examiners of 
their qualifications to practise from holding any appointment to which 
they may be appointed." In reference to this we also read that "a 
letter from certain individuals styling themselves the Committee of 
Co-operation" was read, and ordered to lie on the table. 

For the year 1852-3 Mr. Richard Strong Eyles was chosen Master, 
Mr. John Parrott Senior and Mr. Nathaniel Bagshawe Ward Junior 
Warden. The promised report on the Chelsea Garden Finance was 
presented on June 27, 1853. The suggestions made by the Committee 
were numerous and, if adopted, would have changed the whole arrange- 
ments connected with that time-honoured institution. No plants 
were to be grown other than those which did not require heat. Fees 
to Garden Committees to be abolished ; dinners at the Garden to be 
discontinued ; lectures at the Garden discontinued ; the office of 
" Prefectus Horti " done away with ; no more fuel to be bought after 
the present stock was exhausted ; the permanent hire of labourers to 
be discontinued ; and, lastly, the annual delivery of prizes in Botany 
to be entirely stopped. There were other considerations as well 
which need not be mentioned. 

And so it came about that the delivery of lectures in the Garden 
was discontinued, the prize list was put an end to, and Dr. Lindley, 
Professor of Botany and " Prefectus Horti," received notice that his 
services would be no longer required. But one " stove " was retained, 
as it was found that certain medicinal plants which were absolutely 
necessary required heat. Certain repairs were made and certain 
"stoves" sold, and thus Sir Hans Sloane's garden, shorn of its glories, 
struggled on. It had always been somewhat of a white elephant to 
the Society, and in an endeavour — a vain one, we fear — to make it of 
real educational value, huge sums of money had been expended. But 
in those days the time was not yet ripe ; in these it is different. 

17 



242 A PO TH EC ARIES 

For the year 1853 the ofi&cials were Mr. John Parrott, Master, 
Mr. Nathaniel Bagshawe Ward Senior and Mn Richard Clewin 
Griffith Junior Warden. 

The Curator's house at the Chelsea Garden now required to be 
rebuilt entirely ; not only was it in a very bad state of repair, but, 
through the construction of a new sewer in its immediate proximity, 
showed signs of immediate collapse. After an exhaustive report on 
the subject it was resolved to rebuild the same. This year Mr. 
Everard Augustus Brande, through Mr. Thomas Brande, communi- 
cated to the Court of Assistants his desire to transfer into the name 
of the Society the sum of ;^3oo stock for the purpose of augmenting 
(after the decease of one of the then pensioners) the pension paid to 
whichever of the widows having pensions the Court might consider 
**the most afflicted, the most destitute, and the most aged." It is 
needless to say that Mr. Brande's handsome donation was most 
gratefully accepted. 

Amongst other economies it had been resolved to curtail the 
refreshments afforded to the Court of Examiners, a course which did 
not commend itself to that body, who in their report protested. The 
Court of Assistants, however, declined to rescind their i^solution. 

A nomination to Christ's Hospital fell to the Society this year, and 
a boy by name Charles Edward Robinson was presented. The boy 
was a son of a surgeon and apothecary deceased, and it will be 
admitted that the presentation was most appropriate. 

From the Examiners' Report delivered August i, 1854, we gather 
that out of 290 candidates, 37 were rejected, and that on the whole, the 
knowledge evinced by the students was up to the average. In the 
Preliminary Examination in Classics and Mathematics, out of 153 
candidates, 115 were successful. 

For the "Saturday" Examination in Gregory and Celsus there 
were 137 candidates, and 122 satisfied the examiners. 

At the same Court a letter was received from Mr. Henry Blatch 
begging leave to appoint a deputy to act for him as Secretary to the 
Court of Examiners, on the score of his advanced age and ill-health. 
Leave was given him to do so, and he appointed, with the approba- 
tion of the Court, a certain Dr. Robert Norton. 

On Election Day, August 25, 1854, Mr. Nathaniel Bagshawe Ward 



A COLLEGE OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS 243 

was chosen Master, Mr, Richard Clewin Griffith Senior and Mr. 
John Francis De Grave Junior Warden. 

The Report of the Society's Examiner in Botany, Dr. Joseph D. 
Hooker, gave most favourable testimony as to the acquirements of 
the competitors for the Society's annual botanical prizes. The winner 
of the gold medal was Mr. G. W. Lawrence. This year two members 
of the Society were nominated, at the request of Sir Benjamin Hall, 
the President of the Board of Health, for appointment as members 
of the Medical Council in connection with the Board of Health. 
The choice of the Court fell upon the Master (Mr. Ward), and Mr. 
Bacot. 

During the months of March and April, 1855, the Master arranged 
for two Microscopical Meetings at the Hall. These were held, and 
proved to be a very great success. A very flattering and well-deserved 
resolution of thanks to the Master was subsequently moved by Mr. 
William Thomas Brande, and carried unanimously. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners we gather that in the 
year 1854-5, out of 311 candidates for certificates 36 failed, in the 
Classical and Mathematical Preliminary, out of 144 students 30 were 
rejected, and that in the Saturday Examination in Gregory and 
Celsus, out of 91 pupils, 6 proved to be deficient in knowledge. The 
Examiners complain that the attainments of the candidates during the 
year had fallen below the average. One paragraph of the Report may 
be quoted as of interest : "The position of the Assistant Surgeons in 
the Royal Navy has been lately brought before the Court of Examiners, 
with a hope that the Court would exert such influence as it might 
possess in procuring for these gentlemen the consideration which the 
nature of the case would seem to demand. The Court is, however, 
happy to learn that their grievances have been recently redressed, 
otherwise it would have prayed the Court of Assistants to exert its 
endeavours to rescue these gentlemen from a degraded status, and to 
remove what must have tended to deter gentlemen of education and 
refinement from entering the medical service of the Royal Navy." 

The grievances complained of were that the Naval medical officers 
had to mess in the gun-room with the midshipmen, to sleep in a 
hammock, etc. 

On Election Day, August 24, 1855, Mr. Richard Clewin Griffith 



244 APOTHECARIES 

was chosen Master, Mr. John Francis De Grave Senior and Mr. 
Jeronimo Simoens Junior Warden. Dr. Hooker's report on the 
Botanical Prize Examination was most favourable. The winner of 
the gold medal was Mr. Osmond Black. But a curious series of 
contretemps occurred. Two of the candidates chanced to be per- 
sonally known to the Examiner, and a third appended his name to his 
paper instead of a motto. So Dr. Hooker asked all the candidates to 
sign their names to their papers and did away with the use of mottoes 
on that occasion. But this was not all, for it chanced that the day of 
the examination clashed with the examination at London University, 
in consequence of which two candidates did not put in an appearance 
at the Apothecaries' and two failed to attend at London University. 
Dr. Hooker begs that in future the date may be so arranged as to 
prevent such clashing. 

On October 5, 1855, Mr. Warden De Grave presented to the 
Society a handsome silver salver, which had been given to him by 
the City of London in 1833 in recognition of his services during the 
Cholera year. The gift was gratefully accepted. 

And now we find a new Medical Bill before the House of 
Commons. It was promoted by a certain Mr. Headlam, and was 
entitled "A Bill to alter and amend the laws regulating the Medical 
Profession." By its provisions, while the Surgeons continued to 
examine in surgery, the Apothecaries were to be deprived of their 
right of examining in medicine, and the powers they had hitherto 
possessed were to be transferred to the College of Physicians. 
Against this Bill the Society forwarded a petition ; therein they 
complained of the injustice which it was proposed to do them, and 
also pointed out that the distribution of power on the proposed new 
Medical Council was most unequal and unfair, and that an expressed 
intention to tax the existing members of the profession for the privi- 
lege of registering their qualifications was most unreasonable, because 
by the new Bill the legally qualified practitioner would gain absolutely 
nothing — nay, more, would even be deprived of privileges ; that the 
proposal to permit anybody to practise medicine, provided he did not 
assume a medical title, was fraught with danger to the public, 
and of course was injurious to the medical practitioner. Moreover, 
too, it would cause an increase in the number of ignorant and 



A COLLEGE OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS 245 

impudent pretenders, and also a decrease of educated and qualified 
practitioners. 

Certainly, if such provisions existed in this Bill one cannot be 
surprised at the petition forwarded by the Society, but one is naturally 
astonished that leave to introduce such a mad measure could ever 
have been obtained. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for 1855-6 we gather 
that out of 322 candidates for certificates only 22 failed. Out of 162 
preliminary candidates 34 were rejected, and in the Saturday Examina- 
tion in Celsus and Gregory, 11 failed out of a total of 123. For the 
first time some idea of the ages of the candidates is obtained. It 
would appear that out of 87 who passed, 49 were aged between 25 
and 30; 13 between 30 and 35; 11 between 35 and 40; 11 between 
40 and 50 ; and 3 were above 50. This table refers to a part of the 
year only. 

We also find that the average number of Medical Students 
registered in London for the last three years was 1,100, those 
registered in Provincial schools numbering 220 ; the average number 
passed for three years (including Scotch and Irish graduates) being 319. 

For the year 1856-7 Mr. John Francis De Grave was chosen 
Master, Mr. Jeronimo Simoens Senior and Mr. James Saner Junior 
Warden. 

From Dr. Hooker's report on the results of the Botanical Exami- 
nation we find Mr. John Hartley the gold medallist. Dr. Hooker 
pays a high testimony to the ability and knowledge of all the 
candidates, but specially praises the winner. He suggests a second 
prize being given under certain circumstances, and states his reasons 
for making the application. 

It was immediately moved by Mr. Ward (a past Master) that the 
old custom of giving three annual prizes should be reverted to, and it 
was decided that a silver medal and a prize of books value ;^3 3s. 
should be added. 

At this time the Conferences, which it may be remembered had 
been broken off owing to the action of the College of Surgeons, were 
renewed. The College of Physicians, and deputations from the 
Society of Apothecaries and from several Medical Corporations in 
the United Kingdom, met and drafted a Bill for Medical Reform. 



246 APOTHECARIES 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for 1856-7, we find 
that out of 378 candidates for certificates 40 failed to satisfy the 
examiners. In the Preliminary Classical and Mathematical, 132 passed 
and 40 failed, and it is stated that the Saturday Examination in Celsus 
and Gregory had been dropped on condition that the Preliminary 
Examination in Classics and Mathematics, which had hitherto been 
optional, should be made compulsory. 

A Mr. Alfred Mayor Randall was this year elected Secretary to the 
Court of Examiners. 

On July 9, 1857, the portrait of the late John Hunter, the eminent 
surgeon, was presented to the Society by Mr. Thomas Knight, one of 
the Livery. In the Minute which records the gift there is entered a 
letter from the donor which gives the pedigree of the picture. It 
purports to be, and undoubtedly is, the original sketch by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds of the celebrated picture from which the well-known 
engraving of Hunter was taken. 

The Physic Garden was now in rather a bad way. A gang of 
young Chelsea thieves stole the bell from the gate and mutilated the 
iron scrollwork over both the gates. The Curator had the gates spiked, 
but in a long report he points out the general dilapidation of the hot- 
houses for lack of paint, and hopes that repairs much needed may be 
at once undertaken. 

For the year 1857-8, Mr. Jeronimo Simoens was chosen Master, 
Mr. James Saner Senior and Mr. Frederick Richard Gowar Junior 
Warden. 

The gold medallist for Botany was Mr. Francis D. Harris ; the 
silver medallist, Mr. W. M. Crowfoot ; while the book prize fell to a 
native of India, by name Rajendra Chandra Chandra — one of the 
earliest, if not the earliest. East Indian prize-winners in England, one 
would be inclined to think. A note from Dr. Hooker states that Mr. 
Chandra's paper would probably have been the winner of the gold 
medal if he had answered all the questions. 

As a testimonial in recognition of his valuable services while 
acting as Secretary to the Conferences of Medical Corporations, a sum 
of one hundred and fifty guineas was voted to Dr. Hawkins by the 
various deputations. Of this the College of Physicians and the 
Society of Apothecaries each contributed one-third, and a most hand- 



A COLLEGE OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS 247 

some acknowledgment of their generosity, in the shape of a letter 
from Dr. Hawkins, is enclosed in the Minute Book. 

In December, 1857, the Society was applied to by the College 
of Physicians to permit one of its members to join a Committee 
which had been appointed for the purpose of drawing up a " Nomen- 
clature of Diseases to be used in the Military Services and in Civil 
l.ife." 

The origin of the movement came from the Epidemiological 
Society. Already, Members of the Royal College of Physicians, of the 
College of Surgeons, of the Medical Departments of the Army, Navy, 
and East India Company's Service, as well as the Department of the 
Registrar General, had signified their acceptance of a seat on the Com- 
mittee, and it was felt that to the Society of Apothecaries a place there 
should also be assigned. Accordingly the Master selected Dr. Robert 
Druitt to represent the Society on the Committee in question. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

CHANGES IN THE EXAMINATIONS— GENERAL MEDICAL 
COUNCIL— RAILWAY SCHEMES— THE PHYSICIANS AND 
EXAMINATIONS— EXAMINATIONS IN ARTS 

T the Court held on March 26, 1858, the Report of the 

Court of Examiners, and dated the previous day, was 

brought under consideration. In this document 

most important alterations were proposed to be made 

in the curriculum of study hitherto required from 

candidates for medical licenses. 

It was suggested that the Examination should in future be divided 

into two parts. Also that, in accordance with the wish of the College 

of Surgeons, it should be optional with a candidate to pass the two 

examinations ; and that if he should choose to do so he should pay a 

fee of three guineas previous to the first examination, this fee to be 

afterwards accounted for to him, when he passed his final. Next, 

that an accompanying moditied Curriculum of Study should be 

adopted. This curriculum was as follows : — For the first examination, 

which was to take place after the second winter session, the subjects 

were to be Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry, Practical Chemistry, 

Botany, Materia Medica, and the Latin of the Pharmacopoeia and 

Prescriptions. For the second, which was to be held after the third 

winter session, and when the candidate should have fulfilled the 

requisite conditions as to age, etc., the subjects were, the Principles 

and Practice of Medicine, Midwifery (including Diseases of Women 

and Children), Forensic Medicine, Toxicology, and Morbid Anatomy. 

The further discussion of these reforms was by resolution at once 

referred to the "Act of Parliament" Committee, who were instructed 

148 



CHANGES IN THE EXAMINATIONS 249 

to report thereon at a Special Court to be hereafter called for that 
purpose. On the 14th of April this Committee handed in their report. 
Therein it was recommended that the Examination should be split into 
two parts, but that the fee of ;f 3 3s. could not be prepaid, as by the 
Act of Parliament it was distinctly stated that " the fee is to be paid by 
the candidate on obtaining his certificate." This prepayment of the 
fee affected the honorarium of the Examiners, and the Committee 
recommended that in future, in lieu of the Court of Examiners being 
paid by the fees of the candidates, they should be paid by the 
Society. 

As regards a new proposal that the division of the Examination 
should in the first instance be optional with the student, the Com- 
mittee saw objections to such a course for various reasons which are 
set out at length. This report was adopted. 

The two Annual Microscopic Meetings in the hall were this year 
continued, and a sum of £60 was voted to the Master and Wardens 
towards the expenses, one half of this sum being provided from the 
funds of the Corporation and the other from the funds of the Court of 
Examiners. 

A curious name occurs in an entry, it is that of Rinso Robert 
Siccama, who having served an apprenticeship for the full term of 
seven years, was admitted to the freedom of the Company. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners, dated July 29, 1858, 
we gather that out of 356 candidates, 43 failed to obtain certificates, 
while in the preliminary 159 passed and 24 failed. 

At the Court held July 30, 1858, Mr. De Grave gave notice that he 
intended to move that a portrait of Mr. William Thomas Brande, the 
Professor of Chemistry and Materia Medica to the Society for many 
years, should be placed in the Hall of the Society, " to record by a last- 
ing memorial the sincere admiration and respect of the co-temporary 
members for his scientific and personal character." 

On Election Day, August 27, 1858, Mr. James Saner was chosen 
Master, Mr. Frederick Richard Gowar Senior and Mr. John Hunter 
Junior Warden. From Dr. Hooker's report on the Botanical Prize 
papers, it appears that this year there were nine candidates, of whom 
seven did very well, the first three being Mr. Charles Hilton Fagge, 
Mr. Henry Charlton Bastian, and Messrs. Charles W. Browne and 



250 APOTHECARIES 

Alfred Woodford equals. Dr. Hooker states that this examination is 
decidedly the most satisfactory that he had ever conducted. 

For the portrait of Mr. Brande we now read that a sum of one 
hundred guineas was voted. Dr. Hooker, who had been desired by 
the Court to endeavour to discriminate between the two gentlemeh 
whom he had bracketed equal, after due consideration awarded the 
third prize to Mr. Browne. 

It now became the duty of the Court to elect a representative of 
the Society to sit on the " General Council of Medical Education and 
Registration of the United Kingdom " under the recent " Medical 
Act" (Section 4 Vic. 21 & 22, Cap. 90). The result of the election 
was that Mr. John Nussey was chosen. 

In 1859 a projected railway to be known as "The West London 
and Pimlico Railway " threatened the Chelsea Garden with destruction, 
but the promoters thereof failed to obtain an Act. The construction 
of this railway would have deprived the garden of all river frontage. 
The Eeport of the Court of Examiners for the year 1857-9 is a most 
satisfactory document. The new arrangement of dividing the examina- 
tion into two parts was working even more satisfactorily than could 
have been hoped. The number of rejections on the second examina- 
tion was only three. A higher standard of efi&ciency was throughout 
apparent, and there was but one thing to ruffle the serenity of the Society. 
This one thing, however, was an unpleasant one. In the Lancet an 
anonymous writer had written a communication which contained a 
gross slander on the Court of Examiners, and at which they justly 
express their great indignation. There was also some trouble about 
the fees paid by candidates. It appears that certain candidates on pre- 
senting themselves for the first examination tendered half-fees, and 
that these were accepted by the Secretary to the Court of Examiners. 
But this was contrary to the Act of Parliament, and it was needful 
for the Court of Assistants to draw the attention of the Court of 
Examiners to the fact. Eventually, however, this little difference was 
amicably settled. 

An entry dated July 5, 1859, tell us that Mr. Brande's portrait, the 
work of Mr. Weigall, was on exhibition at the Royal Academy of that 
year. The portrait was hung in the Hall on August 4th, and 
on the occasion the Master delivered an eulogistic speech to Professor 



CHANGES IN THE EXAMINATIONS 251 

Brande, who briefly expressed his thanks for the great honour done 
him. 

On Election Day, August 26, 1859, Mr. Frederick Richard Go war 
was chosen Master, Mr. John Hunter Senior and Mr. William 
Buchanan Junior Warden. 

The Botanical gold medal for 1859 was gained by a Mr. Boggs. 
This gentleman, it appears, would have preferred a prize of books, and 
wrote to Court of Assistants asking if it could not be so arranged. 
In reply he was informed that it could not. 

This year saw the first application of the " London, Dover and 
Chatham" Railway for powers to build Blackfriars Station. By the 
scheme, the Society's property in Chatham Place and East Street, 
Blackfriars, would need to be acquired for the purposes of the 
railway. Why the original style of this Company was afterwards 
changed it would be curious to learn. 

The West London and Pimlico Railway promoters were also again 
active, and it was consequently determined to form a "Vigilance" 
Committee to watch the proceedings of both the projected companies, 
lest any hurt should occur to the Society. 

In i860, the Beadle, Mr. Charles Rivers, who had for several years 
filled that office, was incapacitated through illness, and Mr. Serjeant was 
temporarily appointed to take his place for a period of three months. 

On June ist of this year a Special Court was summoned by the 
Master to discuss a most important question. It was to receive a 
Report from the "Act of Parliament" Committee on the subject of a 
recent Byelaw of the Royal College of Physicians, by which the 
College proposed to grant their license to practise physic to persons 
who should not be restrained by any Byelaw of the College from 
supplying medicines to their patients. Now this was an attempt on 
the part of the College to assume the right of licensing and examining 
Apothecaries, and virtually to supersede the Society in the dischai'ge 
of those duties. The "Act of Parliament" Committee had taken 
Counsel's opinion on the matter, the counsel being Mr. Willcocks, 
Mr. Bovill and Mr. Maude. It was determined to obtain the opinion 
of the Attorney General. The Attorney General's opinion was 
favourable to the Society, and he had a general retainer to act on 
their behalf. 



252 APOTHECARIES 

There appears to have been some little friction between the 
General Medical Council, then quite in its infancy, and the Court 
of Examiners. It is not easy to discover the cause thereof, but after 
a somewhat voluminous correspondence the difference, whatever it 
might have been, was satisfactorily composed. 

On Election Day, August 28, i860, the first act of the Court was 
to receive with great regret the resignation of their Clerk, Mr, R. B. 
Upton; but Mr. Upton was earnestly requested to reconsider his 
decision, and withdrew his letter of resignation. For Master this 
year Mr. John Hunter was chosen, Mr. William Buchanan being 
Senior and Mr. Charles West Junior Warden. 

The Physicians now proposed a conference with the Society on 
the question which was in debate, and their request was assented to. 
With regard to the examination in Classics, the Society was engaged in 
a very lengthy correspondence with the General Medical Council. 
The Society wished, as heretofore, to appoint its own Examiners in 
" Arts," but the Council took up the position that the Society under the 
Act was incompetent, holding that the Society was not capable of grant- 
ing testimonials of efficiency. In fact, calling in question its being a 
national educational body. The result of the conference with the 
College of Physicians was not satisfactory, as the College declined 
to abandon the position it had taken up, unless it should be com- 
pelled to do so by the judgment of a Court of Law. 

On December 18, i860, the Clerk reported that a notice had been 
served on the Society by the " Thames Embankment " Company of 
their intention to apply to Parliament for an Act to authorise the 
formation of an embankment from Westminster Bridge to Blackfriars. 
Another notice, too, was reported to have been served on the 
Society, this time from the London, Chatham and Dover Railway 
Company, to the effect that that Company required a portion of the 
Society's property in East Street. Lastly, the solicitor of the College 
of Physicians wrote apprising the Society that the Committee of the 
College of Physicians were advised and had recommended that the 
College should not suspend the grant of the new licenses until the 
authority of the College to grant them had been decided by a legal 
tribunal, but on the contrary that the College should defend any 
qualification to be granted under the proposed Byelaws. Truly 
these were troublous times for the Society. 



CHANGES IN THE EXAMINATIONS 253 

It was now determined by the Court of Assistants to divest the 
Society, if possible, of the responsibility and expense attaching to the 
Garden at Chelsea, and Lord Cadogan, The Royal Society, and the 
College of Physicians were approached on the subject. The case 
between the College and the Society notwithstanding was slowly 
making way, and the Clerk was able to announce that a Bill and 
Information had been filed, and the College of Physicians had filed a 
demurrer thereto which raised the question whether the plaintiffs (the 
Society) were entitled to the relief prayed ; assuming the facts to be 
correctly set forth in the Bill. The Clerk further reported that such 
demurrer would very shortly be argued. The demurrer was argued 
before Vice-Chancellor Sir William Page Wood, who gave judgment 
on May ist, allowing the demurrer. The Society were advised not to 
appeal against the decision. But there was one point left open, and 
that was whether any new Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
would incur penalties under the Apothecaries Act if he dispensed as 
well as prescribed medicines. It was determined to prosecute the 
first Licentiate who should so prescribe and dispense. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for the year 1 860-61 
we find that out of 493 candidates, 303 only received certificates of 
qualification to practise, and 156 passed the preliminary examination. 

On Election day, August 27, 1861, Mr. William Buchanan was 
chosen Master, Mr. Charles West Wheeler Senior and Mr. Henry 
Combe Junior Warden. 

At the same Court a new departure was made in the constitution 
of the Court of Examiners, this took the form of a Special Board of 
Examiners in Arts. Graduates of some British University were by 
resolution selected, and these were three in number. The first Board 
consisted of Mr. George Buchanan, M.D., B.A., Lond. ; Mr. John 
Clewin Grifith, M.A., M.B., Camb. ; and Mr. Uriah Perrin Brodribb, 
M.A., M.B., Lond. Two handsome donations by the Society were 
acknowledged on the same date, namely, one hundred guineas 
to the Royal Medical Benevolent College at Epsom, and sixty 
guineas to the fund then being raised for decorating the interior of 
St. Paul's. 

Dr. Hooker's report on the results of the Botanical Examination 
tells us that there were only four candidates this year, but that while 



254 APOTHECARIES 

all were good, the Gold Medallist, Mr. Henry Trimen, passed a most 
excellent examination. 

Dr. Hooker suggests that the fact of such an examination being 
held, should be made far more widely known that it was, and that then 
there would doubtless be many more competitors. 

On September 20, 1861, a Special Court of Assistants was called to 
receive and install the three gentlemen who formed the new Board 
of Examiners in Arts. 

The Beadle having by reason of ill-health become incapacitated 
from performing the duties of his office, a successor was elected in 
the person of Mr. James Clement Sargeant. 

With the appointment of the new Board of Examiners in Arts 
came a proposal to change the subjects for the Preliminary Examina- 
tion. Compulsory Greek was to be dropped. This was advisable, as 
it had been discontinued in the curriculum of the examinations held 
by the Royal College of Physicians. But English Language and 
Literature, and History and Natural Philosophy were added, and 
Voluntary Greek was with Logic to be counted as an honours 
subject. The syllabus of the proposed Examination is set forth in 
full, and certainly aims at obtaining what must be held to be extremely 
well qualified men as General Practitioners. With the professional 
examinations to follow, there is no doubt that a very severe course of 
study was required before a student could obtain his certificate of 
qualification. Mr. Charles Rivers, the retiring Beadle, received the 
handsome pension of ;^ioo per annum. In September, 1861, it was 
resolved to establish two prizes for proficiency in Pharmaceutical 
Chemistry and Materia Medica, one being a gold and the other a 
silver medal. P'ollowing on the donation of ;^io5 to the Medical 
College at Epsom, came a life governorship on the Council of that 
Institution to the Society, with ten votes at all elections of Pensioners 
and Foundationers. 

On October 25, 1861, a letter was received from the Royal Society 
declining to take over the Botanical Garden at Chelsea, so the scheme 
by which it was to be dissociated from the Society of Apothecaries fell 
through. At the end of 1861, Mr. John Hunter, so long an energetic 
member and oflfice-bearer in the Society, was through ill-health 
compelled to resign his Treasurership of the United Stock. A hand- 



CHANGES IN THE EXAMINATIONS 255 

somely framed resolution of regret thereat was at once moved and 
carried. 

The question of the Thames Embankment from Westminster to 
Blackfriars now again came to the fore, and the Society was served 
with notice of an intended application to Parliament for powers to 
construct the same, and also to lay out a new street thence to the 
Mansion House. 

Mr. Rivers, the ex- Beadle, did not long survive to enjoy his pension, 
as his death occurred before the end of the year. His widow was left 
very poorly provided for, and on petitioning the Society was granted 
a pension of £2^ per annum. The length of service in one capacity 
or another of the late Mr. Rivers amounted in all to forty-eight years — 
a good record indeed. At the Court held March 28, 1862, an address 
of condolence to the Queen was drafted and agreed upon, in 
consequence of the death of Prince Consort. And now another 
figure was to disappear from active participation in the affairs of the 
Society. Mr. John Nussey, the representative of the Apothecaries 
on the General Medical Council, was compelled through age and 
infirni health to send in his resignation — a resignation received with 
the greatest regret. 

A curious resolution appears in the Minutes of the same Court : it 
referred to the " gentleman who has the care of the wine." He was 
in future to have .the privilege of inviting a friend to the Court 
dinners ; but that on the day when the laws and orders of the Society 
were by custom read, this friend must be a member of the Society. 
This was a return to one of the old Guild customs, which of course 
involved the exclusion of strangers on all occasions when the private 
concerns of the Society were on the tapis. 

On April 11, 1862, Mr. George Cooper, a Fellow of the Royal 
College of Surgeons and a Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries, 
was unanimously elected to represent the Society on the General 
Medical Council, in the room of Mr. Nussey. The Report of the 
Board of Examiners in Arts shows that at their winter examination, 
out of 63 candidates 47 passed the preliminary, one obtaining 
a special certificate of proficiency ; his name was Mr. James 
L. Lawrence. Owing to the failure of the scheme to dissociate itself 
from the Botanical Garden at Chelsea, it became the duty of the 



256 APOTHECARIES 

Society to again restore that garden to its former flourishing condition, 
and this meant the expenditure of a considerable sum of money. Nor 
was this all : repairs and renovation required a capital outlay of some 
;f700, but it was found that an increased annual payment of £^o 
would be needed. After deliberation, the Society determined to assign 
the amount of money required to that object. That the garden was 
doing good to botanical science was undoubted, for no less than five 
hundred applications for leave to use it had been made by students 
during the preceding year. 

On Election Day, August 26, 1862, Mr. Charles West Wheeler was 
chosen Master, Mr. Henry Combe Senior and Mr. James Lowe 
Wheeler Junior Warden. 

Again, now, was land belonging to the Society required by the 
London, Chatham and Dover Railway, for the purposes of construct- 
ing the line. This time it was the house known as No. i Chatham 
Place, and the riverside wharf adjoining. 

On October 6, 1862, the death of Mr. John Hunter, whose 
resignation of office has been mentioned, was announced. 

The same date tells us that more and more land was being required 
by the Railway ; this time it was the yard leading from East Street to 
the wharf. The London, Chatham and Dover Company seem to have 
acquired what they wanted piecemeal — one wonders why ? 

On October 31, 1862, the Report of Professor Brande, as to the 
results of the Examination in Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Materia 
Medica, was presented to the Court. The candidates numbered four. 
Of these Mr. Henry Law Kempthorne, of King's College, was awarded 
the gold medal, and Mr. William Carter, of Charing Cross Hospital, 
the silver medal and a book. 

A resolution passed at the same Court informs us of the intention 
of the Society to present to the Trustees of the British Museum the 
Herbarium existing at the Chelsea Garden, a gift gratefully accepted 
and gracefully acknowledged. 

In June, 1863, a further demand was made on the Society by the 
Railway. This time a part of some houses was wanted, but the 
Society declined to sell unless the Company took the entire 
block. 

A new departure was now made in the pension list. Hitherto, 



/ 

f 



CHANGES IN THE EXAMINATIONS 257 

only widows had received pensions ; but now it was determined to 
raise a special fund for the felief of distressed members of the Society. 
This had long been wanted, but until now it had not been possible to 
obtain the requisite capital wherewith to start it. 

At this time, letter after letter of notice from the Railway Company 
is recorded, each letter requiring some small portion of the property 
of the Society. One would really have imagined that a plan of what 
was absolutely required would have been furnished at the outset. But 
it was not so. 

From the Report of the Court of Examiners for 1862-3, we gather 
that out of 483 candidates, 332 received certificates of qualification. 
We also learn that some measure of amendment of the Medical 
Reform Act was in contemplation, and the Court of Examiners suggest 
that this will be a fit opportunity to obtain a " repeal or modification 
of the Apprenticeship Clause of the Act of 1815." This " obnoxious 
Clause," they add, " was never sought by the Society, and its removal 
would enable the Court of Examiners to frame their curriculum in 
complete accordance with the recent requisitions of the General 
Medical Council," and would also meet the desires of the Medical 
public. 

On July 28, 1863, Mr. Thomas Rivington Wheeler, who had from 
ill-health resigned his seat on the Court of Examiners, wrote to the 
Court of Assistants, begging their acceptance of a portrait of his late 
grandfather, Mr. Thomas Wheeler. This picture, which was painted 
by H. P. Briggs, R.A., was gratefully accepted, and is still in the 
possession of the Society. As Master for the year 1863-4 Mr. Henry 
Combe was chosen, while Mr. James Lowe Wheeler and Mr. Charles 
Higham were Senior and Junior Wardens. But a slight hitch occurred ; 
it chanced that Mr. Combe was not present, which might invalidate 
his election, so it became necessary to have a fresh election. 
Consequently, at the Court held on September 28th the three gentlemen 
above-named were proposed, seconded and balloted for again. 

From Dr. Hooker's Report we read that there were only three 
candidates for the Botanical prizes ; and as there were three prizes, 
everybody got something. The Gold Medallist was Mr. H. G. 
Howse. 

In the Examination in Arts seventy-seven candidates presented 

18 



258 APOTHECARIES 

themselves, and fifty-seven passed. Of these, four entered for 
certificates of special proficiency, but only three were successful. 

For the Materia Medica and Pharmaceutical Chemistry prizes 
there were eight candidates, the gold medal falling to Mr. Thomas 
Clay Shawe, of King's College Hospital, the silver medal and a book 
being awarded to Mr. Philip Cowen, of St. Thomas's Hospital. 

Early in the year 1864 the housekeeper of the Society, by name 
Mrs. Catherine Morgan, died. She had for very many years filled that 
office, and in recognition thereof only a few weeks previously had 
been granted a substantial increase of salary. Mrs. Morgan was 
succeeded by her daughter, who had for some time acted as her 
deputy. 

The Report of the Board of Examiners for 1863-4 shows that 
out of 450 candidates, only 285 received certificates to practise 
as Apothecaries; 120 passed their first examination; 7 received 
" Assistant " certificates ; 54 were remanded to their studies ; 34 
failed in their first examination, and 19 in their second. The Board 
recommended the propriety of discontinuing the issue of two classes 
of certificates, /.^., " town " and " country," as the Act of Parliament 
of 1858 "opens the door of Medical practice in every part of the 
United Kingdom to any registered legal title, and this renders the 
distinction between the Town and Country Certificate practically 
useless," 

We have now reached a date, 1864, when for obvious reasons 
it is needful to generalise. We therefore give merely a list of 
Masters, Wardens, and officials down to the present day, adding 
a brief chapter on the present position of the Society as an Examining 
Body, and concluding with a special chapter on the Buildings, 
Antiquities, and Works of Art which are in the possession of the 
Society, adding thereto a description of the quaint ritual formerly 
observed at the installation of Master and Wardens on Confirmation 
Day. 

List of Masters and Wardens from 1864 to 1902. 

1864-65. Master ... James Lowe Wheeler. 

Wardens I Charles Higham. 

wardens ... | Q^orge Cooper. 

1865-66. Master ... Charles Higham. 



f 



CHANGES IN THE EXAMINATIONS 



259 



1866-67. 



1867-68. 



1868-69. 



1869-70. 



1870-71. 



1871-72. 



1872-73. 



1873-74- 



1874-75- 



1875-76. 



1876-77. 



1877-78. 



1878-79. 



1879-80. 



1880-81. 



Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 



George Cooper. 
Tobias Browne. 
George Cooper. 
Tobias Browne. 
Joseph Smith. 
George Cooper (2nd year). 
Tobias Browne. 
Joseph Smith. 
Tobias Browne. 

ioseph Smith, 
lenry Morley. 
Joseph Smith. 
Henry Morley. 
George Kelson. 
Henry Morley. 
George Kelson. 
Thomas Hunt. 
George Kelson. 
Thomas Hunt. 
R. L. Thorn. 
Thomas Hunt. 
R. L. Thorn. 
William Dickinson. 
William Dickinson. 
John Miles. 
Richard Stocker. 
Richard Stocker. 
Allin Foord Price. 
E. Bradford. 
Allin Foord Price. 
E. Bradford. 
Edward Long. 
E. Bradford. 
Edward Long. 
Willington Clark. 
Willington Clark. 
Charles Shillito. 
Thomas George Slaughter. 
Thomas George Slaughter. 
John Hainworth. 
Thomas Spry Byass. 
John Hainworth. 
Thomas Spry Byass. 
H. W. Statham. 
Thomas Spry Byass. 
H. W. Statham. 
James Saner. 



I 



260 



APOTHECARIES 



1881-82. 



1882-83. 



1883-84. 



1884-85. 



1885-86. 



1886-87. 



1887-88. 



1888-89. 



1889-90. 



1890-91. 



1891-92. 



1892-93. 



1893-94. 



1894-95. 



i895-<)6. 



1896-97. 



Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 



H. W. Statham. 
James Saner. 
Thomas Wakefield. 
James Saner. 
Thomas Wakefield. 
T. Peregrine. 
Thomas Wakefield. 
T. Peregrine. 
G. Corfe. 
G. Corfe. 
E. Furley. 
William Shillito. 
E. Furley. 
William Shillito. 
G. J. Amsden. 
William Shillito. 
G. J. Amsden. 
Thomas Skeel. 
G. J. Amsden. 
Thomas Skeel. 
G. H. Makins. 
Thomas Skeel. 
G. H. Makins. 
E. Chabot. 
G. H. Makins. 
E. Chabot. 
J. W. Robinson. 

E. Chabot. 
J. W. Robinson. 
Charles Taylor. 
J. W. Robinson. 
Charles Taylor. 
J. R. Withecombe. 
Charles Taylor. 

1. R. Withecombe. 
I. Morley. 
J. R. Withecombe. 
H. Morley. 
T. J. Austin. 
T. J. Austin. 

F. R. Gibbes. 
Edward Tegart. 
F. R. Gibbes. 

( Edward Tegart. 
\ Samuel C. Griffith. 

Edward Tegart. 

Samuel C. Griffith. 

Henry Veasey. 



I 



» 



CHANGES IN THE EXAMINATIONS 



261 



1897-98. 



1898-99. 



1899-1900. 



1900-01. 



Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 

Master 

Wardens 



1901-02. Master 



1902-03, 



1903-04. 



Wardens 
Master 
Wardens 
Master 

Wardens 



1904-5. Master 

Wardens 



! 
{ 



Samuel C. Griffith. 

. S. Burton. 

ohn Sherwood Stocker. 

. S. Burton. 

John Sherwood Stocker. 
Charles Browne. 
John Sherwood Stocker. 
Charles Browne. 
T. E. Burton Brown, CLE. 
Charles Browne. 
f T. E. Burton Browne, CLE. 
I William Parson. 
T. E. Burton Brown, CLE., 

Brig. Surgeon. 
William Parson. 
Clarence Cooper, Dep. Sur. Gen. 
William Parson. 
Clarence Cooper, Dep. Sur. Gen. 
Albert Bryan Day. 
Clarence Cooper, Dep. Sur. Gen. 
Albert Bryan Day. 
James Henry Jeffcoat, Dep. Sur. 

Gen. 

Albert Bryan Day. 
James Henry Jeffcoat, Dep. Sur. 

Gen. 
Edward Parker Young. 



1 



On December 8, 1901, the Society sustained the loss of Mr. 
James Richard Upton, the Clerk, who died while on a visit to India. 
That he was deeply regretted by all is to say but little. In his 
office he is succeeded by his son, Mr. A. Mowbray Upton, B.A., 
Pem. Coll., Oxon. 

Mr. R. B. Upton, whose resignation was withdrawn in i860, con- 
tinued in office till 1872-3, when he was succeeded by his nephew, 
Mr. James R. Upton, whose death is here recorded. 

On October 7, 1904, through death, the Society was deprived of 
the valuable services of Mr. William Chattaway, F.I.C, who had 
since 1893 most ably filled the post of Chief Chemist and Manager. 



CHAPTER XXVII 

THE PRESENT POSITION OF THE SOCIETY AS AN 
EXAMINING BODY 

T the present time, to be eligible for a seat on the 

Court of Examiners of the Society of Apothecaries 

of London, an Examiner must be a teacher in one 

of the Medical Schools — and nearly every Medical 

School is represented by either a Physician or a 

Surgeon connected with the Staff of one of the 

London Hospitals. The Surgical Examiners are appointed by the 

General Medical Council, and must be Fellows of the Royal College 

of Surgeons of England. The Physicians who examine in Medicine 

are all Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians of London. At the 

present time the College of Physicians and the College of Surgeons 

have combined to form the Conjoint Board of England granting the 

qualifications of M.R.C.S. and L.R.C.P. The College of Surgeons 

examining in Surgery and the College of Physicians in Medicine and 

Midwifery. The only bodies that grant the triple diploma in London 

are (i) The University of London, (2) The Colleges of Physicians and 

Surgeons, and {3) The Society of Apothecaries of London. Since 

1886 every registered medical practitioner must be qualified in 

Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery, but prior to that date a candidate 

might qualify and register in either Medicine or Surgery. 

Mention must briefly be made of what is known as the " Hunter 
Case" ; in which Mr. H. K. Hunter was prosecuted for using the title 
of Physician, he being an L.S.A, The judgment was given against 
him. But in consequence of this decision, the proper style for those 
holding the L.S.A. qualification came before the Court of Assistants. 



THE SOCIETY AS AN EXAMINING BODY 263 

It seems that many applications were made by registered medical 
men who were Licentiates of the Society to know what title or designa- 
tion they might properly use. On the question the Court took the 
opinion of eminent counsel, and in result it was resolved : '* That the 
only titles which the Society can authorise as a proper description of 
the L.S.A. 1886 are those of Physician and Surgeon either added to 
the title of L.S.A. 1886 or used alone." 

At the present time all medical students have practically to 
undergo the same course of studies at their Medical Schools before 
they can appear before any of the Licensing Boards. 

Holders of the Diplomas of the Society of Apothecaries of London 
are qualified to compete for appointments in the Naval, Military, and 
Indian Medical Services ; also for Civil, Colonial, and Poor Law 
appointments. 

The Examinations as held at the Society's Hall are divided into 
two parts. Primary and Final. The Primary Examinations are held 
quarterly, in the months of January, April, July, and October. The 
Final Examinations are held monthly. For the Primary, the subjects 
in Part i are Biology, Physics and Chemistry, Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy. In Part 2, Anatomy, Physiology, and Histology. 

It may be noted that Biology is not required from candidates who 
were registered as Medical Students prior to January, 1892. These 
come under the " Four Years' Regulations." But of all candidates 
who were registered as Medical Students on and after January i, 1892, 
a five years' curriculum is required. 

The Final Examination is divided into two sections, the first 
section being subdivided into three parts, the second into two parts. 

Sec. I. Part i includes the Principles and Practice of Surgery, etc., 
both written and oral. 
„ Part 2 includes {a) the Principles and Practice of Medicine, 

etc. ; (6) Forensic Medicine, etc., written and oral. 
„ Part 3 includes a written and oral Examination in Mid- 
wifery, Gynaecology, etc. 

Sec. 2. Part i. Clinical Surgery. 
„ Part 2. Clinical Medicine and Medical Anatomy. 

For the Clinical Examinations in Medicine and Surgery, patients 
attend from various hospitals in London. 



264 APOTHECARIES 

This is in brief a sketch of the position of the Society as an 
Examining Body at the present time. 

In addition, the Society also grants a certificate in dispensing. 

The Court of Examiners have a difficult duty to perform, which is 
done without fear or favour, and hence the high standard which 
is demanded from all those who obtain the right to style themselves 

EXAMINERS FOR THE DIPLOMA IN MEDICINE, SURGERY, 

AND MIDWIFERY. 



Examiners in Medicine and Forensic Medicine. 

*H. Sainsbury, M.D. Lond., F.R.C.P. Lond., 

Royal Free HospitaL 

*J. Galloway, M.A., M.D., CM. Aberdeen, F.R.C.P. Lond., F.R.C.S. 
Eng., Charing Cross Hospital. 

*H. A. Caley, M.D. Lond., F.R.C.P. Lond., 

St, Mary's Hospital. 

*A. F. Voelcker, M.D. Lond., F.R.C.P. Lond., 

Middlesex HospitaL 

Examiners in Surgery. 

+*W. Bruce Clarke, M.A., M.B. Oxon, F.R.C.S. Eng., 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 
+*F. J. Steward, M.B., M.S. Lond, F.R.C.S. Eng., 

Guy's Hospital. 
t*P. T. Beale, F.R.C.S. Eng., L.R.C.P. Lond., L.S.A., 

Kin^s College Hospital. 
+*Charles Stonham, C.M.G., F.R.C.S., 

Westminster Hospital. 

Examiners in Midwifery and Gynecology. 

*W. W. H. Tate, M.D. Lond., F.R.C.P. Lond., 

St. Thomas's Hospital. 

*A. F. Stabb, M.B., B.C. Camb., M.R.C.P. Lond., 

St. George's Hospital. 



t 

t 



THE SOCIETY AS AN EXAMINING BODY 265 

Examiners in Anatomy. 

*F. G. Parsons, F.R.C.S. Eng., 

St. Thomases Hospital. 

W. McAdam Eccles, M.B., M.S. Lond., F.R.C.S. Eng., 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

Examiners in Biology and Physiology. 

H. W. M. Tims, B.A. Camb., M.D., M.Ch. Edin., 

Charing Cross Hospital. 

J. Strickland Goodall, M.B. Lond., L.S.A., 

Middlesex Hospital. 

Examiners in Chemistry and Physics. 

IF. J. M. Page, B.Sc. Lond., 

London Hospital. 

tjohn Wade, D.Sc. Lond., 

Guy's Hospital. 

Examiners in Materia Medica and Pharmacy. 

|*H. D. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., B.C. Camb., F.R.C.P. Lond., 

St. George s Hospital. 

James Calvert, M.D. Lond., F.R.C.P. Lond., 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

Secretary to the Court of Examiners, 

Frank Haydon, L.R.C.P. Lond. 

* Members of the Court of Examiners. 

+ Appointed by the General Medical Council. 

I Examiners also for Assistant's Certificate. 



EXAMINERS FOR THE ASSISTANT'S CERTIFICATE IN 

DISPENSING. 



Examiners in Materia Medica and Pharmacy. 

H. D. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., B.C. Camb., F.R.C.P. Lond., 

St. George's Hospital. 



266 APOTHECARIES 

James Calvert, M.D. Lond., F.R.C.P. Lond., 

S/. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

Examiners in Chemistry. 

F. J. M. Page, B.Sc. Lond., 

London Hospital. 

John Wade, D.Sc. Lond., 

Guy's Hospital. 

Examiner in Practical Pharmacy. 

Vacant. 
Secretary, Frank Haydon, L.R.C.P. Lond. 



THE GILLSON SCHOLARSHIP IN PATHOLOGY. 



This Scholarship, of the annual value of £()Oy tenable for one year, 
was founded in accordance with the Will of the late William 
Edward Gillson, L.S.A., and is awarded for the encouragement 
of original research in connection with any branches of Pathology. 

The Scholarship is open to Licentiates of the Society, or to 
candidates for the Society's Diploma, who obtain such Diploma 
within six months of their election to the Scholarship. 



r 

/ 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

THE BUILDINGS, ANTIQUITIES, PICTURES, FURNITURE, AND 
PLATE— ALSO A DETAILED ACCOUNT OF THE OLD-TIME 
RITUAL KNOWN TO HAVE BEEN OBSERVED ON CON- 
FIRMATION DAY, 1780 




ROM the present outward appearance of the buildings 
of the Society comparatively little can be gleaned of 
the external architectural details of the Hall and 
facade as rebuilt after the Great Fire. That the 
main portion of the fabric was red brick we know, 
with the exception, however, of the street front, 
which the Minute Books tell us was of stone. This front is now 
mainly of brick, with stone dressings at either end and above the 
gateway. The dates when various coats of stucco were applied have 
already been given. But we read that Mr. Edward Cooke supplied 
the design in the main ; that his design included a high roof for the 
Great Hall, and that this was abandoned in favour of a roof that was 
flat. We also know that gables existed, but where we are not told, 
still, internal evidence would point to the north side of the Quad- 
rangle having been originally gabled — for the fifth circular window 
within the Great Hall originally admitted light, and it is reasonable 
to suppose that the side adjacent to it has undergone considerable 
alteration. The ground-plan of the Hall buildings proper takes an 
irregular quadrangular form. Through the gateway from the street 
front, which faces to the west, you enter a " Quad known as the Front 
Court." Opposite, on the first floor, is the Great Hall ; on the left, the 
partitioned-off Retail Drug Department and two bays of the old 

Colonnade. Above this, and on the same level with the Great Hall is 

367 



I 



THE BUILDINGS, ANTIQUITIES, ETC. 269 

the old Gallery, now known as the Library. The buildings on the 
right-hand side of the Front Court are let off as business premises, 
and nearly half of the street frontage is similarly occupied. The 
remainder of the street front is occupied by the Porter's Lodge, the 
Offices of the Clerk, and certain rooms appropriated to officers of the 
Society. Neither the outer nor the inner face of the gateway is of any 
architectural merit, as the sketches show. The stone carving of the 
Arms of the Society, which once stood above the gate on the street 
side, has vanished — unless, indeed, it is to be identified with the carving 
above the street entrance to the Retail Drug Department, a few feet 
higher up the roadway. 

The inner face of the gateway has above it an oval mural tablet 
recording the rebuilding and restoration of the Hall, and inscribed as 

follows : — 

*' Aula hie lita prius aptata f uit in usum 

Societatis Pharmaceutical Londinenfis, 

A.D. MDCXXXIII 

Ricardo Eklwards, Magiftro. 

Edvardo Cooke, Leonardo Stone, Cuftodibus ilia 

in conflagratione LondinenH penitus confumpta hsec 

Lapfis decern annis elegantior refurrexit reparata demum fuit 

Multum ampliata et ornata 

A.D. MDCCLXXXVI. 

Joanne Field, Magiftro. 

Gulielmo Ball, Matthseo Yatman, cuftodibus." 

In the centre of the Front Court is an old-world-looking lamp on 
a stone pedestal. 

By means of a passage in the N.E. corner of the Front Court 
access is given to the Factory, the Laboratories, and to the Exami- 
nation Rooms. These last are new buildings, and have been fitted 
with all the modern appliances needful. Beneath the Great Hall and 
forming, as it were, a semi-basement, are the offices of the Accountant 
of the Society. There is another passage in this corner which leads 
to the old kitchen — a kitchen possessed of a mighty cooking grate, 
fitted with an elaborate smoke-jack roasting apparatus, and also a 
range of coppers beneath a quaint old rudely arched beam, the 
appearance of which may be gathered from our sketch. Between 
a portion of this kitchen and the passage leading to the factory are 
the offices of the Secretary to the Court of Examiners and the Beadle 



l^l^^E.X f Acfi. "T CAf EV^r • " 



THE BUILDINGS, ANTIQUITIES, ETC. 271 

of the Society. It may be remarked that in the thickness of the 
passage wall here there was once a narrow staircase by which the 
Hall could be reached. But though the entrance is bricked up 
now, the hollow sound given out leads to the conclusion that 
there is a considerable internal space unaccounted for in the 
rooms. Two details may here be noted : one, the presence of the 
remains of a carved oak beam-facing, which is probably the only 
relic left of the external decorations of the Hall as rebuilt after the 
Great Fire ; the other, a square panel above the corner fireplace in 
the Beadle's office, on which the Arms of the Society, I hear, were 
formerly blazoned. What the type of brickwork of the Great Hall 
was can be judged from the wall at the back, where the " bond " 
in its original state is still visible. By means of swing-doors 
beneath the Colonnade access is gained to the staircase leading to the 



Tofrriorl o>Ot«Carued Beim. 

official rooms and the Great Hall. Externally the Great Hall is 
plain in the extreme. It is lighted by four tall windows, with plain 
mouldings and cornices, but which still retain the heavy window- 
sashes inserted as we have already mentioned. Where the fifth 
window would have been, is a door entered by means of a stair- 
case from the Front Court in the S.E. corner, and communicating 
with a small though lofty square porch. Of the building of this 
stair and the removal of the stone balusters, and substitution of iron 
railings, we have already written. Above the tall windows are four 
circular windows, and above the door a fifth which, as we have 
already mentioned, no longer admits light. These circular windows 
have lost their heavy square grated wooden bars, and light radiating 
iron ones have been substituted therefor. Between the second and 
third window and a little below it is the old clock, which is worked 



272 APOTHECARIES 

from the garrets some sixty or seventy feet away. Above the range of 
circular windows is a plainly moulded pediment, in the centre of 
which is a carving of the Arms of the Society. This pediment, and 
the wall on the face of which it has been inserted, takes the place of 
the balusters and coping proposed to be removed as long ago as 
1685. We must now pass to a description of the staircase and interior 
of the official rooms of the Society, pausing only to note the quaint 
garret now used as a lumber room. In this wall-less apartment in old 
times, the apprentices from the country who lived at too great a 
distance to return home at night after being '* bound " to their masters 
were wont to be lodged by the Society. Our sketch shows its present 
appearance. This garret is reached by a small flight of steps leading 
off the top landing of the grand staircase, and it may be added that 
the only old barred window remaining is to be found in a back 
staircase which leads to the main corridor of the official apartments. 
Our illustration gives a portion of this window, with its massive bars, 
though why one of them should be forked it is not easy to under- 
stand. While investigating the lumber in this and the other garrets, 
the writer found an old chest branded doubly with the trade mark 
here illustrated, while on a loose envelope — for there are many old 
books and papers stored up in the garrets — ^he obtained as well the seal 
of which a drawing is given. Whether the two were meant for the 
same design it is hard to say, but it is reasonable to suppose that 
the brands on the chest were probably those of the Navy Stock, the 
combination of anchor and broad arrow pointing somewhat to this 
conclusion. The Grand Staircase of both the lower and upper flights, 
of which illustrations are given, is a remarkably well-preserved speci- 
men of late seventeenth-century work. Heavy in its mouldings and 
balusters, its general features need not be further touched upon. In 
two of its windows, one of two and the other of three lights, some 
old glass has been preserved. This glass is all heraldic. The subjects 
are : — 

1. Arms inscribed and wrongly ascribed to John Lorymer ; they 

are really those of Lowman. 

2. The Arms of the Society, dated 1671. 

3. The Arms of Jacob Lowe Wheeler. 

In the other window are the Arms of Charles II. and the City of 



274 APOTHECARIES 

London. This glass is of the same date, pattern, and execution as the 
pane showing the Arms of the Society. 

The first flight of stairs terminates in the main corridor, from 
which all the official apartments are reached. The second flight of 
stairs leads upwards to a long landing, off which, at the top, the 
various garrets and the clock room open, while lower down the 
Master's bedroom (should he desire to sleep at the Hall) is situated. 

The main corridor is long and lofty ; lighted at one end by a 
window in which again appear the Arms of the Society, and termi- 
nated at the other by a curious pair of heavy oak panelled doors, 
hinged in the middle, by which the " Parlour" door is reached. The 
only object in the corridor worth particular mention is the long 
picture of Queen Elizabeth reviewing the fleet, the gift of which to the 
Society has been already noted. 

The official apartments are four in number : — i. The Library, 
formerly known as the Gallery; 2. The Parlour; 3. The Court Room ; 
and lastly, the Great Hall. 

The Library, as our illustration shows, is a long and narrow room, 
handsomely panelled in oak and with a well-carved oak mantelpiece. 
Being well lighted from the Front Court, it is-a most pleasant apart- 
ment. In deep cupboards, one on each side of the fireplace, the 
nucleus of the library was formed which, having outgrown its 
"repository," now fills the shelves fitted to one entire side of the 
room, and has even spread to the Parlour. Some of the botanical 
works here preserved are both rare and valuable. That the original 
chased brass door-handles still remain both in the Library and in 
the other rooms is a fact to be recorded with pleasure. In the Library 
door, too, the ancient long bolts are still in situ, and the curious 
bevelled edge where the swing doors close is rather uncommon. On 
the wall between two of the windows hangs the grant of arms, signed 
by William Camden, Clarenceux King of Arms, and countersigned by 
Henry St. George-Richmond, as " viewed and approved in the visitacon 
of London made 1634." Unfortunately the original blazon is no 
longer preserved, and a modern one which takes its place cannot by 
any means be considered ias a masterpiece of heraldic blazonry. To 
quote a part of Camden's grant : after his preamble he proceeds to 
the arms " in a Shield Azure. Apollo, the inuentor of phisique proper, 



276 APOTHECARIES 

• 

with his heade Radiant, holding in his left hand, abowe & his Right 
hande an Arrow : dor, Suplanting, a Serpent, Argent, aboue the Shield 
an Helme, thereuppon a mantle gules doubled Argent, and for their 
Creast vppon a Wreath of their Colours, A Rhynoceros, proper. Sup- 
ported by too Vnicorns. or, armed and vngulated argent, upon a 
Compartiment to make the Atchieuement compleat, this motto, 
OPIFERQUE PER ORBEM DICOR :" But the curious part of it 
is that the Society did not apply for a grant of arms until 1620, and 
Camden has signed this 12th December, 1617. Old Camden's phrase- 
ology is most quaint, but not more than his spelling. The heraldry 
of this coat is eminently Jacobean. With regard to the motto, its 
translation is : "I am called an assistant throughout the world." 

In two of the windows of the Library are panes bearing the 
Society's Arms, and beneath them, in black letters on yellow glass, the 
following inscriptions. On one — 

"Concordia parvae res crescunt 
Discordia maxumae dilabuntur." 

On the other — 

"Beare with one another, Love as bretrehn. 
Fac bene dum vivis post mortem vivere si vis." 

Prints and photographs hang on the wall above the fireplace, and 
there is also a notice and an engraving from the Gentleman* s Magazine 
of a curious old mortar which was once in the possession of the 
Society, but which had vanished, being broken up for old metal, 
before the time of Pennant. 

The Parlour is a large room, 28 ft. 6 in. by 23 ft. 6 in. 
It is lofty but unpanelled, and is entered by a door from the 
corridor in one corner, which is evidently not the original entrance. 
From the Parlour, too, into the adjoining Court Room the method 
of approach has also been changed, but of this hereafter. Though 
lacking panels, there is not a little to admire in the Parlour. 

The chairs, unstained and untampered with, are extremely good, 
the sideboard of a good type, and some of the pictures of interest. 
Along one side of the room, against the wall which separates it from 
the Court Room, runs a large bookcase. In the centre of this bookcase 
the original door into the Court Room stood, and when the bookcase 



E. 1^ in number. 



278 APOTHECARIES 

was erected, that door was blocked up and the new one made. The 
evidence of the panels in the Court Room proves this. Eleven 
pictures hang on the walls — 

1. William III. entering Exeter. 

2. Portrait unknown. 

3. Thomas Hardwick, Master, 1815. 

4. Thomas Wheeler, Master and Botanical Demonstrator. 

5. William Thomas Brande, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Master, 1851. 

6. Richard Clewin Griffith, M.R.C.S., F.R.S.,F.S.S.; Master, 1855. 

7. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward, F.R.S., F.L.S. ; Master, 1854. 

8. The Baths of Pfefters. 

9. John Hunter, Master, 1831. 

10. Portrait (oval), unknown. 

11. Portrait, unknown. 

All the three unknown portraits are interesting, especially No. 10 ; 
and it is to be regretted that they cannot be identified. 

Originally the Parlour v/as lighted by two tall windows, but one 
of these has been converted into a glass door by which access is 
obtained to the external iron staircase leading to the " Brande " and 
other new Examination Buildings. 

We now come to the Court Room. This is somewhat larger than 
the Parlour, measuring 28 ft. 6 in. by 26 ft. 9 in., and in beauty far 
exceeds it. Panelled throughout in fine old brown oak (no artificial 
colouring here, but age and hand-polish), the room is very nearly in 
the same state as it was when it was first completed. The exceptions 
are to be found in the doorways, and to this we shall presently refer in 
detail. The panels are boldly moulded, and above the dado string- 
course are somewhat peculiar, for each large panel contains within its 
frame three others, two small and one large, of which the mouldings 
are so arranged that the panel contained is flush with the surface 
of the large outer panel. This is somewhat peculiar. The corner 
ends of the dado string-course are carved, as the illustration shows, 
except on either side of the fireplace, where the special design occurs 
which has been separately drawn. But in one corner of the room the 
ornament is lacking. The cornice is heavy and bold, but not out 
of keeping with the general design of the room. The fireplace, of 
which we give an illustration, is rather more ornate in mouldings than 



THE BUILDINGS, ANTIQUITIES. ETC. 279 

the rest of the room, but still lacks what one would have expected 
to find — that is to say, a carved mantel. From the centre of the 
ceiling hangs a fine twelve-light chandelier, presented, as we have 
before mentioned, by Edward Mills, Master in 1766. The gift is 
recorded on the globe whereon the arms of the Society and of the 
donor are engraved, together with a suitable inscription. There are 
also four brass sconces on the walls of very good work indeed. 



and one of these we have illustrated. At the head of the room is 
another pair of different design, which now flank a handsome circular 
mirror of considerable age. The chairs are numerous, and good in 
type. One of them is the " cedar-wood " chair made from the old 
cedar which fell at Chelsea in 1822. Of one set of chairs there are no 
less than thirty-seven in this room alone. The table in the centre of 
the room is also a good old piece, with its half-drop top and elegantly 
carved claw-legs. But as a piece of furniture it is not to be compared 



28o APOTHECARIES 

in antiquity with the massive old oak table now in the Library — a 
table undoubtedly older than anything else in the way of furniture on 
the premises. My own opinion is that this table dates back prior to 
the Great Fire, but whether it was saved when the Hall was burnt, 
or presented afterwards, it is impossible now to decide, as there are no 
records in the Minute Books. 

We now come to the question of the alterations in doors and 
panelling caused by the erection of the bookcase in the Parlour. 
That a doorway at one time existed in the middle of the Court 



COVKT ROOM. 

Room wall is certain, and for these reasons : There, the panelling 
is different from any other panelling in the room. Its mouldings 
and cornice are inferior in type and execution — nay, more, the 
wood is not oak. It is more elaborate in one way, and is sur- 
mounted by a finely carved Royal Arms in oak — but oak of a far 
more ancient date than the panelling or cornice beneath. Its width 
is just about the width of the doors elsewhere in the room. Now, the 
present door from the Parlour is crowded into one corner of the 
room, so close to the wall that the circular twisted string-course 



282 APOTHECARIES 

ornament is missing. Above this door a cornice has been added, and 
the panel moulding above has been cut away. Additional proof 
of this is furnished by the door leading from the Court Room into the 
Corridor. Here, to match the cornice of the interpolated corner 
door, a cornice was put up and the panel, as in the other case, was also 
cut away. Traces of these various operations are perfectly visible, 
and moreover, the cornices when interpolated were not inserted plumb 
with the edge of the massive original door mouldings. 

We now come to the Pictures. Above the fireplace hangs the 
portrait of Gideon De Laune, and the inscription beneath supports 
my contention that he was not the founder of the Society. It 
runs— 

" Gideon De Laune, armiger, Serenissimae Annae, Regis Jacobi 
primi Uxoris, Pharmacopaeius, Ac hujus Societatis quondam, 
Magister necnon Benefactor dignissimus." 

The inscription beneath De Laune's bust in the Great Hall is 
precisely similar. 

On the recessed walls on either side of the fireplace, and in which 
have been fitted two long sideboards, are four portraits, two on either 
side. On the left, Cornelius Dutch (painted by Hudson), for thirty 
years the Clerk to the Society, and John Allen, D.D. On the right, 
Henry Morley, LL.D., Warden 1892-4, and John Markham, Master 
1754. On either side of the door are Richard Mead, M.D., 1747, 
Josiah Higden, Master 1754 ; Henry Field, 1832, and George Mann 
Burrows, M.D., F.C.P., etc., 1815. Opposite the fireplace hang 
Samuel Dale, M.D., Assistant 1739; Marmaduke Westwood, Master 
1707. The panel portrait of James I. and a miniature of Mary Queen 
of Scots, his mother (set in a snuffbox lid), hang on the blocked-up 
door beneath the Royal Arms before mentioned. Beyond these is 
Reynolds' sketch for his large picture of John Hunter, and a picture 
of George Johnson, Master in 1673. At the head of the room, above 
the circular mirror, hangs the portrait of Her late Majesty Queen 
Victoria. Two small pieces of carving remain to be noted. One 
of these is said to be the sole relic of the old barge, except the two 
streamers which hang in the Hall. From the initials and date thereon 
we can fix it as having been made during the Mastership of John 



THE BUILDINGS, ANTIQUITIES, ETC. 283 

Gover, 1690-91. The other carving is a small painted edition (prob- 
ably seventeenth century) of the Arms of the Society. Of the 
earlier of the two ballot boxes belonging to the Society we give a 
sketch. The date of its presentation has been noted. 

We now come to the Great Hall, of the general appearance 
of the two ends of which our two illustrations will give some 
idea. In length 59 ft., its breadth is 28 ft. 6 in., and its height is 
about the same. ^ And here it may be remarked that the Great 
Hall, the Court Room and the Parlour are in one line, the 
long sides of Court Room and Parlour being the broad side of 
the Hall. Panelled in oak for rather more than half the height of 
the walls, the panels contain long lists of benefactors to the 
" Widows " and " Distressed Members " Funds. The earliest name 
dates as far back as 171 1, when Peter Guelsthorpe, Master in 1701, 
gave a donation of ;^2o. The full-length portrait of the worthy old 
Apothecary hangs immediately above the gold-lettered record of his 
donation. From that date down to the present year the records 
continue. The general work of the panels in the Great Hall is, 
however, not of the same excellence as that to be seen in the Court 
Room or, indeed, in the Library. The greater size of the Hall 
required greater boldness, but this boldness is not apparent and the 
joinery work is very inferior, exeept in the remains of the screen 
and the brackets of the Music Gallery. The ceiling, too, though 
of a well-known type, is not remarkable ; in fact it is hardly worthy 
of the Hall. But before passing to the consideration of the changes 
and relics of changes in the Hall, it may be well to mention the 
pictures which hang on the walls and the banners which project 
therefrom. At the Gallery End we have Henry Smith, Master in 
1727, and John Lorymer, Master in 1654 — this picture is hung in a 
bad light, and deserves a better situation. The two smaller pictures 
beneath the gallery are those of William 111. and Mary, presented 
to the Society by John Lisle in 1770. On the East wall and in the 
best light are four full-lengths — one presented by George Pile, M.D., 
a member of the Society, and possibly his own portrait, the next 
Sir Benjamin Rawlings, Kt., Sheriff of London and Middlesex 1737. 
He it was who presented the handsome and valuable twenty-four- 
light brass chandelier still hanging from the centre of the ceiling. 



284 APOTHECARIES 

Next to him comes Peter Guelsthorpe, already mentioned ; and lastly 
Robert Gower, Master in 1726. In a closed-up window is a three- 
quarter length portrait of Queen Anne. On the South wall are two 
very inferior pictures, one representing James I., the other Charles I. 
Lastly, on the West side, are two : William Prowting, Master 1775, 
and John Clarke, Master 1694. The bust beneath the carving of 
the Society's Arms is that of Gideon De Laune. This bust is supposed 
to have been rescued after the Great Fire, but the closest inspection 
fails to detect any traces of burning. Beneath the bust is the grand 
old chest already described, with its elaborate and artistic key- 
scutcheon. The banners are four in number, and there are also a 
pair of the old barge streamers. These until a few years ago were 
stowed away in one of the garrets; they were then brought out, 
repaired, and hung where we now see them. The banners show 
the Arms of the City, the Arms of the Society, St. Luke, and the 
Royal Standard. The Royal Standard was, when unrolled, discovered 
to be in nearly three hundred pieces. We illustrate the interesting 
pair of barge streamers. Their age has been already noted. 

The three high-backed chairs are modern and may be passed by. 
We may here note the scanty remains of the huge quantity of plate 
which at one time or another has belonged to the Society. The 
two salvers, the Monteith, the ladle and the coffee-pot shown in the 
illustration are the only antique specimens extant. True, some 
salvers and Loving Cups have been quite recently added, but gone 
are the priceless series of spoons, the cups with and without covers, 
the crowns for the Master and Wardens, the tankards, the knives, 
the forks, the salts, caudle cups, and the Barge Master's badge, 
mention of which has been scattered through our pages. 

The Mace, unmentioned in the Minute Books, is small but 
interesting. Only the head is of silver, the staff being merely wood. 
Our illustration gives its features. There now remains to discuss the 
changes in the internal arrangements of the Hall which have from 
time to time taken place. Now, strange as it may seem to the 
uninitiated, this huge room was built without a fireplace, and how it 
was warmed in days of yore is unknown. After the fire in the 
Laboratory the panelling was moved out a few inches, as ordered, and 
the projection on the east wall is still to be observed. Rather 



286 APOTHECARIES 

beyond the south end of this projection the Screen crossed the Hall, 
for the marks in the panelling are yet apparent where the join 
formerly existed. But of the Screen itself, what il exactly was and 
how it was arranged, is not quite easily decided. Still, an attempt 
may be made. It will be remembered that a carpenter was ordered 
to remove the wainscot beneath the Music Gallery in 1727-8, and at 
the same time the Laboratory fireplace «lnd arch was bricked up. 

Now to this day there is no wainscot beneath the Gallery on the 
wall itself. What panelling is seen is of later date (except the arch), 
and is merely meant to conceal a small and narrow flight of stairs 
leading up to the gallery. Now, whether the four heavily carved 
brackets still supporting the front of the gallery were part of the old 
one before its extension, or formed a portion of the Screen, it is not 
easy to say, but that the arch beneath belonged to the Screen we 
are nearly positive, and for this reason : When the Screen was moved 
back to the south wall, and the lower end of the Hall converted 
into the upper, "the arch," etc., was ordered to be thus thrown 
back. Hence the screen had but one and that a central opening. 
Consequently the two sides were closed, and as the circular-headed 
framing which closes the centre of the present south wall is of 
the same design and dimensions as the circular-headed framing 
beneath the gallery, and as, moreover, it will well work into the space 
on either side of the Screen pillars, we are inclined to suppose that 
one bit of the Screen was used at one end of the Hall and the 
other at the other, the panelling removed from beneath the gallery 
being utilised to patch up either side of the thrown back Screen. 

Consequently, to briefly describe the appearance of the Screen 
we may put it thus. The four fluted pillars, the cornice and archi- 
trave, etc., with the Company's Arms stood in the centre, the arch 
beneath being open. On either side was panelling, most of which 
has now vanished, but the centre of which was the circular-headed 
frame now fitting beneath the Arms on one side and the companion 
frame now beneath the gallery on the other. 

This may seem mere conjecture, but it is not so, for we have spent 
much time in trying by rule and measurement to solve the problem, 
and can but now record the conclusions at which we have arrived. 

Throughout the Minute Books there has been no information 



linGHti^h^LL « Lowfift Emd . 



288 APOTHECARIES 

beyond a hint as to a ceremonial of installation which was in former 
times customary on Confirmation Day. But from the contents of two 
manuscript papers it is possible to reconstruct the quaint ceremonies 
which were performed on the installation of the Master and Wardens 
for the year 1780. These two papers are in reality elaborate pro- 
grammes prepared to insure that the installation, with its carefully 
devised ritual, should go off without any hitch. 

For that year Mr. Joseph Partington was elected Master, Mr. 
Isaac Mather Upper and Mr. Thomas Howes Renter Warden. Mr. 
Elliot was the outgoing Master. 

It appears that the Master, Wardens, Assistants, and Livery met at 
the Hall according to summons on the important day, and the pro- 
ceedings began with breakfast at 12 noon. Sirloin of beef was the 
fare, and it was demolished in the "Library Gallery." At about 
" one afternoon " they all adjourned to church to hear service and 
also a specially prepared sermon, the clergyman who preached being 
appointed by the Master for the time being. The paper adds : " He is 
allowed two guineas by the Company, and dines and spends the 
evening with the Company if he chooses.** The officiating minister 
of the church " is also invited (usually) to dinner, and receives a 
Compliment of one Guinea." 

Then follow the details of the First Procession, which was formed 
up in the Court Room, where Master, Wardens, Assistants, and 
Livery had assembled. 

First Procession. 

Order. 

1. Band of Musick (God Save the King). 

2. Barge Master, with Coat and Badge. 

3. Beadle cloathed, with his Staff of Office. 

4. The Stewards two and two, with their Wands or Badge of 

Office. 

5. The Clergymen, Preacher and Reader. 

6. The Master, cloathed. 

7. The Upper Warden, and 8, The Renter Warden, cloathed. 
9. Members of the Court according to seniority, cloathed. 

10. Livery also cloathed, and last, the Clerk cloathed. 

From the Court Room they marched down the Hall to the gate of 



THE BUILDINGS, ANTIQUITIES, ETC. 289 

the Courtyard. There the Stewards formed a line on one side, and 
the "Band of Musick" on the other, through which the Procession 
passed in the same order to the church. After service was over, on 
leaving the church, "ihe Company commonly give to the poor, and 
return to the Hall in the same order." Inside the gateway, the 
Stewards and the Band (who had been waiting their return) precede 
the Company through the Great Hall into the Court Room. " When 
dinner is ready, which ought to be at half an hour after three, the 
Master leads his Lady from the Parlour into the Hall, and both take 
their seats at the head of the table." The two Wardens lead in their 
ladies and take their seats on the Master's left hand, with " each his 
lady opposite," next, the minister who preached, with " such lady as the 
Master appoints opposite to him," next, the Members who have passed 
the Chair, according to seniority, " each his lady opposite." Next, the 
other Members of the Court, according to seniority, " each his lady 
opposite so far as Room, leaving the bottom for the Clerk and Reader." 

The remaining Members of the Court were relegated with their 
ladies, according to seniority, to the second table, and, if there was 
room, it was filled by the senior Liverymen. 

Evidently the parsons' wives were not very highly esteemed in the 
Society at that time. 

Dinner being over, "when the general Healths have been gone 
through, which ought to be by 5 o'clock," the Master, Wardens, and 
Assistants withdrew into the Court Room, " and being cloathed (with 
coronets on the heads of the Master and Wardens) they returned in 
the following order of procession, followed by the Assistants (not 
cloathed) according to seniority, and walked round the Great Hall, the 
music playing. 

Second Procession. 

Order. 

1. Band of Musick. 

2. Beadle, with Staf. 

3. Clerk cloathed. 

4. Master cloathed, with coronet on his head. 

5. The Upper Warden, the same. 

6. The Renter Warden, the same. 

7. Assistants according to seniority, not cloathed. 

20 



290 APOTHECARIES 

The paper furnishes the following explanation of this manoeuvre : — 
"The purport of this Procession appears to be, to exhibit to the 
Company assembled the Master, Wardens, and Court as they then are, 
preparatory to the change." 

Next, the Procession returned to the Court Room, and then the 
Master and Wardens each appointed one of the Livery there in the 
Great Hall to act as his cupbearer, and ordered the Beadle to 
"acquaint them therewith and desire their attendance in the Court 
Room, where each of them is cloathed, and receives a Cup filled with 
warm Negus." Meanwhile, the Master and Wardens Elect (the 
election had taken place some days before, of course) " put off their 
cloathing, and mix with the Company in the Great Hall." By this, a 
species of assumed unwillingness to have greatness thrust on them 
was no doubt intended to be shown. Still, they were expected to 
choose a convenient place for their Investiture with the Insignia of 
their offices. Then, when all was ready, " two Members of the Court 
who have passed the Chair were cloathed, and putting on the Wardens' 
Coronets, personate them." 

Third Procession. 

Order. 

1. Band of Musick (Rule Britannia). 

2. Beadle cloathed, with Staf . 

3. Clerk cloathed. 

4. Master's Cupbearer, with cup held before him covered. 

5. The Master cloathed, with coronet on his head. 

6. Upper Warden's Cupbearer, with cup held out as the Master's. 

7. Upper Warden's Representative, cloathed, with coronet on 

his head. 

8. Renter Warden's Cupbearer 

■ 

9. Renter Warden's Representative 
10. Assistants according to seniority, not cloathed. 



As 6 and 7. 



The Procession marched round the Hall, and, coming to the place 
where the Master Elect was in semi-concealment, the old Master 
called him out and, taking off his coronet, placed it on his head. 
The cupbearer presented the cup to him : he drank to the new 
Master and congratulated him. The paper adds, *' which is generally 



THE BUILDINGS, ANTIQUITIES, ETC. 291 

seconded with the approbation of the Company and the Band of 
Miisick." Then the new Master took the cup and drank to the ladies 
at the Assistants' table, handed them the cup, and they handed it 
round to one another. Then the old Master retired. The new Master 
was thus publicly installed. Precisely the same ceremony took place 
for the Upper Warden and the Renter Warden Elect. The election 
of the new Master and new Wardens being thus publicly confirmed, 
the Assistants retired into the Court Room, and, as the MS. tells us, 
meanwhile "the Ladies are drinking round." Finally, a fourth Pro- 
cession was formed to "signifie the Concurrence and Satisfaction" 
that the Old Master and Wardens had in resigning their offices to such 
worthy successors — that is to say, to the Upper Warden becoming 
Master, the Renter Warden becoming Upper Warden, and the intro- 
duction of a new Renter Warden into his office. The fourth and last 
Procession was marshalled as follows : — 

Fourth Procession. 

Order. 

1. Band of Musick (" The Conquering Hero "). 

2. Beadle cloathed, with Staf. 

3. Clerk cloathed. 

4. The late Master, leading in his right Hand the new Master, 

cloathed, with coronet on his head. 

5. The late Upper Warden or his Representative, leading the new 

one as above. 

6. The late Renter Warden, the same. 

7. The Assistants, two and two, not cloathed. 

When the Great Hall had been duly perambulated, this last Proces- 
sion returned to the Court Room, and all the attendants were dismissed 
to their respective offices. Then, a Court of Assistants was formed, the 
old Master taking the Chair, to administer the oaths to the new 
Master and the new Wardens, which formality having been com- 
pleted, he resigned his Chair to the new Master, who forthwith held a 
Court to transact such business as had " reference to the Day, such as 
giving thanks, as due, to the late Master and Wardens, to the Minister 
for his sermon, to receive the names of the Renter Warden's securities," 
who, if approved, were desired to attend the October Court to 



292 



APOTHECARIES 



" execute and dine with them," to appoint that Court and a Com- 
mittee to prepare the Audit for that Court, and if any Member chosen 
an Assistant be present in the Hall he may be sworn in. But, and 



TMS 



perhaps wisely, the document finishes, " no other business done which 
can without inconvenience remain until the October Court." 

With this, I trust, interesting record of a now long-forgotten 
ceremony, I conclude my History of the Worshipful Society of 
Apothecaries of London. Therein, save where opinions as to 






THE BUILDINGS, ANTIQUITIES, ETC. 293 

antiquarian matters were permissible, I have been entirely guided by 
the documents still existing in the Hall itself. The opinions are the 
opinions of the Society in cases where there may have been points of 
controversy. Where I have digested documents, I have endeavoured 
to do so in a manner which is, I trust, true in phrase and spirit to the 
documents so treated. Finally, in laying down my pen I can only 
hope that I have done no injustice to the worthy Society whose 
history I have attempted to write, and that my efforts may add 
perhaps another, though brief, chapter to the Civic History of the 
Metropolis of Great Britain, and, incidentally, to the History of the 
growth of Science in this Realm. 



APPENDIX 

The Widows and Distressed Members' Funds 

were raised, and are maintained, by gifts and legacies from living and 
deceased Members of the Society and others. 



The Widows' Fund. 

The Widows' Fund has for its object the relief of Widows of 
Members left in necessitous circumstances, to whom it grants an 
annuity of ^20. 

Betufactors to the amount of £$ and upwards of the Society of Apothecaries for 

the relief of Widows of Members, 



1 71 1 Peter Guelsthorp 20 o 

1749 John Allen (a member) ... 200 o 

175^ n 2nd donation... 100 o 

1760 M 3rd donation... 100 o 

1767 ,, 4th donation... 100 o 

1768 „ 5th donation... 100 o 

1769 „ 6th donation... 200 o 
John Wilmer (a member, 

by will) 100 o 

1777 Reginald Dennison, ditto... 100 o 

1778 William Prowting (a mem- 

ber), South Sea Stock ... 100 o 

Matthew Yatman(a member) 50 o 

Richard Lyster 50 o 

iohn Devaynes 50 o 
oseph Pju^ington, South 

Sea Annuities 50 o 

John Field 100 o 

Thomas Hawes 50 o 

1790 John Wingfield 300 o 

1791 Peter Girod 20 o 

1792 Mrs. Hawes (widow) ... 50 o 
Peter Girod (2nd donation) 10 o 

1793 Edward Fox (by will) ... 100 o 
1795 Matthew Yatman (2nd don.) 100 o 
1808 Thomas Cater (member, 

by will) 105 o 

181 1 Wm. Hy. Higden 105 o 



d. 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 



I8I6 
I8I7 
I8I9 



£ 
100 

19 



1820 

1822 
1823 

1824 



1825 



1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 

1830 



Richard Radford 

John Collier (by will) 
Mrs. Elizabeth Robinson 

(d. of William Prowting) 10 

John Jones (a member) ... 100 

Richard Haworth (by will) 100 
Christopher Gregson (by 

will), Navy ;^5 per cent. 

Annuities 100 

Mrs. Elizabeth Robinson 

(2nd donation) 21 

George Cat)ell (a member) 50 

William Simons 100 

James Brougham 5 

Thomas Wheeler 50 

Frederick Kanmacher (by 

will) 100 

Edward Browne 50 

Thomas Hardwick 50 

John Hunter 10 

The Rev. James Phillips 

(son of a member) ... 100 

Henry Field (a member) ... 50 

Henry Penny 50 

Julian Mariner 50 

Samuel La wford 50 

Wm. Winfield 10 

Joseph Hurlock 50 



8. 

o 

19 

o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



d. 

o 
o 

o 
o 
o 



o o 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



o o 

o o 

o o 

10 o 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



294 



/ 



APPENDIX 



295 



1831 Jas. Peter Fallofield 

Wm. Winfield (2nd don.) ... 

1832 Wm. Richard Macdonald 
John Hunter (2nd donation) 

1833 George Johnson 

Edmund Bacot 

James Hill 

1834 Samuel Griffith (by will) ... 
John Nussey (donation) ... 
Everard Augustus Brande 

(a member) 

1835 William Winfield (3rd don.) 
Richard Strong Wells 
James Upton 

1837 George Johnson (2nd don.) 
William Payne 

1838 Allin Foord Price 

1839 John Merriman 

1840 John Hunter 

James Sealon (Master) 
Allen Williams „ 

iohn Bacot 
ames Read Chabot 
ienry Robinson (Master) 

1842 Jacob William Robins 

(Warden) 

John Hunter 

1843 Alfred Hard wick 

1844 James Sauer 

Allin Foord Price (2nd don.) 
Edward Wallace (Master) 

1845 Jacob VVilliam Robins (2nd 

donation)... 
Philip Johnson Hurlock ... 
Edward Bean 
Henry Robinson (2nd don.) 

Samuel Merriman 

Allen Williams 

iohn Bacot (Master) 
ohn Ridout (Warden) ... 
iohn Brown Eyles.s. 
iichard Strong Eyles 

1846 Thomas Davis 

M. L>. Este ... ... 

Wm. Day 

Thomas Brown 

Raphl. C. R. Smith 

John Mordaunt 

Edward Bean (Warden, 
2nd donation) 

1848 Charles Higham 

Murray Forbes 

Saml. George Lawrance ... 

1849 George James Squibb 
Edward Baker 

1850 Wm. Thos. Brande (War- 

1 851 John Ridout (2nd donation) 

1852 John G. White 

John Cooper Forster 
William Payne (2nd don.) 

1853 Allen Williams (3rd don.)... 



i> 


s. 


d. 


10 








10 








12 








52 


10 





10 


10 





5 


5 





5 


5 





20 








52 


10 





50 








10 








10 


10 





50 








50 








26 


5 





10 


10 





17 


17 





20 








100 








52 


10 





10 


10 





5 


5 





52 


10 





20 








30 








15 


15 





10 


10 





10 


10 





30 








20 








50 








25 








21 








25 








26 


5 





50 








50 








21 








21 








21 








21 








21 








6 








10 








21 








25 








6 


5 





25 








10 








5 


5 





21 








21 








21 








52 


10 





5 








26 


5 





26 


5 






1853 Allin Foord Price (3rd 

donation) ... 

1854 Everard Augustus Brande 

(2nd donation), New 

£1 5s. per cent. Stock) ... 

Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward 

John Hunter (3rd donation J 

1855 William Payne (3rd don.) 

1856 George Adam Buchanan... 
J. F. De Grave (Master) ... 
Rd. Clewin Griffith (late 

Master) 

1857 Richard Painter 

iohn Hunter 

eronimo Simoens (War- 

U%^lll ••• ••• ••• 

Saml. Clewin Griffith 

1858 Henry Sterry 

Richard Stocker 

Wm. Wooldridge 

James Saner (Master, 2nd 

donation) ... 
James Saner (3rd donation) 

1859 Thomas Knight 

John Cooper Forster (2nd 

donation) ... 
Fredk. Richd. Gowar (Mas- 

Iwl f •■• ••• ■«• 

i860 Friendly Medical Society... 

Edward Hollier 

William Self 

Dr. William Hardwick (by 

W 1111 ••• ••• ••• 

Saml. George Lawrance 

(by will) 

1861 The Exors. of the late 

Thos. Lowe Wheeler... 

Charles West Wheeler 

(Warden) 

Jas. Lowe Wheeler 
Wm. Lowe Wheeler 

Lowe Wheeler 

The late Joseph Wheeler... 

James Saner 

ohn Miles 

ohn Lavies 

" ames R. Chabot (by will) 
ienry Sterry (2nd donation 



£ 


s. 


d. 


10 


10 





300 








26 


5 





20 








26 


5 





26 


5 





20 








25 








10 


10 





30 








10 


10 





25 








21 








10 


10 





20 








26 


5 





13 


5 





25 








25 








10 


10 





10 








10 


10 





5 


5 






19 19 o 
19 19 o 
26 5 o 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
20 
10 
10 

19 
31 



1862 



John George White(by will) 52 

George Cooper 52 

Henry Morley 26 

1863 Strickland K. Kingston ... 5 

John White 15 

Mrs. Hunter 5 

1864 Henry Combe (Master) ... 10 

Michael Lambton 50 

John Merriman 25 

Allin Foord Price (4th don.) 10 

1865 Jas. Lowe Wheeler (Master, 

2nd donation) 26 

Anthony William Clarke ... 10 

Edward Wallace (2nd don.) 20 



5 

5 

5 

5 

5 
o 

10 

10 

19 
10 

10 

10 

5 

5 

15 

5 
o 

o 

o 

10 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



5 o 

10 o 

o o 



296 



APPENDIX 



1865 Allin Foord Price (5th don.) 

1867 Mrs. Hunter (2nd don.) ... 

1868 William Dickinson 
George Cooper (Master, 

2nd donation) 

Joseph Smith (Warden) ... 
Tobias Browne (Warden) 
ThomasAlexander Richards 

1869 James Parratt 

1870 Harvey Kempton Owen ... 

iohn Sherwood Stocker ... 
lenry Morley (Master, 2nd 

donation) 

Thomas Hunt (Warden) ... 

1 87 1 George Kelson (Warden)... 

Willington Clark 

Thomas Colchester 

James Self 

Edward Bradford 

1872 Hugh W. Statham 

George Kelson (Master, 

2nd donation) 

Herbert Miles (deceased)... 

{ohn M. Burton 
lenry Morley (3rd don.) ... 
Richard Stocker f2nd don.) 

1873 John Merriman (2nd don.) 
Richard L. Thorn (Master) 
John R. Withecombe 
Thomas Knight (2nd don.) 
Henry Morley (4th don.) ... 

1874 John Miles (Warden, 2nd 

donation) 

Thos. A. Richards (2nd 

donation)... 
Henry Morley (5th don.) ... 
E. Bradford (Warden, 2nd 

donation) 

1875 Allin F. Price (Master, 6th 

donation) 

R. H. Robertson 

iames Self (2nd donation) 
lenry Morley (6th don.) ... 

1876 Lionel S. Beale 

John Waggett 

Thos. Parker (legacy) 
Geo. F. Wilks 

1877 John Jones Merriman 

Thos. R. Wheeler 

Thomas Skeet 

J. C. Langmore 

Henry Morley (7th don.) ... 

1878 Richard Stocker (3rd don.) 
G.F*. Wilks 

iames Richard Upton 
^ionel S. Beale (2nd don ) 
Willington Clark (2nd don.) 
Charles Collambell 

Edward Furley 

James Self (3rd donation)... 
John M. Burton (2nd don.) 
John Randall 



£ s. d. 

10 10 o 

10 o o 

21 O O 



52 10 
10 10 

10 10 
10 o 
10 10 
10 10 
10 o 



26 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



10 10 
10 10 

5 5 
10 10 

10 10 

26 5 

25 o 

20 O 
10 10 

5 5 
52 10 

26 5 



21 o 

10 10 

5 5 
26 5 

10 10 

5 5 
31 10 

10 10 

10 10 

10 TO 
10 10 
10 10 
26 5 

40 O 

10 10 
10 10 

10 10 

10 10 

10 10 

10 10 
10 10 
10 10 

5 5 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



10 10 o 

550 

26 5 o 

10 13 O 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



1880 Willington Clark (3rd don.) 
Rev. Dr. Fredk. Field ... 
Wm. Henry Freeman 

1881 Willington Clark (4th don.) 
Edward Furley (2nd don.) 

Geo. H. Wakins 

Thos. S. Byass (Master) ... 

1882 Allin Foord Price (de- 

ceased), Trust Deed 

1883 Henry Sterry (deceased, 

legacy) 

James Saner (Master, 3rd 

donation)... 
Henry Jones 

1884 G. Hogarth Makins (2nd 

donation)... 

Ed\vin Chabot 

Henry Pilleau 

1885 William Shillito (Warden) 
George Corfe (Master) 

1886 G. J. Amsden (Warden) ... 

iohn S. Stocker (2nd don.) 
larvey Kimpton Owen 
(legacy) 

1887 Joseph S. Burton 

William Shillito (Master, 

2nd donation) 

Thomas Peregrine 

1888 Geo. John Amsden (Master) 
Sir James Tyler, Kt. 

H. M. Townsend 

Meredith To wnsend 

5. C. Thorowgood 
ames Wallace 
, ^ de Havilland Hall 

J. W. Robinson 

Charles Taylor 

J. S. Stocker (3rd donation) 
Thos. Skeel (Master) 
James Wallace (2nd don.) 

1890 Thos. Dickinson 

Thos. S. Byass (2nd don.) 

i. R. Withecombe 
^dwin Chabot (2nd don.) 
1892 Henry Jones (2nd don.) ... 

1890 James Wallace (3rd don.) 

1891 „ (4th don.) 

1892 „ (5th don.) 
F. R. Spackman 

1893 James Wallace (6th don.) 

1894 James B. Baker 

J. R. Withecombe (3rd don.) 

Clement Chabot 

Thomas Leeds 

James Wallace (7th don.) 

1895 James G. Mackinlay 
James Wallace (8th don.) 

1896 „ (9th don.) 

1897 Henry Jones (3rd donation) 

i. Radcliffe Crocker 
ames Wallace (loth don.) 

1898 „ (nth don.) 



;£ 


s. 


d. 


21 








100 








10 


10 





21 








10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 






500 o o 
90 o o 



31 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





21 








10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





20 








200 








10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





100 








5 


5 





5 


5 





5 


5 





5 








5 


5 





5 


5 





10 


10 





10 


10 





25 








5 








10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





5 








5 








5 








10 


10 





5 








5 








10 


10 





5 


5 





5 


5 





5 








5 


5 





5 








10 








10 


10 





10 


10 





10 








10 









* -. 



^ •-- 



APPENDIX 



297 



^ 8. d. 

1899 James Wallace (12th don.) 10 o o 

1900 Samuel Osborn 10 10 o 

James Wallace (13th don.) 10 o o 

igoi ., (14th don.) 10 o o 

1902 J. H. Jeff coat 100 o o 

James Wallace (15th don.) 10 o o 

1903 William Parson (Master) ... 10 10 o 

fames Wallace (i6th don.) 10 o o j 

. H. Jeff coat (2nd don.) ... 100 o o ! 





£ 


s. 


d. 


1903 W. Parson ... 


10 


10 





James Wallace (i6th don.) 


10 








Mrs. R. Wallace 


2 








Miss Wallace 


I 








1904 A. B. Day 


10 


10 





T. H. Jeffcoat (3rd donation) 
Mrs. R Wallace 


100 








2 








Miss Wallace 


I 









The Distressed Members' Fund. 

The Distres.sed Members' Fund has for its object the relief of 
Members of the Society whom age or infirmity may have rendered 
incapable of further professional exertion, and who may stand in need 
of pecuniary assistance, and which assistance is given by way of 
annuity or donation. 



Benefactors to tiie amount of £$ and upwards to the Distressed Members* Fund. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


1863 John Bacot 


10 








Everard Augustus Brande 


10 


10 





Wm. Tlios. Brande 


10 








Tobias Browne 


5 


5 





Wm. Buchanan 


10 








John Moulden Burton 


5 


5 





Thos. Farquhar Chilver ... 


5 








Francis Cole 


5 








George Cooper 

H. Coombe (master) 


10 


10 





5 


5 





Hortio. Grosr. Day 


10 








Claudius F. Du Pasquier ... 


5 








Michael Lambton Este ... 


10 








Rich, strong Eyles 


10 








Horatio Goodday & Friends 


20 


15 





Richard Clewin Griffith ... 


25 








Saml. Clewin Griffith 


10 








John Nichols Huddleston... 
Thomas Hunt 


5 








5 








Mrs. Hunter 


5 


5 





Stephen Wilson Kidgell ... 


5 








Strickland Kearney Kingston 


5 


5 





Thos. Knight 


10 


10 





John Lavies 


5 








John Miles 


5 


5 





Thos. Osmond 


5 








Harvey Kimpton Owen ... 


5 


5 





George Poynder 


5 








Allin F*oord Price 


10 


10 





Richard Sharpe 


5 








Jeronimo SimotJns 

David Skeel 


10 








5 








Joseph Smith 


5 








Heniy Sterry 


5 


5 





Robert Broth erson Upton... 


10 


10 






1863 Edwd. Wallace & Family 
The Misses Wallace 

John Rowland Wallace ... 

ioseph Ward 

ifathaniel Bagshaw Ward 
Charles West Wheeler ... 
James Lowe Wheeler 

(warden) 

Lowe Wheeler 

John White 

Wm. Wooldridge 

1864 Robert Druitt 

Michael Lambton Este 
Daniel Clewin Griffith 

oh n Clewin Griffith 

] ames Saner 

Richard Stocker 

1865 Edward Bradford 

John Sherwood Stocker ... 
John Hainworth 

1866 W. Tilleard Ward 

Thos. Knight (2nd don.) ... 

1867 Thos. Brown 

1868 James Parratt 

Thos. A. Richards 

1869 Thos. A. Richards (2nd don.) 

1870 Harvey Kimpton Owen 

(2nd don.)... 

1871 Willington Clark 

J. F. De Grave 

Henry Morley (Master) ... 

1872 Allin Foord Price (2nd don.) 

1873 John Merriman 

Richard G. Whitfield 
Thos. Knight (3rd don.) ... 



22 12 

15 o 

5 o 

5 5 
10 o 

10 10 

10 10 
10 10 

5 5 



8. d. 
O 
O 
O 
O 
O 

o 



10 

5 

314 

10 

10 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

5 

5 
o 

o 



15 15 

5 5 

5 5 
10 o 

10 o 

5 5 

5 5 
30 o 

10 10 

10 10 

10 10 

5 5 
52 10 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



298 



APPENDIX 



lO 10 

50 o 

10 



1874 J. F. De Grave (2nd don.)... 50 o 
Thos. A. Richards (3rd don.) 5 5 
A. F. Price (3rd don.) ... 10 10 

1875 J- F. De Grave (3rd don.)... 30 o 

ames Self ... ... ... 5 5 

1876 '". F. De Grave (4th don.)... 50 o 

1877 J. F. De Grave (5th don.)... 50 o 
C. F. Du Pasquier 21 o 

1878 J. F. De Grave (6th don.)... 50 o 

1879 Charles Collambell ... 55 
J. F. De Grave (7th don.)... 50 o 

ohn C. Langmore 5 5 

1880 \ . F. De Grave (8th don.)... 50 o 

^chard Stocker (2nd don. 

1881 J. F. De Grave (9th don.).. 
Joseph Lowdell 10 o 

1882 J. F. De Grave (loth don.) 50 o 
H. W. Statham 10 10 

1883 John Francis De Grave 

(legacy) 5,000 o 

1885 Edwin Chabot 

1886 Edward Furley (Master) . 
Harvey Kimpton Owen 

(legacy) 

1887 W. H. Holman 

1888 James Wallace 

1889 James Wallace (2nd don.).. 

1890 James Wallace (3rd don.).. 

1891 James Wallace (4th don.) .. 
K. de Havilland Hall 

1892 James Wallace (5th don.).. 

1893 Jj"^cs Wallace (6th don.).. 

T. J. Austin 

Lionel S. Beale 



10 10 
10 10 



100 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



10 10 
10 o 



d. 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



1893 Rev. C. R. Taylor 

1894 J- R* Withecombe (Master) 

Henry Jones 

James Wallace (7th don^... 

1895 Francis Richard Gibbes 

(Master) 

James G. Mackinlay 
James Wallace (8th don.)... 

1896 William Smith 

James Wallace (9th don.)... 

1897 C. F. Du Pasquier 

Edward Tegart (Master) ... 
James Wallace (loth don.) 

1898 S. C. Griffith (Master) 
James Wallace (nth don.) 
Samuel Osborn 

1899 Joseph S. Burton (Master) 
A. Cooper Key 

iames Wallace (12th don.) 
. S. Stocker (Master) 
ames Wallace (13th don.) 

1901 Charles Browne (Master) ... 
Rev. C. R. Taylor (2nd don.) 
James Wallace (14th don.) 
Clarence Cooper 

1902 T. E. Burton Brown 

(Master) 

James Wallace (15th don.) 
Clarence Cooper (2nd don.) 

1903 William Parson (Master) ... 
James Wallace (i6th don.) 
Clarence Cooper (3rd don.) 

1904 R. B. Wall 



i 


8. 


d. 


5 








10 


10 





10 


10 





5 








10 


10 





5 


5 





5 








10 


10 





10 








100 








10 


10 





10 








21 








10 








fO 


10 





10 


10 





5 


5 





10 








10 








10 








10 


10 





5 








10 








10 


10 





10 


10 





10 








15 


15 





10 


10 





10 








15 


15 





5 


5 






Index 



Accounts, Audit of, 129 
Act of 1815, amendment, 230 
Act of Parliament Committee, 

218-222 ; dispute with, 230 
Addis, John, 136, 138, 139 
Address, Loyal, 159, 165, 188, 

213, 219, 255 
Admission to Freedom (diffi- 
culty), 183 
Adolphus, Mr., 212 
Albin, James, 1 31-133 
Alchome, Mr., 150, 164 
Aldermen, Court of, 14 ; decide 

dispute, 40 ; demand list, 27 
Allen, Dr., 95 

,, John, 126, 138 ; bequest 
by, 150; gift by, 143, 
144 ; portrait of, 143, 
144 

„ Zechariah, 131, 132, 138 ; 

bequest by, 133 
Allowance to Master, 129 
Ammunition, 58 
Anatomy, petition re^ 199 
Anderson, Wm. (gardener), 180 
Andirons, 129 

Andrews, Simon, 125, 128, 129 
Angeband, Chas., 126, 130, 131 
Angier, Major, 116, 118 
Anonymous Gift, 138 
Anterac, Joseph, 208 
Apothecaries, Act Concerning, 

113 ; i^^essment for loan, 14 ; 

dissentient, 4 ; Lists of, 3 ; 

not to practise, 97 ; not to 

sue one another, 16 ; Petition 

to King, 30 



** Apothecaryite" (Dr. Badger), 

117 
Apothecary, Member of Skinners 

Company, 4 ; The title of, 

224, 238 
Apprentice, country, 18 : 

drowned, 168 ; Mogg*s case, 

170 ; Pitman's case, 16 ; Va- 

renne's case, 169, 170 
Apprentices, disorderly, 148, 

149 ; recalcitrant, 6 ; rejected, 

18 ; to Surgeons, 221 
Apprenticeship, 197, 218 
Ai^ent, Dr., 30, 44, 55, 67 
Armiger, Jeremiah, 148, 149 
Armorial Glass, 272, 274, 276 
Arms of Society, 274 ; broken, 

139 
Army Medical Board, 173-176, 

188 
„ supply of drugs, 1 19 
Arrowsmith, John, 103, 109 
Assault on Examiners, 212 
Assistant, dismissed, 40 ; place 

of, fines, 17 
Assistants, Court of Reply to 
objections, 24, 25 ; 
vacancies in, 21 
„ and Examiners, 198, 
199 ; disfranchised, 142 ; New 
Court of, 106 ; non-attending, 
29 ; partial restoration, 109 ; 
precedence of, 14 
Athmontie (a foreigner),. 99 
Atkins, Dr. Henry, 2, 30 
Atkinson, Mr. (the house oO, 10, 

II 
Atkinson, William, 185 
** Attendance Money,'* 170 
299 



B 



Babington, G. (bargemaster), 
169 
„ J. (bargemaster), 

166, 169 
" Bachelors," 39, 41, 55. 69 
Backler, Mrs. (butler), 142, 146, 
149 
,, Southerton (clerk), 142, 
146, 166, 168, 183 
Bacon, Richard, 5, 15, 22 
Bacot, Edmund (clerk), 1S3, 207 
„ John, 213, 214, 228, 231, 

233» 236 

,, John Stephen, 177, 178 
Badge (bargemaster's), 107 
Badger (Apothecaryite), 117 
Bagster, William, 228 
Baker, John, 188, 189, 190 

„ Mr., 114 

,, Thomas, 18 
Ball, 132, 159 

„ William, 157, 158 
Ballintine, Henry (bargemaster), 

166 
Ballot-box, 102, 156, 283 
Bankers, failure, 194 
Banks, Sir Joseph, 180 
Bannister, Mr., 69, 72, 74 

„ Nicholas (glazier), 43 
Banners, 33, 49, 284 

„ and streamers, 37, 38 
Barbados, fire in, 147 
Barge, 38, 39, 69, 72, 90, 93, 

100, 102, 125, 140, 146, 147, 

159, 165, 184 
Barge-house, 76, 92, 133, 134 
Bargemaster, 95, 125 



300 



INDEX 



Barlow, Mr. (case of), 150, 151 
** Barlow's Buildings," 151 
Barnard, John (gift), 139 
Bamett, Prof, of Botany, 208 
Barrow, Mr., 102, 105 
Barton, Adam, 3, 13, 17, 22, 25 
Basden, Thomas, 149-151 
Bastian, Henry Charlton (silver 

medallist), 249 
Battersby, Mr., 73, 74, 79, 91 
Beadle, admonished, 91 ; allow- 
ance by, 216 ; complaints 
against, 98 ; dispute with, 95 ; 
duties and fees, 156, 157; 
duties at feasts, 217, 218 ; 
gown, 66,98, 102, 125, 146; 
fees, 50, 89, 159 ; hours, 
228 ; petitions, 48, 77 ; re- 
ward, 21 ; rooms, 90 ; salary, 
208 ; wife quarrel. 96 
Beale, Colonel William, 132 
Bean, Edward, 186, 233-235 
Bearcroft, Mr., 115 
Beck, Mr., 139 
Beecher, Wm., ^% 
Bell, Mr., 53, 54 
Bennett (impersonation case), 

187, 188 
Benson, William, 160, 161 
Berkley, Samuel, 138, 140, 141 
Bernard, Dr. Francis, 106, 117 
Mr. Charles, 136 
Mr. Serjt., 119 
*• Bezar Stones," 32, 33 
Bill (Medical Reform), 172; 
(Profession and Practice), 178 
Bills and Briefs (Physicians, 

Chirurgeons, Distillers), 12 
Birch, Samuel, 123, 124 
Biscoe (case of), 52 

„ John,i22,i23,i28,i30,i3i 
** Black boxes," 60 
Black, Osmond (medallist), 244 
Blackfriars Bridge, 146; estate, 

deeds, 46, 48 ; Theatre, 46 
Blackstone, John, 123 
Blatch, Henry, 215, 228, 242 
Blenheim, Battle of, 120 
Board of Examiners (Arts), 253, 
254 



»» 



>f 



»» 



»> 



Boggs, Mr. (gold medallist), 251 
Bonds, 19, 25 

** Bookebynder," payment to, 73 
Books, account, 30 ; gift of, ill 
Botanical examination, 205 ; ex- 
cursion, accident at, 168 ; 
excursion, proposed, 84 ; 
lectures, 138; prize, rules, 
160 ; students disorderly, 206 
Bouquet, Isaac, 163, 164 
Bowling Green House, 133 
Box, William, 181. 182, 185 
Boy (alleged apprentice), 73 
Boys, Mr. (beadle), 102 
Bradford, William, 100, 106, 

no, 112 
Bradney, John, 162, 163 
Bradshaw, Jeffrey (apprentice), 

Brande, Edward Augustus, 181, 
203, 208, 242 
Professor, 215-219, 256 
William Thomas, 235, 
238, 240, 249, 250, 
251, 278 
Brass branch, 132 
,, sconces, 134 
Brecknock, Zacharia (petition), 

39 
Brewster, John (beadle), 1 16 

„ Mrs. (butler), 118 
Bridge, repair of, 64 ; land re- 
quired for, 146 
Bridgeman, Mrs. G. (tenant), 

142 
Bridges, Christopher, 2 
Bristol, Apothecaries of, 130 
Bristow, Uriah, 165, 166 
British Museum (herbarium), 

256 
Broadbent, Messrs. (fire en- 
gines), 149 
Brodie, Sir Benjamin, 234 
Brodribb, Uriah Perrin, 253 
Bromfield, Thomas, 120, 122 

„ James, 158 
Brooke, Mr. (Oyle of Maie), 28 
Brooke's Powder, 35 
Brougham's Bill, 195 
Broughton, John, 123, 124 



f> 



»> 



Brouncker, Sir W., 57 
Brovme, Edward, 181, 190, 191, 
194 ; Charles William (prize- 
man), 249 ; William (Trea- 
surer Laboratory Stock), 86 
Bryan, Mr. Attorney, 42 
Bucklersbury, house in, 36, 37 
Buchanan, Dr. (of Hull), 206 
George, M.D., 253 
William, 251-53 
Buckner, Leonard, 63, 66, 68 
Buildings, exterior, 267 
Bulwer, Thomas, 28-30, 41 
Burbage, Cuthbert, 46, 48 
James, 48 
Richard, 46, 48 
Burges, James, 139 

,, Robert (carver), 84 
Buridge, Mr., 27 
Burkin, see Buckner, 68 
Burnet, Gilbert Thomas, 208 
Burrows, George Mann, 177, 

181, 184, 193, 235, 282 
Burton, Mr. (clerk), 88 
Bust (G. Delaune), 284 
Butler, Mr., 13 

„ Mr., 86, 97 
Buttery Hatch, 131 
Byelaws, changes in, 186, 226 



)} 



ti 



Cabbell, George, 187-89 

Cadiman, Dr., 57 

Callander, John, 234, 235 

Camden, Wm. (Garter King of 
Arms), 274 

Candidates, diminution in num- 
bers, 206, 227 ; fees of, 250 ; 
imposition by, 196, 197 ; 
syllabus, 197, 198 

Carter, Mr., 157 

,, Wm. (silver medallist), 
256 

Cason, Mr., 12 

Catalogue of plants, 104 

Cater, Thomas, 158, 159, 170 

Catteral, Robert, 124 

Cawte, John, 150 



INDEX 



301 



Cedar trees, 149 
Cellar, built, 81 

Certificates, false, 200 ; town 
and country, 258 

Chairs, 96, 131. ML I47» 279 
Chamberlain, Dr., 122 
Chandeliers. 134, 148, 279, 283 
Chandler, John, 147-49 
Channing, John, 149 
Charities, Inquiry by Lord 

Mayor, 98 
Charles I., picture, 96, 284 
Charleton, Mr., 92 
Charlewood, Benjamin, 143, 

147 
"Charr- woman," appointed, 66 

Charter, Attacked by City, 23, 
27 ; attempts to annul, 3 ; 
Bill to confirm, 12 ; confir- 
mation urged, 124 ; enrolled, 
2 ; grocers' attack, 27 ; king's 
letter to Mayor, i ; New, 105, 
106 ; objections to enrol, i ; 
Old, resumed, 108 ; surrender 
cancelled, 108 ; translated, 66 
Charter of Physicians con- 
firmed, 75 
Charwoman, duties of, 96 
Chase, James, 103, 108, 11 1 
John, junr., 139, 140 
John, senr., 76, 77, 89 
Chattaway, William, 261 
Cheek, Richard, 133, 134 
Chelsea Garden, conveyance, 
126 ; retrenchment, 241 ; 
royal visit, 107 ; Sir Hans 
Sloane, 125 
Chelsea Wharf, 131 
Chemists and Druggists, 221, 

225, 226 
Chests, 4, 81, 118 
Cheyney, Lord, 114, 122 
Chillingworth, Mr. (i), 73 

„ Mr. (2), 150 

Chirurgeons, 76 ; attack by, 29 ; 
charter, 30 ; prosecution 
ordered, 67 
Christie, Mrs., gift of, 53 

,, Thomas, 21, 26, 28, 

29» 33. 53 



>» 



If 



»» 



>» 



)» 



»» 



»f 



>} 



»» 



i> 



Christ's Hospital, 166, 233, 242 
Chukeley, William, expelled, 4 
City Chamberlain, prosecution 

by, 134 
of London, Palatinate 

relief, ii 
Royal visit to, 124 
swordbearer, gift to, 99 
Clapham, William, 21, 25, 38; 
assault by, 53 ; defective 
drugs, 50 ; expelled, 29 ; 
mock election, 30 
Clapton, David, 214, 215 
Clare, John, 137 
Clarke, Charles Edward, 225, 
227 
George, 151 
James, 66, 68 
Sir John, 107, 109, 113, 

"7 
Thomas, 10 

William, 10, 81, 102 
Classical subjects, 239 
Clement, Dr., 28 
Clerk, demands of, 32 ; dispute 
with beadle, 87 ; duties and 
fees, 155, 186, 187 ; fees of, 
51, 52 ; gown for, 177 ; 
gratuity to, 28 ; petition of, 
77 ; retainer for, 236 ; rooms 
of, 90 
Gierke, Mr., 98, 99 
Clinical medicine, 238 
Clinson, a carpenter, 43 
Clock, 26, I02 
Clothmakers Company, 99 
Coach hire, 129 
Coal and com, 98 
Coat armour, 6, 274, 276 
Codder, Mr., detains papers, 32 
Colebrooke, Josiah, 150 
College of Medicine, 220 

of Physicians, Demurrer 
of, 253; New Bye- 
law, 251 ; on Exami- 
nations, 222, 223 
of Surgeons, Bill, 182 
Collier, John, 164, 165 
Collins, Mr., 67, 69 
Col well, James, 14, 17, 18,20,21 



»» 



f » 



Combe, Henry, 253, 256, 257 
Committee, ** Hall Purchase," 
II 
,, of Inquiry, Parlia- 

mentary, 234 
Company, poverty of, 7 ; sealed 

bonds, 7 
Compere, Thomas, 124 
Compton, William (Assistant), 

18 
Conference, Physicians, 236 ; 
renewal of, 245 ; Surgeons, 

235» 236 
" Confirmation Day," allowance, 

177; no quorum, 178; ritual, 

69, 288-292 
Cooke, Edward, 13, 25, 38, 41, 
43, 48, 49, 51, 56, 58, 
59,80 
,, Robert (warden and 

clerk), 155, 166, 168 
Cooke's Hall, 78 
Cookworthy of Plymouth, 141 
Cooper, George, 255 

,, Thomas Henry, 209 
Cooper's Co., 133, 134 
Copper, sale of, 58 
Com, demand for, 61 ; non- 
storage, 67 

„ money, 31, 32 
Cotton, Clarke, 19 

,, Mr., 164 
Council, Lords of, 56 
Counsel, 75, 251 
Court Meetings (rules), 79, 80 

„ of Examiners, 181 ; and 

Surgeons, 220; audit, 187; 

how now composed, 262 ; 

memorial on examinations, 

223, 224; reports, 184-253 
Court Room, 278-283 ; smok- 
ing, 67 
Courts, precedence in, 72, 73 ; 

secrecy of, 10 
Courtyard paved, 87 
Cowen, Philip (silver medallist), 

258 
Cownden,Charles (bo«U-builder), 

147 
Crewe, Thomas, 12, 13 



302 



INDEX 



Crewkerne and Yeovil, D.M.A., 

240, 241 
Crow, Dr. (collection of drugs), 
162 

,, Patrick, 130 
Crowfoot, William M. (silver 

medallist), 246 
Cruttenden, Mr., 128, 131 
Cups for Confirmation Day, 144 



D 



Dais, or "busting," 161 
Dal ton, Thomas, 117, 118 
Damages (Bridgeman's case), 

142 
** Dancing Schoole,' 100, 102 
Dandridgc, Mr.« 121, 123 
Danson, Mr., 107, 112-114 
Darcy, Sir Christopher, 42, 43 
Darnelley, Daniel, 3, 5, 9, 13, 

14, 16 ; (tankard), 97 
Daston, Mrs. (butler), 171, 196 
Davies, Hugh (bad drugs), 170 

„ Roger (carver), 84 
Day, William, 235 
Deeds, abstract of, 46, 47 
De Grave, John Frances, 243- 

245. 249 
Delaune, Col., 131 

„ Gideon, 3, 13, 19, 25, 

26, 28, 29, 54, 63, 64 ; and 

Higgins, 38-40; bust, 96, 

284 ; cups, 144 ; death, 69 ; 

delivers deeds, 48; Freedom 

of, 20; "forrayner," 17; 

house, 44; portraits, 60, 139, 

282 ; precedence, 34, 37, 38 ; 

saves plate, 61 

Delaune, Peter, 25, 63 

** Demonstrator of Plants," 150 

Denman, Mr., 192 

Dennison, Reginald (clerk), 141, 

Deputies, appointment of, 165 
Deputy Master, 18, 160 
De Raffen, John, 134-136 
Dering, Mr. (lawsuit), 90 
Devall, John, 155-157 



Devaynes, John, 161, 162 

Dinner, Bi-centenary, 185; non- 
attendance, 89 ; Physicians 
invited, 37 

Dinners, abuses at, 116 ; women 
excluded, 95 

Disfranchisement, cost of, 166 

Dispensary, Bishop^ate, 1 18, 
119; Dispute, 94, 113-116; 
Poem, 117 

'* Dispensations," book of, 123 

Dispensers (naval), 143 ; public, 
182 

Dispute, settlement, 34, 35 

Distillers, agitation by, 54 ; Bill 
opposed, 13 ; Charter, 8, 56, 
^1y 76, 77 ; opposed, 7, 8, 57 ; 
Co., 116 

Distilling, abuses in, 58 

" Doggs," 129 

Doors, garden, 103 

Drapers Company, 5, 8 

Draper, Mr. (Bucklersbury), 37 

Drew, Walter, 233 

Drewry, Mr. 121 

Driiggists Company, 75 

Drug Trade, Retail, 137, 138 

Drugs, defective, 3, 20, 50 ; 
Prowting*s bequest, 161, 162 ; 
quality of, 176, 177; reposi- 
tory, I26j sale order rescinded, 

136 
Druitt, Dr. Robert, 247 
Dunne, Benjamin, 103, 107 
Dutch, Cornelius (clerk), 129; 

inscription to, 147 ; portrait, 

141, 282 



E 



Eason, Mr. (an apothecary), 5, 

16, 17, 20, 27 
E^t India Company (drug 

supply), 147 
Edwards, Richard, 13, 28, 30, 

32, 33, 41, 48, 49, 56 
Elderton, William, 136-138 
Election dinner (allowance), 65 
EUcsmere, Lord Chancellor, 8 



Elliott, Richard, 151, 152, 154 
Ellis, William (agent), 122 
Elton, Thomas, 112, 114, 116, 

"7 
Embankment scheme, 229, 230 

Epidemiological Society, 247 

Epsom College, 239, 253, 254 

Este, Michael Lambton, 235, 

Ewbank, Andrew, 196, 200 
Examination, certificates, 189 ; 

drunken candidate, 225 ; in 

arts, 257, 258 
Examinations, as now held, 

263, 264 ; early rejections at, 

4, 5 ; proposed changes, 248, 

249 ; written, 220 
Examiners, names of (1905), 

264-266 ; and assistants, 198, 

199 ; in Arts, 252, 255 ; 

charges against, 209, 210 
Expenses, reduction in, 164 
Explanatory Act of Parliament, 

195 
Eyles, John Brown, 235 

Eyles, Richard Strong, 240-242 



Fage (tenant of beadle), 95 
Fagge, Charles Hilton (gold 

medallist), 249 
Fairbairn, Mr. (gardener), 180 
Farringdon Within, Mil. Asso- 
ciation, 167 
Fassett, E. D. G., 169, 170 
Feasts, abuses at, 73 ; confusion 
at, 217, 218; disorders at, 
95» "3> 125; modified, 80, 
81 ; omitted, 60 ; over- 
crowded, 99 ; strangers for- 
bidden, 123 
** Feeding engine," 132, 133 
Fees, Court of Examiners, 181 ; 
for firemen, 95, 96 ; ** Har- 
rolds," 6 
Feltmakers, tenants of Hall, 65, 

86 
Ferrand, Edward, 147 



INDEX 



303 



" ffaire fax," Sir Thomas, 62 
Field, Henry, 181, 186, 191, 
194, 195, 214 

„ John, 144, 152, 155-57. 
160, 161, 167, 168 

,, Mr., 54, 56 
Fige, Thomas, 69, 73, 76, 81, 

108, 112, 114 
Finance, 115, 240 
Finch, Heneage, 8, 12, 13, 29 

,, William, 124 
Fines, avoiding office, 165 ; 

difficult to collect, 33 
Fire, 95, 130, 141, 195 ; pre- 
cautions against, 132 ; the 

Great, 77 
Fire-engine, 141, 149, 157 
" Fire Porter," 157 
Firmin, Giles, 74 

„ Thomas, 74, 98 
,, William, 74 
Flags, 146, 163 
Fleetwood, Mr. (clerk), 106, 

109 
Fleur-de-Lis Court, 142, 162 
"Foreigners," 102, 117, 124, 

134, 137, 143, 163 
Forster, Ralph, 130, 132 
Foster Lane, house in, 10, 12 
Fothergill, Mr., 51 
Fowle, William, 162, 163 
Fowler, Charles, 126 
Fownes, Thomas, 2, 6, 13, 14, 

19, 25 
Fox, impersonation of, 187, 188 

„ Mr., 122 
Fraudulent indentures, 196 
** Freedom,** copy to be in- 
spected, 9; of City, 183, 
184 
** Freemason,** the, 82, 84 
Freemen, examination of, 67 ; 

to take ** livery," 62 
French candidates, 239 
French, Hugh, 170, 196 
Friend, Mr. (house of), 154 
Front Court, 267, 269 
Fry, Harry (case o»), 196 
Funeral, hall let for, 87 ; Mr. 
Whit worth's, 93 



G 



Gabb (petition of)» 168 
"Galenical Medicines," 134 
Gallery, let, 68 
Gamon, Robert, 133, 135, 140, 

149 
Gape, Mr., 87, 90 

Garden, 96 ; committee, 126 ; 

lectures discontinued, 

241 

,, Mr. (seal engraver), 

141 

Gardener, missing, ill ; mis- 
behaviour of, 212 

Gardiner, Charles (gardener), 
126 

Gardiner, Mr., 1 18 

Garle, Richard (painter), 51 

Garnett, William (beadle), 68 

Garnier, Isaac, 133 

,, Mr. (King*s Apothe- 
cary), 188 

Garrett, Dr. (gift and fine), 99 
,, Mr., 10 

Garth, Dr. (Sir Samuel), 117 

Gataker, William, 142 

Gateway, 269 

Gaynes, Oliver, 125, 128 

Gelsthorpe, Peter (Gelsthrop, 
Guelsthorpe), 113, 117-119, 
283 

General Council of Medical 
Education, 250 

General Herbarizing (expenses), 
210, 211 

General Meeting proposed, 232 

** Geneml Practitioners," pro- 
posed charter, 231, 232 

** General Practitioners," Royal 
College proposed, 235 

Gentlemen Ushers, 69 

Gerrard*s Herbal, 49 

Giddall, Bryan, 17 

Gift (Fige's), 81 

Gilby, Thos. (smith), 43 

Giles, Benjamin (beadle), 122 

Gillham, John Allen (case of), 
216, 217 

Gillson Scholarship, 266 



Girod, Peter, 158, 159 

Gisbey, Mr., 146 

Glass Coaches, 181 

Glass, spurious armorial, 93 

" Glasses," Great Hall, 165 

Glendennen, Owen (mason), 

43 
Glover, Richard, 56, 58, 62 

Glover, Mrs. Ann (saltcellar), 

144 
Goddard, Dr. (book of), 83 
Godfrey, Mr. (case of), 158 
Golding, Garrett, 106 
Goldsmiths Company, 124 
Goodall, Dr., 113, 117 
Goods (security of), 64 
Goughe, William, D.D., 49 
Gover, James, 96, 99, 102, 107, 

112 
Gowar, Frederick Richard, 246, 

249, 251 
Gower (Gover), Col. Robert, 

123, 125, 130 
Gowns, 2, 19 
Graham, David, 147 
R. R., 180 
Sir James (Bill of)i 226, 

227, 232 
Granary (weevils in), 67 
Grand Staircase, 272 
Graves, Edward (fees of), 25 
Great Cellar (let), 68 
Great Hall, description, 271, 

283-286 ; ends changed, 161 ; 

floor, 161, 186; "King's 

Arms," 86 ; repairs, 131 ; 

roof (leaden), 160; windows. 

Green, Nathaniel, 135 
Grievances, Petition of, 24 
Griffith, John, 152 

Richard, 171, 177 
Richard Clewin, 242, 

243> 253, 278 
Samuel, 205, 206 
(Warden), 205 
William, 152 
Grocers Company, 4, 14, 17, 

20, 29, 31 
Groyn (Star Chamber), 17 



f » 



»» 



»» 



>f 



»i 



»» 



»f 



304 



INDEX 



H 



Halifax, Surgeons of, 191 
Hall, Beds, 64 ; Blackfriars 
Estate, 42 ; Chest, 29 ; Dan- 
cing School, 100, 102 ; Design, 
80; ground let, 80; insured, 
104 ; Lady Darcy, 59 ; odours, 
97 ; power to mortgage, 66 ; 
premises let, 65 ; purchase 
money, 14, 15; purchase pro- 
posed, 10, 36 ; rebuilt, 84 ; 
repairs, 44, 45, 107, 113, 116, 
140, 154; Society in posses- 
sion, 43.; tenants, 44; water 
supply, 68, 69 
Hall, Mr., refuses election, 97 
,, Samuel, 86 
„ Thomas, 107, 112 
Hammond, William, 129 
Hanchett, Daniel, 143 
Hanck (a weaver), 3 
Hand, Mr. (of Walworth), 186 
Hardwick, Charles, 181 
„ Thomas, 180 
Hardy, Thomas, 199 
Hare, Edward Selleck, 209 
Harle, Mr. (swordbearer), 123 
Harris, **free chirurgeon," 68, 

69,74 
Mr., 53 

Francis D. (gold medal- 
list), 246 
John, 133, 134 
Robert, 132, 133 
Thomas (Sheriflf), 146 
Harrison, Dr. (memorial), 172 
Mr., 61, 63, 65 
„ (Treasury), 172 
John, 235 
Harryes, Josias, I7-I9» 25, 26, 

28 
" Hartford," Lord, 44 
Hartley, John (medallist), 245 
Harvey, Dr. (letter from), 157 
Haughton (case of), 28 
Hawes, Thomas, 154, 155 
Hawkins, Dr., 246 
Haworth, Richard, 165 
Haynes, William, 168, 169 



)i 



»f 



•> 



>» 



»» 



»» 



,» 



>) 



»» 



,1 



Headlamps Bill, 244 

Heame (or Heme), Edward, 98, 

102, 106 
Heartley, Mr., 68, 72 
Heckford, William, 159, 160 
Henden, Sergt, 54 
Herbarizing, expenses, 164, 183 
Herbs, storage of, 90 
Herringhookt, Peter, 69 
Hicks, Thomas, 33, 36, 38, 49, 

51, 53, 56, 63 
Hide, Mr. (a grocer), 5 
Higden, Josiah, 146, 147 

Mrs. (gift of pictures), 

190 
William Henry, 170, 
171 
Higgins, Stephen, 2, 9, 14, 18, 

37-40, 56 
Higham, Charles, 257 

„ James, 214, 215 
Highbury Dinner, disorder at, 

180 
Hill, James, 181, 203, 205 
,, Joseph (beadle), 124 
Hilliard, Nicholas (artist), 234 
Hingeston, John, 208, 211 
Hinton, Anthony, 80, 81, 84, 94 
" Historic Gallery," The, 169 
Hoare (Hore), Robert, 61 
Hobson, William (cook), 43, 62 
Hodder, Mrs. (butler), 155, 170 
Hodges (Lord Mayor's Officer), 

59 

Dr., 95 
Hodgkinson, Mr., 157 

Holland, Richard, 62, 64, 66 

Hollingsworth, Mr., 73, 74, 76, 

77,84 
Homeopathy, 241 

Honourable East India Co., 165 

Hooker, Dr. J. D., 243-246, 

253, 257 
"Horse Mills," 166 

** Hortus siccus," 208 

Hotchkiss, Thomas, 117, 118 

Houghton, James (gift), 103 

House- plates, leaden, 142 

Housekeeper (duties, &c.), 196, 

228 



How, Dr., 122 
Howard (pensioner), 169 
Howse, \\. G., (gold medallist), 

257 
Hudson, Mr. (artist), 141, 143 

„ Thomas (solicitor), 21 

Hugobert, Abraham, 10 

Hull, Mr. (operator), 91 

„ Robert (informer), 88 

Hume, Robert, 132, 133 

Hunt, Edmund, 123 

Hunter, John (portrait), 246 

„ John, junr., 181, 199, 

202, 203, 246, 249, 

251, 252, 254, 256 

„ Mr., 86 

" Hunter Case," The, 262 

Hunterian Oration, 233 

Huntingdon, Robert, 127, 130, 

131 
Hurlock, Joseph, 198, 200, 202 



I 



Indigent blind, 178 
Informers, 68 
Insurance dispute, 142 
" Interlopers," 80 
Invalid Election, 257 
Ireland, lands in, 67 
Ironmongers Co., 126 



J 



Jackson, Lancelot Burton, gifts 
of, 132, 138 
,, Joseph, 152, 186-188 
Jacobite rebels, 136 
James I. (portraits oO> Ii8, 137* 

282, 284 ; reply to City, 23 
James, Mr., 63-68 
Jay, John, 123-125 
Jenkin, Stephen, 137, 139 
Jepson, Mrs. (butler), 152, 155 
Johnson, Charles, 209 

„ George, 73, 74, 81 ; 

portrait, 137, 282 
,, George, junr., i8i» 211 



i 



Johnson, Thomas (presents Her- 
bal), 49 

Jones, John, 90 ; (presents pic- 
ture), 96 
„ William, 126, 127 

Journeymen (dearth of), 143 ; not 
liveried, 1 18 ; recalcitrant, 6 ; 
wages, 20 

Joynes, Mr., 128 

Julliot, Paul, 159 



K 



Kanmacher, Frederick (beadle), 
151, 165, 167, 189 

Kempthorne, H. L. (gold medal- 
list), 256 

Kettilby, James, 149, 150 

Kew Gardens, 214, 215, 229 

Keys, custody of, 90 

King, address to, 109, 162; 
reply to City, rg Dis- 
tillers, 58 
„ Richard Henry, 210, 214 
„ William, 206, 208 

King's Apothecary, 90, 96, 188, 

19s 
„ Arms, 65, 76, 96, 149 

„ College, 199 

Kirby, John (engine keeper), 157 

Kitchen, 269 

Knight, Thomas (gift of picture), 

246 



Laboratory, building, 86; found- 
ed, 59; furnaces, 131 ; sales, 
102 ; shop, 91 ; stonework, 
99; Stock, ic», 121, 123, 125, 
129 &c. 
Lculies, invitations to, 143, 146 
Lake, William, 134-136 
Lamb, William Montagu, 238, 

240 
Lambkin (bargemaster), 129 
Lamere, Lewis, 13, 19, 25 
Lamp collector, 144 



»» 

»♦ 



INDEX 

Lancet, letters in, 200, 207, 209, 

250 
Lane, Timothy, 165 

„ William, 151, 152 
Langham, Thomas, 112 
Latham, Samuel, 148, 149 
Latin (apprentice rejected), 103 ; 

study of, 1 89-191, 194, 196, 

197, 203, 205. 236 &c. 
Laud, Archbishop, 52 
Lawford, Samuel, 186, 187 
Lawrence, G. W. (medallist), 

243 
Herbert, 159, 160 

James L., 255 

Mr., 61, 63 

Richard (abusive), 
122 
Layton, Mr., 72, 76 
Lead, sale of, 58 
Lectures, extension of, 193 
Lee, Jonathan, 123 
Legacies, 92, 93, 160, 161 &c. 
Lembrick (a singer), 65 
Library, 49, 100, 135, 169, 205. 

274 
Lidford, John (beaver maker), 

48 
** Light horseman," 72 
Lilley, William, 129 
Lillie, Andrew, 141-143 
Lindley, Dr., 209, 210, 212, 

241 
Linen (gift of), 51 
Lisle, John, 149 
Litlar, Richard, 74-79, 93 
Littlefear, Joseph, 194-196 
" Little stairs," 84, 86 
Livery, 32-34, 68, 106, 109, 

136, 137. 168 

Lloyd (case oO» 28 

London, Chatham and Dover 
Railway, 251 

London Hospital, 169, 180 
,, Recorder of, 32 

" London Treacle," 5 

London University, 213 ; Volun- 
teer Association, 165 

Lone, William, 140, 141 

Long Garret, 272 

21 



Lord Mayor, deputation to, 27 ; 

gift of wine, 32, 36; livery 

petition, 73 ; present to, 43 
Lord Mayor's Day, 30, 31, 39, 

68, 73, 86, 158 
Lorde, Thomas, 16 
" Lorrymer*s coate," 93 
Lorjrmer, John, senr., 65, 66, 
67, 74, 272, 283 
„ John, junr., 64 
Love, Richard (clerk), 59 
•• Low Gallery," 59 
Lowman, coat armour, 65, 272 
Lo3ral London Volunteers, 169 
Lucas, William Owen (case of), 

170 
Lufkin (gift to), 64 
Luke, Sir Oliver, 42, 44 
Lyde,John, 133-135 
Lyons, William, 29, 66 
Lythall, William (beadle), 27, 

66, 69 



M 



Mabbs, Nicholas, 5 
Macdonald, W. R., 200-203, 

207 
Mace, Benjamin (beadle), 138, 

140 

,, Mrs. Elizabeth (butler), 
140 
** Mace," the. 284 
Maddox, Robert, 136 
Malim, George, 215 
Malin, Wentworth, 211, 214 
Malther, Richard, 120, 122 
Malthus, Danl. (Queen's Apothe- 
cary), 120 
,, Robert, 120 
** Manufacturing poor," 182, 

•83 

Mariner, Julian, 195, 196 
Markham, John, 138, 140 
Markland, Michael, 66, 67, 69 
Marlin, Mr., 68 
Marshall, Christopher, 136 
Marston, Joseph, 133 
Martin (or Martyn), John, 64, 
66 



3o6 



INDEX 



Massa, William, 140, 141 
Master insulted, 103 
Masters (1S64 to 1905), 258-261 
Master's Day (expenses), 164 
Mastership, contests for, 27, 28, 

79 
Materia Medica, 126, 140, 161, 

163, 166, 167, 169, 170, 215, 
218, 219, 254 
Mather, Isaac, 152, I54» ^55 
,, Dr. Nathaniel, 100 
Mathew, Job, 133, 134 
Mathewes, fined, 27 

„ William (bequest), 

138 
Maton, Dr. (gift of), 194 

Mayeme, Dr. (Sir Theodore), 2, 

57 
Mayo, Dr., 230 

Mead, Dr. (portrait), 138, 282 

Medical, Council, 243 ; GaxetU 
(attack in), 209; Library, 
197 ; and Physical Journal^ 
184 ; Reform (Society reply), 
172, 173 ; Reform Draft Bill, 
245 ; registration, 220 ; schools 
(provincial), 200 ; students, 
226, 245 

Medicines (schedule of), 3 ; 
(sealed), 126 

Melmoth, Reuben, 118, 135, 

Merchant Taylors, 36 
** Mercuric Sublimate," 7 
Meredith, Walter (clerk), 26, 

27» 37, 43 
Meres, John (clerk), 89, 92, 97, 

106-112 

„ „ junr. (clerk), 125, 

129, 131 
Merrett, Dr., 76, 77, 82, 83 
Merriman, Samuel, 231 
Metcalfe, Robert (clerk), 2, 14- 

16 
" Methridatie," 5 
Michael, Mr., 98 
Michell, Mr., 87, 91 
Micklethwaite, Dr., 77, 94 
Microscopical meetings, 243, 

249 



}> 



,) 



,» 



i» 



,» 



Midwifery examination, 221 
Military Association, 167 
Miller (gardener), 126 
] „ Joseph, 133 
Millington, Sir Thomas, 1 19 
Mills (bricklayer), 43-45 

,, Edmund, 146-148, 279 
Minutes (to be read), 29 
Mogg, Charles (case of), 170 
"Monteth"(bowl), in, 144 
Montreal, fire in, 147 
Moore, Adam, 167, 168 

Charles, 155 

Dr., 17 

Dr. Edmund, 166 

Edward D. (Queen's 
Apothecary), 216 

Thomas, 139 
Morecroft, Mr., 53 
Mordaunt, John, 234 
Mores (case of deputy), 112 
Morgan, Mr. (gardener), 97 

,, Mrs. Catherine, 258 
Morpeth, Mrs. Marie, 185, 196 

,, Thomas, 185 
Morris, Benjamin, 133 
Mortmain, licence in, 49 
Moseley, Thomas (tankard), 70 
Moss, Mr. Under Chamberlain, 

Music gallery, 286 

*' Myter in Bread Street," 37 



N 



Napper, Sir Richard, 77 
Navy (drug supply), 119 

,, Committee, 152, 154 
"Navy Stock,*' 119, 120, 123, 

148 ; (attack on), 141 ; 

(finance), 125 
Nay lor, Mrs. (plumber), 159 
Neal, Mr. (custodian of deeds), 

48 

Nealson, Edward Thomas, 155 
Nelson, Admiral Lord, 168, 
169 

,, James, 168 
Nevinson, Charles, 170, 171 



New Barge, 130, 147 
„ Examinations (memorials 

against), 182 
„ Jerusalem Church, 209 
Newsham and Ragg (fire-en- 
gines), 141 
Newsom, John, 178, 180 
Nicholas, Philip, 171, 177 

„ William (arbitrator), 

58 
Nicholls, Robert, 124, 133, 134 

Nicholson, Joseph, 125, 126 

Nomenclature of Diseases, 247 

Non-attendance, fines, 5 

Norris,Thos. (brassfounder), 134 

North, (cook, abusive), 104 

„ Michael, 67, 69, 74 
Northey, Thomas, 136, 138, 139, 

140 
Norton, Dr. Robert, 242 
Nussey, John, 195, 205-208, 

214, 216, 234, 250, 255 



O 

Oath, against recusants, 90 ; 

Court of Examiners (difficulty), 

192 ; new, proposed, 41 ; 

objections to, 2 ; refusals to 

take, 17 
" Obnoxious Clause," the, 257 
Obstetric Society, 203 
Office, desire to avoid, 158 ; 

removals from, 109 
Officer, pa3nnent to Lord 

Mayor's, 65 
Old barred window, 272 

„ chest in garret, 272 
"Old Mr. Day," 113 
** Operator," Laboratory, 86, 

89,91 
Ordinances, read, 3 ; confirmed, 

79 ; engrossed, 19 

•*OyleofMaie,"28 



Painter-Stainers Co. and Hall, 
13, 30, "7 



INDEX 



307 



Palmer, Mr., 73 

„ and Fleckwood(silk), 1 46 
Panelling, Court Room, 278, 

282 ; Great Hall, 283 ; Li- 
brary, 274 
Parapet, 97 
Parker, Henry, 10 

„ John, lo 
Parkinson, John, 3, 6, 7, 15 
Parliament, Petition to, 163 
Parliamentary Committee, 181, 

182 &c. 
Parlour, 276, 278 ; chairs, 276 ; 

pictures, 278 
** Parlour door," 136 
Parrott, John, 240, 241 
Partington Joseph, 152, 154 

„ Miles, 185, 186 
Patriotic Fund, 161 ; Resolution, 

160, 161 
^ Pattenmakers Company, 99 
Pa)me, William, 228 
Pa)rte, George, 18 

„ Robert, 18 
Pearce, John (painter), 51 

n ,, I49» 150 
Peck, John, 146, 147 

Pelling, Mr., 73, 74, 79, 86, 95 

Pelwell, Mr., 3 

Penruddocke, C. W. W. (case 

of), 212, 213 
Pensioners, 130 
Pensions, 129, 143, 148, 149, 

170, 187, 191, 257 
Peters, Daniel, 141, 142 
** Perambulacon Daie,*' 67 
Peregrine, John, 235 
Pew, Blackfriars Church, 44, 45 ; 

(in Tabernacle), 95 
Pewter, sale of, 199 
PharmaceuticalChemistry(prize) , 

254 ; Society, 225 
Pharmacopoeia Londinensis, 7, 

157, 168, 228 
Pharmacy (Draft Act), 126 
Phelpes, Robert, 97, 98, 99 
Phillipps, Edmond, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 
14. 18, 19, 34 
„ William, 108, 112, 

116 



Phillips, Benjamin, 150 

Physic Garden, 99, 114, 157, 
202, 229, 242, 246, 253 &c. 

** Physic-herb-women," 66 

Physicians, College of, answer 
o^> 55» 56 ; attack by, 29 ; 
attempted settlement with, 76, 
77; Bill, 128-132; Brooke's 
powder, 35 ; charges against 
Society, 97 ; Conference, 252 ; 
Dispensary, 94, 95 ; dispute, 
3S» SO. SI. S3. 110-112; Dr. 
Merrett, 83, 84 ; Examine 
Freemen, 48, 67 ; licenses to 
practise, 252 ; President, 19 ; 
scheme of, 74 ; search by, 
no 

Pictures, Court Room, 282 ; 
Great Hall, 283, 284 ; King 
James, cost of, 96 ; parlour, 
278 

Piggott (dishonest gardener), 97 
,, Spenser, in, 113, 117 

Pilkington, Mr., 84, 87, 96 

Pimble, Thos. (bad drugs), 17 

Pitman's Apprentice, 16 

Pitson, James, 125, 126, 128 

Plague, 77 

Plants, catalogue, 99 

Plate, 10, III, 284 ; duty, 141 ; 
gifts, 25, 39. S3. 60, 123, III, 
133. 144. Ac. ; list, 69, 70 ; 
pledged, 69 ; purchase, 31, 
III, 144 ; sales, 31, 62, 64, 
68, 69, 80, III, 144, 185; 
Warden's security, 12, 18 

Pocklington, John, 134, 136, 137 

Pocock, John (beadle), 140, 142 
,, Mrs. (butler), 140, 142 

Poisonous drugs, 58 

Poisons wrongly labelled, 196 

Poor box, 50 
,, member (petition oO> 33 

Porter, Thomas (refuses search), 
206 

Portsmouth (drug store), 144 

Pott, Mr., 97, 99, 106-108 

Powder, 60 

Pratt, Mr., 99 

Precautions against fire, 95 



Precedence in St. Paul's, 36 
Price, Richard (** fire porter"), 

157 
Printing House Square, 235 

** Private Lead," allowance, 177 

Processions, Confirmation Day, 

288-291 
Proclamation, Royal {re 

** viewe "), 6, 7 
Prowting, William, 150, 151, 

161, 166, 284 



Qualified Apothecaries (list of), 

205 
*' Quarterage," 28, 60, 127, 143 
Queen Elizabeth (picture), 234 
Queen's Apothecary, 20, 120, 

216 
"Quo-Warranto," 52, 53, 54, 

57. lOS 



R 



Railway, West London and 
Pimlico, 250; London, Chat- 
ham and Dover, 256 

Rajendra Chandra Chandra, 246 

Ramadge, Dr. (letter), 200 

Rand, Isaac, 129 
„ Mr., 96, 97, 99 

Randall, Alfred Mayor, 246 

** Ranking and Rating," 31. 32 

Rawlins (Rawlings), Sir Benja- 
min, 118, 133, 134, 141.283 

Ray, (Parkinson's surety), 15 

Read, Mrs. (Freedom), 130 

Recorder, City, 27, 39 

Rector of St. Andrew's, 192, 193 

Reeves, Arthur, 118, 120 
„ Mr. (sermon), 121 

Regulation of Practice, 231 

Repairs, cost of, 142 

Report, ** Improvement in prac- 
tice." 178, 179 

Repository, 102, 126 



3o8 



INDEX 



Reynell, Mrs. (butler), 149, 151, 

152 
„ Richard (beadle), 146, 

149 
Reynolds, Mr., 39, 60, 61, 64 
,, Sir Joshua (picture), 
246, 282 
Retail Drug Department, 191 
Retherick, Mr., 72, 74 
Retrenchment, 78, 202 
•* Ricebank," Mr. (sculptor), 133 
Richards, Mr., 66 

„ Joseph, 133, 134 
Richardson (dancing master), 

100, 102, 106, 
no 
„ Mr., 68, 73, 77 

Ridout, John, 181-234 
Riots at Hull, 210, 211 
Ritual (Confirmation Day), 69, 

288-292 
Rivers, Charleg (beadle), 229, 

251. 254, 255 
Roberts, Edward, 178, 180, i8i 

„ Thomas, 151, 152 
Robins, Jacob William, 219, 220, 

225, 227 
Robinson, Henry, 184, 217, 219, 
220, 225 
Thomas, 123, 124 
William, 219 
Rokeby, Nathaniel, 134 
Rolfe, Mr., 106 
Rose Mr. (case of), 118 
Rouse, William, 118, 121 
Rousewell, Major, 72, 76, 77 
Royal Proclamation, 17 
,, Medical Benevolent Col- 
lege, 239 
Navy, Assistant Surgeon's 
- grievances, 243 
Society (botanical speci- 
mens), 126 
Rudlon, Mr., 16 
Rumler, John Woolfgang, 7, 

17, 19, 25, 49. 54. 56 
Rupert (hospital ship), 141 
Russians, relief of, 178 
*' Ryding money," 60 
Rysbach (sculptor), 133 



If 



t) 



>» 



>t 



Saddington, Bartholomew, 165, 
166 

Safe erected, 142 

Sailcloth for Statue, 139 

Sailors' widows, relief, 177 

Sale of Clock, 130 

Salisbury, William, 209 

Salter, Edward (brickmaker), 82 
„ John, I33» 134 

Salver, gift of, 244 

Sambrooke, Mr., 102, 103 

Saner, James, 245, 246, 249 

Sargeant,JamesClement(beadle), 
251, 254 

Sason, Mr., 13 

Saunderson (a ** Scottbhman,'*) 
26 

Saxon, Mr., 163 

Sayer, Edward (beadle), 211, 
216, 219 
,, John (beadle), 189, 203 
„ William Henry (beadle), 
203, 211 

** Scottishman," A, 26 

** Scrap" dinners, 240 

Screen, 161, 286 ; carvers of, 84 

Scriveners Company, 37 
Hall, 30 

Seal (new), 140, 141 

Search J>ay, 3, 7, 26 

Search, dispute over, 122 ; fees 
for, 193 ; poisons wrongly 
labelled, 196 ; report of Com- 
mittee, 185 ; right of denied, 
60 ; right refused, 206 

Seaton, James, 215 

Serjeant, su Sargeant 

Serpentine Stick, 236 

Sewell (lawsuit), 17 

Sexton, James, 217, 219 

Shaller, Thomas, 123, 125 

Shambrooke, William, 49, 54- 
56,61 

Shannon (naval dispenser), 143 

Shares (limits of Laboratory), 103 

Shawe, Thomas Clay (gold 
medallist), 258 

Sheibell, Henry, 125 



Shelburie, Mr., 66, 68, 72 
Shelbume, su Shelburie 
Shelbury, see Shelburie 
Sheldon, Sir John, 92 
Shelton, Samuel, 61, 63, 66 
Sheppard, John, 22, 25, 26 

„ Thomas, 133 
Sheriffe, Gabriel, 6, 13, 28 
Sherrard, James, 130 
Sherson, Robert, 167 
Ship money, 52 
Shirley (intending settler), 136 
Sibballs, Dr. (sermon), 38 
Siccama, Rinso Robert, 249 
** Sickness," the, 55 
Siddall, Mr., 125 
Silk (banners), 146 
Simcox, Henry (case of), 26, 28, 

29 
Simoens, Jeronimo, 244, 245, 

246 
Simmons (apprentice drowned), 

168 
Simons, William, 181, 182 
Simpling, 26, 48 
Simson (insults the Master), 35 
Skynner, Mr., 91, 96, 99 
Slade, Wm. (complaint oO, 154 
Sloane, Sir Hans, 125, 126, 133 
Smith or Smyth, Mr. (Master 
and UpperWarden),64, 
66 
(beadle), 77. 95. 102 
Henry, 123, 125, 126 
'•Herauld Paynter," 72 
John, 125, 129, 130 
Mrs. (widow of beadle), 
103 

Thomas (medical stu- 
dent), 209, 210 
Smoking (in Court Room), 67 
Snelling (limner), 96 
Snow, Henry (butler), 49 
Soaper, Thomas, 112 
Society, the, admonished, 57; 
arbitration with physicians, 
58 ; attends Royal Reception, 
71, 72; audit, 224; bi-cen- 
tenary, 185 ; Bonds, 59 : 
books not to be copied, 60; 



». 



I. 



ft 



»» 



»» 



ft 



INDEX 



309 



books sent to Star Chamber, 
54 ; debts of, 58 ; decline in 
numbers, 136; dispute with 
physicians, 75 ; Dr. Merrett, 
83, 84 ; Exchequer demand, 
54 ; expenses, 136 ; finances, 
66, 104, 112; financial diffi- 
culties, 61 ; income, 164 ; 
invited to St. Paul's, 35, 36 ; 
loans by, 59, 60, 61, 76; 
London University, 213 ; MS. 
history, 156, 160; new seal, 
118; opposes Distillers' Char- 
ter, 56 ; objections to as ex- 
amining body, 237 ; papers in 
wrong keeping, 32 ; petition 
to Council, 53 ; pew, 44, 45 ; 
precedence, 116; present to 
king, 71 ; proposed Act of 
Parliament, 137 ; rents Gape's 
Garden, 96 ; repaid ^^30, 62 ; 
reply re Kew, 230 ; reply to 
objections, 237, 238 ; retrench- 
ment, 60 ; roll of members, 
28; ** stand" in City, 124; 
sealed bonds, 45 ; suit against 
Dering, 90 ; summoned before 
Council, 40, 41 ; thanked for 
gratis drugs, 122 ; vote for 
rector declined, 240 

Sotherton, Mr., 59, 60, 63 

Soup to poor, 165 

South Sea Stock, 123, 124 

Sparkes, plasterer, 104 

Spelton, see Shelton 

** Spirituous compositions," sale 
of, 158 

Spoons, 10, 33, 34, 81, 82, 92, 
123 

Springett, John, 144, 146 

St. Amand, John, 108, 119 

St. George, Henry, "Rich- 
mond," 274 

St. Paul's, decoration of, 253 ; 
repairs, 52 

Staircase, grand (presented), 84 

Standen, William, 89, 94, 98, 
100 

•• Standish," 30 

Staples, John (beadle), 133, 138 



I Staples, Mrs. (butler), 138, 139 
Star Chamber, 17, 54, 56; bill 

in, 16 ; gift to Registrar, 19 
Stationers Company, 129 
Statue (Sir H. Sloane), 133, 139, 

149 
Steevens, Caleb, 18 
Stephens, Mr., 64, 66, 69 
Stevens, see Stephens 
Stewards, 48, 90, 165 &c. 
Stirrell, Henry (case oO, 31 
Stockdale, George, 117 
Stocks, Union of Navy and 

Laboratory, 190 
Stone balusters, 140 
Stone carving of arms, 144 
Stone, Leonard, 41, 48, 49, 54 

„ Mr. Attorney, 12, 13, 29 
Stonehouse, Mr., 73 
Stophurst, Mr. (catalogue of 

plants), 104 
Stourton, Humphry (beadle), 109 
Stoves, 132 

Stratton, Mark, no, 114 
Stringer, Samuel, 86, 89 
Streamers, 33, 146, 163, 184,284 
Subscriptions to hall, 12, 13 

„ for soldiers, 136 

Surgeons Company, 121 
Surgeons, Army, 221 ; exemptions 

for, 182 
Surgeons and Court of Exa- 
miners, 220 ; conference with, 
218, 219 ; East India Com- 
pany, 221 ; Navy, 221 
Surgery, memorial to Lord 

Melbourne, 204, 205 
Surrender, Deed of, 105 
Surrey Benevolent Society, 230 
** Surveyor," 64 
Sykes, Henry, 108, 112 
Symmes, George, 10 



Tables, purchase of, 147 
** Table " term used, 32 
Tailor, Mr. (attorney), 42, 43 
Thomas (clerk), 59 



«) 



Tallowchandlers Company, 91, 

92 
Tankard (Damelley's), 97 ; (Lit- 

lar's), 93 
Taxes, Committee on, 164 
Taylor, Edward (cup), 144 
Teale, Benjamin, 131 
Tegart, Arthur (case of), 198, 

199 
Tenants, restrictions on trades, 

84 

Tenements and tenants, 44 &c. 
*• Tener in Capite," 13 
Thames Embankment, 252, 255 
Thanksgiving, St. Paul's, 125 
" Theraica Londinensis," 21 
Thomas, John, 65, 66, 68 
Thomicroft, Mrs., 152 
Thrale, Thos. (rejected), 22 
Tickets for ball, 132 

„ Physic Garden, 157, 158 
Tod, Christopher, 125 
Towle, William, 161 
Towson, Augustine, 166 
Tracts, relating to Society, 167^ 

168 
Trappe, Mr. (house of), 1 1, 13 
Traveis, Mr., 112 
Treasurer, Laboratory, 86 
Trew, William, 196, 198 
Trimem, Henry (gold medallist), 

254 

** Twelve Companies," Com- 
mittee of, 66 

Tyson, William, 142, 143 



U 

Underwood, Mr., 100, 102 
„ Mr., junr., 121 

** Unfreemen," order rescinded, 
120 

United Stock, rent raised, 240 

Unqualified practitioner (Wrex- 
ham), 182 

Upton, A., Mowbray (clerk), 261 
„ James, 181, 206, 209 
„ James Richard (clerk), 
261 



3IO 



INDEX 



Upton, Robert Brotherson(clerk), 
207, 210, 213, 214, 215, 252, 
j6i 



Valentyne Mr. (preacher), 34 
Varenne, apprentice (case of), 

169, 170 
„ Ezekiel (beadle), 149, 

"Venice Treacle," 126 
Vintners Company, 133 
Violets, purchase of, 50, 51 
Virot (violent apprentice), 60 



W 

Wainscot, sale of, 58 

Wakle/s Bill, 254 

Walker, Richard (King's 

Apothecary), 189, 195 
Wall, James, 133 
Wallace, Edward, 228, 231 
Walsham, James, 62, 64 
Warburton, John (case of), 186 
Ward, Anthony (com)) 32 

, , Nathaniel Bagshawe, 241 , 
242, 245 

„ William Tilleard, 178 
Warton, Dr., Tj 
Walter, John {Tfu Times) 235 
Wardens (1864 to 1905), 258- 

261 
Wardenships, contest, 79 
Warkhouse, John, 29, 31 
Warner, Thomas, 60, 94, 98, 

107, 118, 119 
Water Gate (garden), 98 



Water Lane (house), 150 
Water Supply (hall), 68, 69 
Water Works (claim), 169 
Waterman, 38, 39 
Watson (medical student), 205, 
206 
,, John (Sec. Court Ex- 
aminers), 181, 1S5, 
187, 208-210, 215 
„ Thomas, 163-165 
Watts (gardener), 98, 103,.! 1 1 
Wax candles, 134 
Weavers Company, 92, 133 
Webb, Abraham, 58-64 

,, Mr. (counsel), 125 
Weights, "DispensatorieTroy," 3 
Wells, Richard Strong, 181, 208 

„ William, 14 
West, Charles, 252 

„ Mr., 132 
West London and Pimlico Rail- 
way, 251 
Westwood, Alfred (case oO, 
203, 204 
„ Marmaduke, 146- 

149 
Wharf (let), 132 

Wheatley (Whitley), Thomas, 21 
Wheeler, Charles West, 253, 256 
James Lowe, 207, 256, 

257 
Mr., 209 

Thomas, 181, 189, 
190, 191, 257, 278 
Thomas Rivington,257 
William, 182 
»*Whifflers,"55 
White, Daniel, 33 
Whitmore, Paul (clerk), 25 
Whitwell, William (examina- 
tion), 4 
Whit worth, Mr. (legacy), 92, 93 



>f 



ff 



f » 



It 



»» 



Whyniard, Athanasius (water- 
man), 38 

Wilkinson, John (case oQ, 5, 6, 
8, 9, 16 

Willey, John, 160, 161 

William IIL (Exeter picture), 

13s. 278 
Williams, Allen, 215, 217, 219, 
220 
„ S)m[ion, 76, 81 
„ Walter (clerk), 151, 

154, 155 
Wilmer, John, 147, 148 

Wincke, Tobias, 2, 18, 26, 27 

„ Widow, 28, 31 

Windes (plumber), 104 

Wine (regulations as to), 240, 255 

Wingfield, John, 157, 160 

Wire Drawers Company, 24 

Withers, William, 130-132 

Woodd, John, 177 

Woodford, Alfred, 250 

Woodgate, Thos. (fire engine), 

169 

Woolfe, Israel, 26, 30, 49 

Wythe, Thomas, 122 



Yardley, Ralph, 49, 54, 60 

Yalman, Matthew, 157, 158, 269 

Yelverton, Sir H., 16 

Yeomanry, 74 ; remonstrance 
of. 136, 137 

York, Apothecaries of, 130 

** Young Men,*' 55, 69 

Young, Mr., 56, 61 
„ Roger Harry, 22 
„ (stonemason or "free- 
mason"), 82, 84 

Younge, Mrs. (gift of), 51 



* • 



> 



£Utot Stock, PaUmoster Row, London, 



\